Ced earned a bachelor's degree in communication studies in 1999. His interests include history, traveling, and mythology.
Stanford University political science professor Francis Fukuyama once highlighted the vulnerability of China to the “bad emperor” syndrome.
Indeed, while China has enjoyed many golden ages throughout its long history, it has suffered far more under terrible emperors, these running the entire gamut from the inept to the oblivious, to the downright psychotic.
Here are the ten most terrible Chinese emperors to have ruled the Middle Kingdom. In several cases, their reigns were so terrifying, their titles became synonymous with evil and decadence.
Top 10 Most Horrible Chinese Emperors
- Xia Jie (夏桀)
- Di Xin (帝辛)
- Zhou You Wang (周幽王)
- Han Ai Di (汉哀帝)
- Han Ling Di (汉灵帝)
- Jin Hui Di (晋惠帝)
- Bei Qi Wen Xuan Di (北齐文宣帝)
- Sui Yang Di (隋炀帝)
- Song Hui Zong (宋徽宗)
- Ming Shen Zong (明神宗)
1. Xia Jie (夏桀)
Actual name 桀 (Jie). Reign: Disputed. Supposedly 1728 BC to 1675 BC.
Historians continue to debate whether Xia, the first dynasty in traditional Chinese history, truly existed. To date, there is no conclusive archeological evidence confirming the existence of this mythical first dynasty. There were also no written records about Xia during the Shang Dynasty, the latter supposedly the dynasty that replaced Xia.
Despite these, many Chinese believe in the existence of Xia and how its final emperor was a nightmarish tyrant. Purportedly, Xia Jie was an exceptionally cruel man, greatly intolerant of criticism and obsessed with sex, luxury, and entertainment.
His numerous crimes include a fondness of riding his advisers like horses, and constructing a wine lake filled with naked men and women for his favorite consort. According to Zhou Dynasty records dating several centuries later, Xie’s horrific rule eventually saw many of the kingdoms he held suzerainty over rallying under the Kingdom of Shang.
After many battles, Tang (汤), the king of Shang, defeated Xie and established the Shang Dynasty. “Xia Jie” thereafter became a metaphor in Chinese literature for inevitable change as a result of tyrannical rule.
2. Di Xin (帝辛)
Actual name 受德 (Shoude). Reigned 1075 BC to 1046 BC.
Napoleon Bonaparte once remarked that “history is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon.” This might be so in the case of Di Xin, the last emperor of the Shang Dynasty. Otherwise also known as Shang Zhou Wang (商纣王).
Immortalized in the literary epic The Investiture of the Gods, Di Xin was described as a foul-natured tyrant hopelessly bewitched by Da Ji (妲己), the human form of a nine-tailed vixen. Under Da Ji’s wicked influence, Di Xin indulged in a great variety of immoral activities, sins such as constructing the Wine Pool and Meat Forest (酒池肉林, jiu chi rou lin), a large wine lake with an island on which meat skewers were suspended from trees.
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He also allegedly devised various brutal execution methods, and was said to be sexually aroused by them. The most notorious of these methods was the “Cannon Burning Punishment.” A hollow bronze cylinder would be heated till red hot, while a victim is tied naked to it.
Given The Investiture of the Gods included an entire host of supernatural beings as protagonists, though, it is reasonable to doubt whether Di Xin was indeed such a horrific ruler. Or whether his downfall was exaggerated by later generations as some sort of allegoric lesson.
That said, it is known that Di Xin’s troops were soundly defeated in 1046 BC at Muye by the Kingdom of Zhou, with the defeated emperor thereafter committing suicide. Based on this, one could conclude that Di Xin was at the very least an inept ruler and military leader.
For the Chinese, he goes down in “history” as one of the most terrible Chinese emperors ever too. His outrageous crimes continue to be regularly condemned in television and movie adaptations of The Investiture of the Gods.
Xia Jie and Di Xin Both Built Wine Lakes?
Similarities in the stories of Xie Jie and Di Xin led to academic speculations over whether both stories were gross exaggerations by Zhou Dynasty politicians. For the purpose of justifying political change.
3. Zhou You Wang (周幽王)
Actual name 宮湦 (Gongsheng). Reigned 781 BC to 771 BC.
Zhou You Wang was the twelfth ruler of the Western Zhou Dynasty and apart from his notorious love story, little is known about him.
In 779 BC, a consort named Bao Si (褒姒) entered the palace and before long, Zhou You Wang was completely obsessed with the beauty. He even replaced his original queen with her. Unfortunately for the besotted emperor, though, Bao Si was melancholic by nature and uninclined to smile no matter what the emperor did.
Eventually, Zhou You Wang experimented with the prank of lighting wartime warning beacons and fooling his nobles into thinking barbarians were invading the capital. At the sight of armies frantically rushing to the aid of the capital, the moody Bao Si finally broke into a hint of a smile.
Indignant as they were, the nobles would have forgiven Zhou You Wang, had he not repeatedly pulled the same prank. Ultimately, in an oriental staging of The Boy Who Cried Wolf story, no one came to the capital’s aid when barbarians did attack the capital.
During the invasion, Zhou You Wang was slaughtered while Bao Si was captured. (She later committed suicide) After the Zhou Dynasty regained control, the capital was permanently shifted eastward to Luoyang too, thus ending the Western Zhou dynastic era.
The story of the foolish emperor who toyed with military matters for the sake of a smile then became an enduring Chinese allegory on responsibility and sensibility.
4. Han Ai Di (汉哀帝)
Actual name 刘欣 (Liu Xin). Reigned 7 BC to 1 BC.
Incredible as it sounds, homosexuality was tolerated in Ancient China.
During the Western Han Dynasty, male consorts openly existed within the imperial palace, these usually being handsome and artistic young men or palace eunuchs. Their formal duties ranged from being mere attendants to important officials of the court.
Some historical accounts even state that practically every Han emperor had a favorite guy in his entourage. This includes greatly respected Han emperors such as Han Gaozu and Han Wudi.
In the case of Han Ai Di, the young emperor became infatuated at first sight with the handsome Dong Xian (董贤), to the extent he immediately bestowed an emissary position, in addition to allowing the younger man to sit on his lap.
In the years to follow, Dong Xian was showered with even more riches and promotions, resulting in him becoming the most powerful official in China at the age of 22. So love-struck was the Ai Di, he once even joked about abdicating in favor of Dong Xian, a gross misconduct considered unimaginable.
By all counts, Dong Xian would have ultimately monopolized power in the palace, maybe even disposed of the emperor, had Han Ai Di not then mysteriously died in 1 BC. In the political coup that followed, Dong Xian was forced by his rivals to commit suicide. 10 years later, the treacherous Wang Mang also seized power, thus ending the Western Han Dynasty.
The Passion of the Cut Sleeve
Modern historians agree that Han Ai Di and Dong Xian likely had an active homosexual relationship, despite both being married and Dong Xian having children.
The famous story goes that one afternoon, the emperor woke up to find Dong Xian still fast asleep on his sleeve. So as not to wake his lover, the emperor cut off his sleeve before leaving the bed.
This legend gave rise to the Chinese metaphor, the passion of the cut sleeve (断袖之癖), which is a veiled way of referring to male homosexuality. Of note, compared to other terrible Chinese emperors on this list, Han Ai Di wasn’t particularly wicked or oppressive; he was simply a foolish young man head over heels in love. Regrettably, this hastened the demise of his already embattled dynasty.
5. Han Ling Di (汉灵帝)
Actual name 刘宏 (Liu Hong). Reigned AD 168 to AD 189.
Han Ling Di was the twelfth emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty. The last to wield real power too. Dissolute by nature, he neglected state affairs and overindulged in women. Worse, the court came to be dominated by eunuchs during his reign, the worst of these being the hated Zhang Rang.
To fund the emperor’s lavish lifestyle and to line their own pockets, these corrupted court officers levied increasingly unbearable taxes on peasants. Han Ling Di himself also approved the practice of selling political offices for money. This irredeemably damaged the integrity of the already teetering Eastern Han Dynasty.
Without surprise, Han Ling Di’s actions became major catalysts for the demise of the Eastern Han Dynasty. His appalling policies infuriated and empowered various warlords and politician factions, with open conflict breaking out between these factions shortly after Han Ling Di’s death.
As a result of the subsequent power-grabbing, China was also fragmented into three, thus giving birth to the wartorn Three Kingdoms Era. No thanks to this bad emperor, hundreds and thousands of Chinese died in decades of continuous civil war. The Middle Kingdom would not be reunited until 60 years later too.
6. Jin Hui Di (晋惠帝)
Actual name 司马衷 (Sima Zhong). Reigned AD 290 to AD 307.
In AD 280, after 60 years of civil war between Cao Wei, Shu Han, and Sun Wu, China was once again reunited as one under the Jin Dynasty.
Peace was short-lived, however, as barely after ten years, the devastating War of The Eight Princes broke out in AD 291. Intermittent conflict then continued till AD 306, further weakening the fragile new empire.
The War of The Eight Princes, in turn, laid the groundwork for invasion by the “Five Barbarian Tribes” of Northern China. This invasion ended with Jin losing its northern and western territories. Till its demise, the Jin Dynasty never regained these lands.
On the surface, this swift disintegration of Jin could be blamed on Jin Hui Di, the second emperor of the dynasty. Hopelessly aloof and unintelligent, he spent his reign manipulated by his empress, regents, and royal relatives, before mysteriously dying in early AD 307.
As an example of his stupidity, he once notoriously asked his court, if peasants are starving from lack of rice, why don’t they just switch to eating meat porridge?
Modern historians, on the other hand, are generally sympathetic to Jin Hui Di, concluding that he was very likely intellectually disabled. Were that to be true, of all the terrible Chinese emperors on this list, Jin Hui Di would be the only one who’s not despotic, dissolute, cruel, or wicked by nature.
One could also consider his father, Jin Wu Di, to be the real culprit behind Jin’s rapid disintegration. He was said to be aware of his son’s condition but chose to ignore it. He did so out of fear of his brothers replacing his lineage.
7. Bei Qi Wen Xuan Di (北齐文宣帝)
Actual name 高洋 (Gao Yang). Reigned AD 550 to AD 559.
Many Chinese emperors achieve greatness early in their reigns, only to slip into debauchery and disregard in later years. Among the many examples, Wen Xuan Di of Northern Qi during the Northern and Southern Dynasties period stands as the most appalling.
Respected in his youth for his military prowess as well as efforts to reduce corruption, Wen Xuan Di eventually succumbed to alcoholism, and by all accounts, was very possibly psychotic during his later reign. Horrifically, he once beheaded a consort he suspected of infidelity. He also tossed her head onto a banquet platter while fondling the corpse’s leg.
During Wen Xuan Di’s final years, the entire court, including his son, lived in constant fear of him too. Not only was the emperor homicidal when drunk, he was also an insatiable womanizer. Few females in the palace were spared.
Ironically, despite Wen Xuan Di’s savagery at home, Northern Qi was at its strongest under him. His brutality during wars saw the conquest or repulsion of many barbarian tribes. Law and order within the imperial court were also strengthened through fear of him.
It thus remains anyone’s guess as to what Northern Qi would have become had Wen Xuan Di not abruptly died at age 33, likely from alcoholism-related reasons. Would it have strengthened to the extent it could defeat its southern rivals and reunite China? One could only speculate.
8. Sui Yang Di (隋炀帝)
Actual name 杨广 (Yang Guang). Reigned AD 604 to AD 618.
The second emperor of the short-lived Sui Dynasty appears in any literature featuring terrible Chinese Emperors, and indeed his crimes are many.
Fond of grandiose projects, hungry to invade neighboring kingdoms, and absolutely decadent by nature, his decisions directly caused the death of millions of Chinese commoners, on top of bankrupting the Sui treasury. Historians generally consider Sui Yang Di as one of China’s worst tyrants, if not China’s worst emperor ever.
To give some numerical indications of his horrific rule, his reconstruction of the Great Wall resulted in six million workers losing their lives. While his troops succeeded in conquering Champa in what is now Southern Vietnam, thousands of Sui soldiers died from malaria.
Most notorious of all, over a mere slight, Sui Yang Di ordered an invasion of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo, but utterly mismanaged the war when personally overseeing it. This resulted in several hundred thousand Sui soldiers dying from famine or ambushes.
These repeated damages to the Sui Dynasty ultimately saw revolts erupting throughout China. In AD 618, this despised emperor was finally strangled to death during a coup led by a top Sui general. The famous Tang Dynasty then permanently replaced Sui.
9. Song Hui Zong (宋徽宗)
Actual name 赵佶 (Zhao Ji). Reigned AD 1100 to AD 1126
Other than recognition for his artistic talents, Chinese history has no kind words for Song Hui Zong, the second last emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty.
Inheriting his empire at a time when Northern Song was at its weakest, Song Hui Zong’s ineffectual rule concluded with a full-scale Jurchen invasion. In AD 1127, his capital was overrun and Song Hui Zong and his son were both captured. The enslaved emperor then spent the next seven years in humiliating captivity under his invaders. He died in AD 1135, thousands of miles away from remnant Song territory.
Jump forth to today, the harshest critics continue to condemn Song Hui Zong as an indulgent and decadent ruler. A wastrel who spent his days surrounded by music and the arts instead of attending to the crisis brewing on his borders.
Legend also goes that Song Hui Zong was lascivious, frequently leaving his palace incognito to visit courtesans, the most famous of these being the beauty Li Shishi. With history often an imprecise science, though, one that’s unkind to the downtrodden, it might be wise to treat some of the more colorful accusations with skepticism.
One thing’s for sure, though. Of all the terrible Chinese emperors on this list, Song Hui Zong is the only one who paid the full price for his folly. He languished for seven years in humiliating imprisonment, before dying miserably away from home.
10. Ming Shen Zong (明神宗)
Actual name 朱翊鈞 (Zhu Yijun). Reigned AD 1572 to AD 1620.
Were you to pick one defining characteristic of a bad emperor, what would you choose?
Cruelty, debauchery, oppression, political ineptitude? Or would it be disregard? The blatant shirking of responsibility as an empire’s leader and soul?
In the case of Ming Shen Zong, more commonly remembered as the Wanli Emperor (万历皇帝), it was his astonishing disinterest in governing China that earned him permanent placement on any list of terrible Chinese emperors. The 14th ruler of the Ming Dynasty, he spent 20 of his 48 years of rule away from court. In other words, this sovereign was on strike for near half his reign.
As a direct consequence of this absence, the already brittle Ming Dynasty further declined, with power ultimately ensconced in the hands of corrupted officers and eunuchs. While his empire disintegrated, Ming Shen Zong devoted his days to supervising the construction of his underground mausoleum. So it was said he also held lavish nightly parties and orgies within the unfinished structure.
Of note, it should be highlighted that Ming Shen Zong was regarded during his younger days as a diligent and capable ruler. Between AD 1582 and AD 1600, he also repelled various foreign invasions and suppressed an uprising. Some historians thus opined that the man’s “industrial action” was due to his disenchantment with court politics, particularly how he was denied his choice of successor.
Regardless, Ming Shen Zong’s blatant abandonment of his duties laid the groundwork for China’s occupation by the Manchus in AD 1644. Some historians go as far as to state that it was not the final two Ming emperors, but Ming Shen Zong, who should be responsible for the stunning defeat.
Appendix: What About Qin Shihuang?
The cruelty of China’s first true emperor needs no introduction. Like Xia Jie, his act of “burning books and burying scholars” became an idiom in the Chinese language for despotic rule. It is also well- known that hundreds of thousands of peasants died during the construction of the Great Wall and the Terracotta Army.
However, in the Chinese belief of 功盖于过 (gong gai yu guo), Qin Shihuang is not on this list of bad Chinese emperors for his contributions to China arguably exceeds his crimes. His unification of the Warring States laid the cornerstone for China’s rise as a major civilization. His standardization of language and currency, and the establishment of the capital as a center of control, also continued to benefit China long after his death.
Notably, in recent years, Qin Shihuang was even celebrated by Maoists as a hero opposing historical chains of division.
The above said, it remains true that Qin Shihuang was an exceptionally brutal ruler. His deeds will continue to be debated by historians. This list also does not deny that living under him was a horrible fate.
About the Portraits
Portraits used in this list are from the collection, One Hundred Portraits of Chinese Emperors (中国一百帝王图) by Lu Yan Guang.
Top 10 Greatest Chinese Emperors
Most of these emperors would be considered tyrannical by modern standards. However, their contributions to China’s sustained growth as a major civilization are undeniable.
- Lu Yan Guang. (2002). Zhong Guo Yi Bai Di Wang Tu. Ling Nan Mei Shu Chu Ban She. ISBN: 9787536225237.
- 其宗. (2001). 中华上下五千年. (赵机, Ed.). 宗教文化出版社. ISBN: 9787801233721.
- 周维洁 (Ed.). (2001). 中国皇帝故事 (Vol. 8, Ser. 启发成长故事). Newton Publications Pte Ltd. ISBN: 981-4028-69-X
- 鐘文出版. (2002). 簡明中國歷史演義. ISBN: 9579550603.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
Questions & Answers
Question: Which Chinese ruler was the best?
Answer: This is subjective, esp with even the best ones guilty of certain atrocities. But I'd say Tang Taizong or Kangxi would be safe picks.
Question: Which ruler was the worst ruler ever?
Answer: In Chinese history, I think you'd never get the same answer from different historians. However, I personally believe Sui Yang Di would get the most mentions.
© 2018 Ced Yong
Ced Yong (author) from Asia on August 06, 2018:
You're right. Sun Hao and Qianfei were awful rulers too. China unfortunately had a lot of such tyrants, didn't she? But I wanted to keep this to a figure of ten. Thus I used the criterion of "main dynasties," i.e. as much as possible, I refrained from including rulers from the periods when China was fragmented or when rulership was disputed. Latter being the 3 Kingdoms.
Admittedly, I wasn't entirely successful. I still included a Bei Qi "emperor" here.
Some Historian on August 04, 2018:
Sun Hao of Eastern Wu should have been on here. He loved to peel the flesh off the faces of his victims. He also had many of his concubines thrown in a lake and drowned because they were not beautiful enough. What about Qianfei of Liu Song? He was the Chinese Caligula, whose crimes were soo horrible, soo disgusting, that he was murdered in only one year into his reign.