Ced earned a bachelor's degree in communication studies in 1999. His interests include history, traveling, and mythology.
1. Empress Lü Zhi (吕雉), 241–180 BC
Lü Zhi was the powerful empress consort of Han Dynasty founder Liu Bang. A capable albeit truly vicious woman, she was recognized as a competent administrator in the early years of the dynasty, during which she actively assisted with domestic affairs.
Such political involvement established for her important connections, and today, it is agreed that she was the mastermind behind the assassinations of Han Xin and Peng Yue, two Han Dynasty founding generals whose influence Lü Zhi and Liu Bang had become wary of.
Following Liu Bang’s death and the coronation of her son as Emperor Hui, Lü Zhi further moved to exterminate rivals and consolidate power. From BC 195 to BC 180, she successfully controlled all imperial affairs with an iron fist. She also brutally executed several other sons of Liu Bang so as to secure her position.
Among her various acts of cruelty, Lü Zhi is most notorious for the torture and mutilation of Concubine Qi, one of Liu Bang’s favourite consorts. She ordered lackeys to remove Qi’s tongue and to blind her, before chopping off all the concubine’s limbs and imprisoning the mutilated woman in a pigsty.
Thereafter, she also named the wretched Qi as a “human swine.”
On hearing Lü’s handiwork, Emperor Hui was so disgusted, he fell ill and withdrew from imperial management. Sadly, this did not thwart Lü Zhi. On the contrary, it transferred even more power to the ruthless empress. Lü Zhi then continued to lord over the Han Dynasty with fear and might, until her death by illness in BC 180.
2. Empress Wu Zetian (武則天), AD 624–705
Wu Zetian is, of course, most famous for being the only female emperor of China. However, this ambitious woman long controlled the imperial court before claiming the dragon throne for herself in AD 690. To a great extent, it could even be said that she was already the de facto ruler of Tang Dynasty China while still the empress consort of Emperor Tang Gaozong. Gaozong was meek and sickly, and incapacitated by illness for most of his reign. From AD 665 till Gaozong’s passing, Wu Zetian dominated the Chinese court. She effectively ruled in place of her husband.
Born in AD 624 as Wu Mei, the future empress and emperor entered the imperial court at age fourteen to be the Consort Wu of Emperor Taizong. The shrewd Taizong, one of China’s greatest rulers, distrusted the young consort, and in his will, he sentenced Wu to lifelong confinement in a nunnery. Officially, this was Wu’s punishment for producing no heirs. In truth, Taizong’s move was likely to permanently remove Wu from the court.
However, Wu had by then seduced the future Emperor Gaozong, and soon she was summoned back to court. Thereafter, she became Gaozong’s favourite consort and bore him two sons.
She also became increasingly involved with imperial management and upon Gaozong’s incapacitation by illness in AD 660, outright took over administration. This regency then lasted till AD 690, when she declared herself Emperor, or Empress Regnant. Wu subsequently ruled the Middle Kingdom as China’s first-ever female emperor till removed by a palace coup in AD 705.
Today, depending on which materials one reads or watches, Wu Zetian could be considered as a ruthless and power-hungry tyrant, or an enlightened embodiment of feminism in feudalistic China.
Indeed, her reign itself is also one of great contradictions. Under her rule, China expanded greatly, with society steadily progressing towards a golden age. Within the imperial court, however, endless bloody intrigues dominate, with Wu Zetian herself directly responsible for the death of many royal clan members.
To put it in another way, the only possible testament to Wu’s reign is perhaps the Wordless Stele at her tomb in Qianling Mausoleum. The great empress, female emperor, left a blank stele for future generations to judge her life with. To her, it is up to you to regard her as a brutal monster, or one of history’s most capable women.
3. Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang (孝莊太后), AD 1613–1688
Of all five Chinese empresses mentioned in this list, Xiaozhuang is undoubtedly the least known. The mother of Emperor Shunzhi of the Qing Dynasty, Xiaozhuang, maiden name Bumbutai, largely kept a low profile and never interfered in imperial politics. Throughout the reigns of her son and grandson, she was also greatly respected for her wisdom and insight.
Originally a concubine of Hong Taiji i.e. the mastermind behind the conquest of Ming Dynasty China, Bumbutai was given the title of Empress Dowager when her six-year-old son was enthroned as the Emperor Shunzhi. In 1661, after Shunzhi abruptly died and seven-year-old Xuanye ascended the throne as Emperor Kangxi, Bumbutai’s status was further elevated. During Kangxi’s reign, she was officially the Grand Empress Dowager of the massive Qing Empire.
Of note, Bumbutai was never an empress consort in her lifetime and this title was only conferred upon her by Kangxi after her death. Throughout her supervision of the young emperors, Bumbutai was also renowned for her frugality. It was said that she disliked birthday celebrations, for she felt they were wasteful and unnecessary.
On a whole, Xiaozhuang also comes close to being the perfect Chinese empress, in the sense that she refrained from interfering with imperial politics and that she fulfilled her courtly duties faithfully.
In fact, the only controversy involving her is that of her relationship with Dorgon, the imperial regent during Shunzhi’s younger years. In 1651, Shunzhi posthumously removed Dorgon’s titles and even had his uncle’s body exhumed and flogged. Some historians, therefore, theorize that Dorgon was the actual father of Shunzhi. Others suggest Xiaozhuang could have secretly married Dorgon after Hong Taiji’s death.
4. Empress Dowager Cixi (慈禧太后), AD 1835–1908
More famous than even Wu Zutian, the Empress Dowager Cixi of the Qing Dynasty is the name that most often comes to mind when thinking of powerful female Chinese rulers.
An imperial concubine of Qing Emperor Xianfeng, and the dowager and regent of Emperors Tongzhi and Guangxu, Cixi is often blamed as the woman who brought down the Qing Empire. Many also regard her as the culprit for China’s repeated defeats at the hands of European colonial powers.
Born in 1835 to the Manchu Yehenara clan, Cixi was chosen in 1851 to be the Consort Yi of Xianfeng. After Xianfeng died in 1861 while fleeing invading European forces, she was conferred Empress Dowager status when her son ascended the throne as Emperor Tongzhi.
For the rest of Tongzhi’s reign, till his unexpected death at age 18, Cixi steadily consolidated power and executed rivals, to the extent she practically became the ruler of China. After Tongzhi’s passing, Cixi further tightened her hold on power during Emperor Guangxu’s subsequent 33-year reign.
In a much-lamented tragedy of pre-modern China, she even survived Guangxu, who deeply despised her. Cixi died one day after Guangxu, right after installing the infant Puyi on the dragon throne.
Was Cixi a Villain?
As mentioned above, Cixi is frequently vilified as the culprit for China’s many humiliations at the hands of other imperial powers. This is partly unjustified, given the decline of Qing Dynasty China began long before her time.
That said, Cixi did in many ways represent the worst of feudal China. Be it her fondness for sycophantic courtiers and eunuchs, her refusal to modernize, her lavishness, or her despotic control of three emperors.
With her having lorded over China for half a century, right till the country’s faltering entry into the modern era, Cixi will also continue to be debated for a long time. Of note, pop entertainment appraisals of her in recent years have trended towards being more sympathetic.
My Parents Are Divorcing Because of a Western Palace Dowager!
In modern spoken Mandarin, the “empress of the western palace” is a colloquial term for a wicked mistress. The term “lord old Buddha” also refers to a despotic matron. Both terms originated from Cixi. She influenced modern Chinese culture more so than all other Chinese empresses.
5. Jiang Qing (江青), AD 1914–1991
Jiang Qing, wife of Chairman Mao Zedong, is not an actual empress, of course. However, her deeds and personality easily qualify her as one.
Be it in ambition, ruthlessness, or political shrewdness, Jiang Qing rivals any Chinese empress in history. Arguably, it could even be said that she was the deadliest one of all. Her fanaticism wrecked millions of lives during the tumultuous years of the Chinese Cultural Revolution.
Originally an actress, Jiang Qing married Mao in 1938, and in 1949, became the inaugural First Lady of the People’s Republic of China. She subsequently remained actively involved in Chinese Communist politics, serving as Mao’s secretary and head of propaganda. In 1966, her power reached a zenith when she was tasked with spearheading Mao’s Cultural Revolution.
Following which, Jiang amassed extensive social-political powers as a member of the notorious Gang of Four, in the process also becoming one of the most powerful and feared figures in Communist China.
After Mao died of a heart attack in 1976, support for her within and outside the Central Committee finally waned, leading to her arrest on Oct 6, 1976. Though later sentenced to death, her sentence was ultimately commuted to life imprisonment. “Madam Mao” committed suicide in 1991, adamant to the end that she did no wrong.
The Wickedest Chinese Empress of All?
In retrospect, it is perhaps fair to say Jiang Qing was no more than an extension of Mao.
During her trial, she infamously declared that she was only the “biting dog of the Chairman.” Mao Zedong himself also openly endorsed his wife’s actions during the Cultural Revolution.
Regardless, Jiang Qing’s ambition and radicalism permanently impacted China’s development in ways that might never be redeemed. In every sense, she was a vicious empress who wielded disastrous powers, hungry to dominate the entire Chinese race.
The many myths associated with her tyranny and downfall continue to be discussed in Chinese books and movies today.
Queen Lu Was Ruthless and Cruel
The notorious Lü Zhi was as beautiful as she was cruel, as she was scheming.
The Demonization of Empress Wu
Wu Zetian’s political career saw the murder of many relatives. But was Imperial China’s only female emperor that brutal a person? Did such murders even happened?
China’s Cultural Revolution, Explained
Though the most notorious character, Jiang Qing was but one of several masterminds of China’s devastating Cultural Revolution.
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- Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, June 8). Empress Lü. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_L%C3%BC.
- Lauralee. (2018, January 18). Empress Lu Zhi of Han - China's first reigning Empress. History of Royal Women. https://www.historyofroyalwomen.com/the-royal-women/empress-lu-zhi-han-chinas-first-reigning-empress/.
- Mark, E. (2021, June 10). Wu Zetian. World History Encyclopedia. https://www.worldhistory.org/Wu_Zetian/.
- 孝庄文皇后. 到百科首页. (n.d.). https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%AD%9D%E5%BA%84%E5%A4%AA%E5%90%8E. [In Chinese]
- Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. (n.d.). Cixi. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cixi.
- Chang, J. (2014). Empress Dowager Cixi: the concubine who launched modern China. Anchor Books.
- Crossley, Pamela (2014). "In the Hornet's Nest". London Review of Books.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2017 Ced Yong
Ced Yong (author) from Asia on November 21, 2017:
Thank you so much, Nathan!
Nathan on November 21, 2017:
Great Job it is well written once again PS. IF I WAS A TEACHER I WOULD GIVE YOU AN A PLUS!