'When You Are Old' by W.B.Yeats (1865-1939). A Poem Addressed to the Love of His Life?
Maud Gonne in her Younger Days
The Relationship Between Maud Gonne and W.B.Yeats
The great love of the life of the Irish poet William Butler Yeats was the Irish actress and revolutionary Maud Gonne, equally famous for her intense nationalist politics and her beauty. Maud was a strong influence on Yeats’ poetry. He proposed to her on many occasions but was always met with rejection - she maintained, perhaps as an excuse, that his unrequited love contributed to the effectiveness of his writing. The sentiments expressed in the poem When You Are Old suggest that it was written with her in mind. In 1903 Maud married another man. Yeats eventually married another woman, in 1917. The marriage lasted until his death in 1939.
'When You Are Old' (1892) by W.B.Yeats
When you are old and grey and full of sleep,
And nodding by the fire, take down this book,
And slowly read, and dream of the soft look
Your eyes had once, and of their shadows deep;
How many loved your moments of glad grace,
And loved your beauty with love false or true,
But one man loved the pilgrim soul in you,
And loved the sorrows of your changing face;
And bending down beside the glowing bars,
Murmur, a little sadly, how Love fled
And paced upon the mountains overhead
And hid his face amid a crowd of stars.
Life is a long preparation for something that never happens
An Interpretation of 'When You Are Old' by W.B.Yeats
The poem is directed toward one young person, presumably a woman if read in the light of Yeat's biographical details.(Though a reader could apply the sentiments expressed in the poem to a man). I have made an assumption that Maud Gonne is the person about whom Yeats wrote, as she was his muse.
The speaker in the poem talks about a current situation but also predicts the future.
The first stanza seems to be self-referential in as much as it implies that the poem will be published. The person who is addressed is urged to read it in old age whilst reminiscing about the past and her lost beauty.
In the first two lines of the second stanza, the speaker continues the theme of reminiscence. The person addressed will remember that in her youth, her days of glad grace, she was loved by many men. She will remember that as her beauty and youth by this point in time have faded into the past, so has their love. In lines three and four, the 'voice' in the poem tells her, one man (implicitly himself) loved her better than anyone else - because his love was about more than her physical attributes, it is for the nature of her soul. Although the lines are ostensibly about what the woman will remember in old age they are actually a declaration of present-day love. 'Pilgrim' is an unusual choice of word to describe this woman's soul - a pilgrim is a person on a journey in search of something or somewhere. Historically, a pilgrim made a journey to a Holy Shrine.
The third stanza again presents a current situation projected into the woman's old age. She is told that she will remember that she rejected this man who loved her and predicts that the memory will make her a little sad. He evidently will have given up his pursuit of her, left in a state of agitation to pace amongst the mountains overhead and disappear amid a crowd of stars. The lines seem to suggest that, because of her rejection, he will never find peace. One day he will die, become stardust, and she will have lost him forever.
In summary, the poem seems to be both a warning about the future and an appeal to the beloved to reconsider, to see that without him old age will be bleak and full of regret.
Why Analyse a Poem?
You might ask the question Why analyse a poem? Hopefully, you have enjoyed reading the sentiments that it expresses and perhaps it has conjured vivid mental images in your mind. You are satisfied to leave it there. But recognising poetic devices and detecting them in a poem can add to the reader's enjoyment. Furthermore, some poems may seem obtuse at a first reading - a line by line analysis helps to understand the message that the poet is attempting to convey.
There are a number of poetic devices that a poet can draw up and s(he) will redraft many times before s(he) is happy with the final version. A great deal of skill is involved in drafting a successful poem.
Some Poetic Devices to Consider When Reading a Poem
- Form - the shape and pattern of a poem, created through the related devices of stanza and metre.
- Line - the basic poetic device that distinguishes poetry from prose. A poet will insert line breaks at specific points for various reasons- they may emphasize a word or an idea, for example, or to follow a structured rhythm.
- Rhyme - a skilled poet can create a musical experience for the reader/listener through the sound patterns that (s)he creates. Rhyme can occur throughout a poem, not simply at the end of a line.
- Voice - some poems are personal, directly addressed to a specific person, or group, others are public and impersonal
- Imagery - often used to defamiliarise what we are familiar with.
- Metaphor - the description of something in terms of something else
- Simile - saying something is like something else
- Theme - what the poem is fundamentally about. An idea that the writer runs with through the poem, or to which he returns.
- Alliteration - the repeated use of a letter or syllable, usually at the start of a word. Note, for example, how frequently the soft sibilant letter s is used in the first stanza of When You Are Old. It slows the pace and emphasises the sad tone of the poem
- Repetition - in the second stanza of this poem the word loved is used four times.
N.B. Not all poems, particularly modern ones, contain all of the elements mentioned above. I venture to suggest that you will be able to detect most of them in When You Are Old.
The Form of 'When You Are Old'
The form of When You Are Old is -
- Three verses of four lines
- Each line has ten syllables. When You Are Old is largely written in words of one syllable, which you may think emphasises the simplicity and sadness of the message that the voice is sending to the intended recipient.
- The punctuation in this stanza, with caesuras in lines 2,3, and 4 slows the pace of the poem, reinforcing the mental imagery created of a tired elderly person by the choice of words sleep, nodding, slowly, dream.
- The end- rhyme pattern of the poem is -
Verse 1 - ABBA
Verse 2 - CDDE
Verse 3 - EFFE
The Theme of ‘When You Are Old’
The theme of When You Are Old is unrequited love. The words are fundamentally a sad and final declaration of love by someone who appears to have lost hope that his devotion will ever be reciprocated
The voice is intensely personal, addressed to someone with whom he is closely familiar.
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