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When the Native American Indians First Met the European Settlers

What Did the Native Americans and the Settlers Expect When They First Met?

When the Europeans began their settlement of the New World, it was both complicated and aided by its indigenous inhabitants. The native people alternately became allies and enemies of the newly arrived settlers from Europe. These two totally dissimilar cultures were hurtling toward each other in a collision that could be the end for one of them. Did either of them expect what was to come when the first Europeans came to America?

What did the settlers expect of the Native Americans when they arrived? Surely there was a sense of dread among the arriving Europeans concerning these mysterious people who had warred with the early Spanish colonizers. What did they think would happen? And conversely, what did the locals think of these strange intruders?

When the colonists set sail for America, they knew that they’d not only have to find a way to survive in the wilderness, but would also have to deal with rival nations that were claiming their own share of this vast new land. There had been long animosity between France, England, and the Dutch. These were obstacles which would be difficult to overcome. The wild card in all this would be the native population who they knew little about. They’d read the stories of Columbus and his voyages, and heard rumors from traders and fishermen concerning the “primitive” people of the continent, but so few clear-cut facts existed. How would they be received? They had some hopes of trading with the natives. Would these hopes be realized, or were they walking into the lion’s den?

The Europeans had a very mixed view of the Indian natives. On one hand, they were told that Indians could be gentle and receptive, helpful and eager to trade. This may have been a true depiction, or the propaganda of the English government and trading companies which had a vested interest in promoting colonization; it was a very positive image and gave intended settlers hope that they would be welcome with open arms and helping hands. They wanted to believe that they were heading to the Garden of Eden.

However, there was an opposing image of these same Indians. Perhaps these came from the Spanish or from visitors to America who’d had bad experiences with the locals.

Whichever the case, Indians were often described in very unflattering terms. Among these descriptions were terms like, “flesh-eating primitives,” “savage, hostile and beastlike,” and “crafty, loathsome half-men.” These various metaphors could not have inspired much confidence in the people who heard them.

The English had an ace-in-the-hole that kept their courage up. They knew that they had the same level of technology and weaponry as the Spanish. Therefore, they knew that if push came to shove, they could defeat the American natives in a fight, just as the Spanish had. Conquest was always in the back of their minds, as an alternative to peaceful integration.

English pessimism due to Spanish experience with the Indians was no doubt exacerbated when a Chesapeake Indian tribe ambushed the first arrivals making landfall. Things didn’t start off well and the settlers became very suspicious of the indigenous people. And the Indians surely felt the same, but they had their own motivations for contact.

Powhattan, leader of the powerful Algonquian tribe of Indians, was a proud and clever man. He saw the newcomers as a source of power. They had things of value, like guns and knives. Powhattan was in the process of consolidating his power in the region. He already controlled 25 bands of united warriors, and was looking for another advantage.

Weapons would be invaluable to him. To this end, he became a friend and benefactor to the new settlement. Although their presence was a potentially destabilizing element and a dangerously double edged sword, he felt they were worth the risk. He brought them food to help them survive their first long, cold winter, known as “the starving time”. He continued to trade with them afterwards, supplying corn and other foods in exchange for weapons.

It was, perhaps, this dependency on the Indians that helped to increase their distrust of the locals. They needed Powhattan’s food to get through the winter and were very much afraid that he would take advantage of their weakness. They expected the local Indians to act as treacherously and heartlessly as Europeans often did. Many rationalized that the Algonquian assistance was really initiated by their Christian God who was looking out for them. It made them feel better to believe that they were in the hands of God, not the Indians. Colony leader John Smith wrote, “If it had not pleased God to have put a terror in the Savage’s hearts, we’d have perished by those wild and cruel Pagans, being in that weakest state as we were.”

Looking at it from the Indian's point of view, they probably had little reason to suspect the horrors that were to come. They’d had limited interaction with the white man. Most tribes probably had no idea what happened down in South America with the Spanish. Up in Canada, the French had made strides in co-existing wit the regional Indians and even advocated inter-racial marriages. So it’s likely the Indians were leery—the unknown is always frightening—but naïve and confident enough not to view the newcomers as anything to fear. The Europeans came bearing gifts to trade, and some tribes did initially profit off their arrival.

Comments 129 comments

Hello, hello, profile image

Hello, hello, 7 years ago from London, UK

That is a very interesting and followed-through hub which provokes a lot of thoughts. Thank you.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 7 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Glad you found it interesting. Thanks for the imput.


dahoglund profile image

dahoglund 6 years ago from Wisconsin Rapids

Your hub seems to be a pretty good summary. I think there were misconceptions from all sides due to differences in social structure and customs. I learned in a course on Indian History that the Scotch who had a clan structure, were were much better at dealing with the Indians for that reason.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thanks Dahoglund. I'm of Scots descent and I'd say your correct that the early Highland tribes of Northern Scotland had quite a bit in common with the Native American Indians. Although the Scots had better luck defending their borders from conquest than the American Indians did.


kh 6 years ago

amazing


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thanks.


mquee profile image

mquee 6 years ago from Columbia, SC

This hub article is very interesting and really makes one think. I am very interested in history and particularly that of the Native Americans. I think it's a great learning tool for mistakes we have made in dealing witheac other in the past. Thanks for this well written piece.


sepiaprince profile image

sepiaprince 6 years ago

Nice Article.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thank you both, mquee and sepiaprince. Much appreciated.


cristal 6 years ago

nice


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thank you, cristal.


gg.zaino profile image

gg.zaino 6 years ago from L'America

Cool topic. My Pepe's French Canadian blood was mixed with Algonquin... The first settlers must have appeared weak human beings and obviously could never be a threat to the true people.

Tribal alliances with either the French or British for the North East Woodland tribes,created intense competition among the great indigenous tribes themselves.Warring amongst themselves became intense...

before trade it was limited or did not exist at all. These people became dependent on trade goods, the 5 civilized tribes of the north east woodlands were brought low in my opinion because of dependence on trade goods,a discovery of huge Ego- and their own warring alliances. (Throw a little disease on that too)...

sorry, jus got goin! :)peace Rob, great topic -voted up - gregZ


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thanks for the input, gg. And your make a lot of valid points. The Indians did ultimately become dependent on trade goods. I appreciate your comments.


tonymac04 profile image

tonymac04 6 years ago from South Africa

Very interesting, expecially as I'm not too familiar with this history.

Love and peace

Tony


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Glad I could help enlighten you about a period in history, albeit a sad one. I love history myself. Thanks for reading, Tonymac.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thanks buryshane. Glad you stopped by. Thanks for reading and commenting and joining the fun.


habee profile image

habee 6 years ago from Georgia

This is great, Rob! I love studying the Native Americans.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 6 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Glad you liked it, Habee. I enjoy studying the native Americans, too.


TINA447 5 years ago

hey can you help me i need to write the point of views of the native people and the europeans can you plz help me by the end of this week plz plz plz


tina447 5 years ago

hey i like what you wrote it helped me a little bit but it wasent clear to me cause im still in school on grade 6 so i really need your help of the point of view and if you cant does any of your friends know or do you know any site i can go to please please i really need it for this week cause next week im back to school please please


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

I'll help you if I can. Contact me through the link higher up on this page that says "Contact Robwrite".


Gabrielle 5 years ago

i am 9 years old and i love to read about my culture and how people had war.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Reading is good, Gabrielle. I love to read, too. It's good to learn about history. Thanks you for reading my hub.


butterfly 5 years ago

Really helped me for my report! Thx Robwrite!


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

I'm always glad to be useful, butterfly.


sleevi 5 years ago

This is a great help for my homework!!! :)


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Glad to hear it, sleevi. Always happy to be of help!


Alysha 5 years ago

oh thankyou sooo much, this has helped me on my assignment a lot! great work :)

ur awesome!!!!


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Glad to help, Alysha. I hope you get a good mark.

Rob


nottelling. 5 years ago

is this about the aztec's indigenous society ?


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

This is a brief summary of the effect that Europeans had on the whole American continent and the indigenous people therein.


nottelling 5 years ago

okay, thanks so much.


coolcat 5 years ago

thanks for the help doing an essay on the europeans and the indians. :)


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Glad I could help, coolcat.


luvtocheer652 5 years ago

thank you for the help with the point of view essay for Europeans and the Indians:):)


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

You're welcome.


reasercher 5 years ago

What did the Natives think of the fur trade?what was there point of view?


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

The fur trade was big with the French colonists who settled in Canada. That was one of the main reasons that the French came to the new world. The Indians were all for it, since they had a much better relationship with France than with England (Which is why most tribes sided with France against England during the French/Indian War, also known as the Seven Years War.

I hope that helps.

Rob


ashish 5 years ago

this hub was very helpful and useful fr my homework thank you soooo much!!!!!!!!!!!


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Good to know, ashish. Happy I could help.

Rob


jeanine 5 years ago

it's to bad the Europeans didn't accept some of the Indians ways... for my own tribe (two spirited individuals)... we were completely devastated by the Christians... my kind were great advisers and counselors to Chiefs and leaders all over the world... after the the Europeans came we have been delegated to the freak shows on the jerry Springer show... sad really... there were was no word for divorce before the Europeans came... very nice read Rob...


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 5 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Hi Jeanine; It's all so tragic. The fall of one culture at the hands of another is a bane on the whole human race. Your comments really help describe how diminished the whole Native American race must feel. It's fascinating but sad that there was no word for divorce before the Europeans came.

I appreciate your input and insight,

Rob


jeanine 5 years ago

it is tragic... my kind were great men of God, but because we didn't fit into the European model, we were killed or beaten into submission... even today, the medical community continues to try and change us... by making us less.. telling me I will be more if they can make me less... they do not understand I am both not one or the other... my tribe had transcended the binary system... now our tribe has been relegated to being beautiful men that look like women... or worse... men who try and be women... to my tribe transsexuals are viewed just as being the new Eunuchs... we were and are great men of spirit, who understand both men and women... on a basic level, we were never meant to be women, we are not one or the other... we are both... you are correct none of the native Americans had a clue they would change our culture... it was not considered... to disrespect a man simply because he was different... we should have known when they said they were white men... no one is white or pure but one... and He is the son to the great father in heaven... He is all colors of man and womankind and His holiness burns so pure his light appears to be white... thanks for letting me express my views...


algonquin_man 4 years ago

time to read the book titled "1491"...


Julie 4 years ago

Good information


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

I live to serve


Ashley 4 years ago

This was really helpful, considering how I'm not too familiar with history. Keep up the good work! ;)


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Hi Ashley; Very glad I could help familiarize you with this bit of unpleasant history.

Thanks for the comments,

Rob


John 4 years ago

Ya i really needed somewhere to look online about the conflicts the settlers had. This saved my butt on my paper

Thanks.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Happy to have been of service, John.


jewelng 4 years ago

wow! so good! O.O Thnks! =3


paul 4 years ago

thanks


sheep 4 years ago

where did this take place?


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

It happened in North and south America.


christine 4 years ago

I was looking for what a native american would do in the face of blatant ego. That's how I came upon this page. Seems to me mouth would turn down and they'd walk off. Can't find a native response anywhere for ego. I'm so far removed from my own tribe (Wicomico), wiped out as it was. Do you know of any native american response to ego? I'll use it. You are a knowledgeable man. Thank you for this page and good luck on your TV series. I'll look for it, even though I don't know the name of it yet. But I now know yours and will keep a sharp eye out for this upcoming series.


ohwell103 4 years ago

What were some of the main reasons native american and colonists interaction was negative most of the time or hostile?


Alex millsdelarge 4 years ago

thanx I love this website


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Glad to hear it, Alex,

Thanks for reading,

Rob


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Hi Christine; I'm not sure what the Native American response is to ego. they are a spiritual people but I don't know their philososphy about the relation to the ego and the physical world. I'm going to look into that more.

Thanks for reading,

Rob


Flora Breen Robison 4 years ago

Hey there. I see that I never did respond on this hub while I was a member of this site. Weird. Now that I've been banned, I'm only commenting now.

Have you passed your milestone for this hub yet? It is a fabulous article.

Re: inter-racial marriages in Canada. Yes, the names given to those with a native mother and white father (British *or* French) were the Metis. The most famous and notorious is named Louis Riel.

Take care.

I'll try to visit every now and then on a new hub. Because you don't get notices if a guest user comments on your hub, you only see them if you expect them-like on this popular hub-or on the newest.

Take care,

Flora


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Flora; I was sorry to see you're not on Hub pages any more. I hope you can come around as a guest often.

Thanks for the information about the Metis.

I haven't quite reached 20,000 yet for this hub but I'm almost there.

Take care,

Rob


ikeisha 4 years ago

thanks for the information


sam the kiwi 4 years ago

love american indians a good article


rawr 4 years ago

thanks, bro. really helpful


Irene Warner profile image

Irene Warner 4 years ago

Hello Rob this is my first time on here. I would like to say as we all know there is two-sides to every story. Antyhing you would be able to say concerning the Natives is what you read or came across but since the beginning Whiteman has lied & misinterpreted Us intentionally. So all that We know is truth? or what/how the Whiteman wants us to know/think? The TRUTH lies in the eye of the beholder, & ALL of them are wiped the f*k out. The rest of Us are just suffering the damage done.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Hi rawr; Glad you found it helpful.

Rob


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Hello Irene; I'm glad you chose to visit my hub,

Rob


sara 4 years ago

what were the two ways white people could come to the new colony


anna 4 years ago

this helped me a lot with my project so thx


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

You're welcome, Anna.


colin MacDonald 4 years ago

ive got a esa soon thanks this help's a lot


eddy4me profile image

eddy4me 4 years ago from Wales.

A brilliant hub on a subject close to my heart.

no real reason except one decided out of the blue to research the Cherokees this led to me publishing my very first ebook Today I am working on the second one.

This was so well written,interesting and all else .

I now look forward to many more by you.

Eddy.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Hi Eddy; Good work on the e-book. Thanks for the kind words on the hub.

Rob


willdog 4 years ago

thanks, this really helped on my homework. And I'm glad to see it's helped a lot of others, too. ;)


8th grade student 4 years ago

thanks for this page it really helped me on my homework! :D


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Very glad it helped both of you.

Rob


Saint 4 years ago

Thanks a lot rob. this helped me a lot and i appreciate your work.


Hello 4 years ago

That was ok


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thanks


Christina Liberus profile image

Christina Liberus 4 years ago from Queens, New York

i love this article this will totally get me a 4 in my 6 grade social studies class


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Glad it's useful to you.

R.


Christina Liberus profile image

Christina Liberus 4 years ago from Queens, New York

yea i know and you are a great writer really you used lots of facts


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thank you, christina,

R


awsome 4 years ago

just kidding it helped a lot thanks

-anomonous


jamilah 4 years ago

this article helps me with my native american research paper so

its good enough. great job!


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Glad it helped.

R.


lrc7815 profile image

lrc7815 4 years ago from Central Virginia

Rob, hey, I've missed seeing you around HP. I just found this piece. Don't know how I missed it in the past. It's a good article but....it isn't finished. :-) The Indian did, as you say, initially benefit. But then, they were all but anhialated with smallpox, rounded up like cattle and imprisoned, and eventually forced on to land by treaties that were never upheld. You would be hardpressed to find an Indian today who feels they benefited from European invasion. You might enjoy the piece I wrote on Thanksgiving, The Pigrims, and the Indians.

Sorry, this is something that I am obsessively passionate about. I loved your hub though. Voted up and across the board.

Hope you are doing well.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 4 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Hi; How have you been? I haven't been on hub pages lately but I'll try to get back after the Holidays.

I know all about the horros that the Native Americans experienced and I've written other hubs about that. This one is just about their initial meetings and what they both expected.

I'll look up your Thanksgiving hub.

Good to hear from you,

Rob


lrc7815 profile image

lrc7815 4 years ago from Central Virginia

Rob, my comment was a bit 'tongue-in-cheek'. I know you know. :-)

You should link those other hubs to this one and reap the benefits of more readers and clicks. You tell the story well!

Happy Holidays Rob!


hossaliz 4 years ago

Hey Rob, very nice hub. I enjoyed reading it and it was very interesting. I was hoping to use some of the informatin you provided in your hub on my final english essay and in order to cite my sources properly I need to put the first and last name of the authors name. If you can give me a reply back with your full name I would greatly appreciate it. Again nice hub and have a wonderful day!


Bobby 3 years ago

I thought that this is a great website and that it has lots of information for the paticular subjects!!!!!


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 3 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thanks Bobby.


prasadjain profile image

prasadjain 3 years ago from Tumkur

A 'Useful hub'. This is the result of great study and research.thanks.


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 3 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Thanks, glad you liked it.

Rob


cathie bridges profile image

cathie bridges 3 years ago from Pakistan

too good...i am really happy about it


Robwrite profile image

Robwrite 3 years ago from Bay Ridge Brooklyn NY Author

Hi Cathie;

I'm happy that you're happy.

Rob


DMHLaney 3 years ago

Does this give good information for a debate, on the Native American side?


Aplethora23 profile image

Aplethora23 3 years ago from North Cali

This was helpful. Thank you for sharing.


blacknight1238 3 years ago

help me


Richawriter profile image

Richawriter 3 years ago from On Top of the World

Interesting.

I've always loved the Native American culture and I remember always rooting for them while watching the westerns of my youth back in the eighties and nineties.

Good job. I hope there's more to come like this.

Richawriter


COOLONE 2 years ago

really interesting :)


cfin profile image

cfin 2 years ago from The World we live in

Europeans and now Americans are controllers by nature. It was inevitable once they landed that they would wipe out whoever was there. Greed and evil. The victors write history and yet it still looks bad for the Europeans who settled the America's even with their spin on the story.


MG Singh profile image

MG Singh 2 years ago from Singapore

This is a very interesting hub. Unfortunately the White settlers were never fair with the natives and the results were disasterous for the natives who were almost wiped out.


lena le 2 years ago

I feel bad for you guys. I feel really lucky to be hear


cathie bridges profile image

cathie bridges 2 years ago from Pakistan

Nice Information !


gwenn 2 years ago

yea i needed it for my work


kenneth from nyc 2 years ago

wow... this helped A lot for my hw. thanks!


Hazen Poutre 2 years ago

this paper needs to have the time that the Europeans came!!!!!!!!!


sara 2 years ago

thank you so much for this! I will be using it in my reasearch paper for sure. you're incredibly smart; i hope to be as smart as you someday!


kyle 20 months ago

i love this guy


Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 17 months ago from Long Island, NY

In my early school years I never liked history. I was more into science. But as I grew older I started to appreciate understanding what really went on. And I realized how one-sided the teachings were. It's actually sad how the settlers disrupted the Native American's lives. The Indians were here first and they lost practically everything, including theirs lives.


Thomas Burcher 4 months ago

A lot of people would not agree with me , but I think these reservations need to be closed, and the inhabitants allowed to make their own choices in life, not to be living in a glorified concentration camp, and depending on government agencies to support them. They are no different than the rest of this melting pot. Let the kids go to public schools, and the adults to college to prepare them for the strenuous life ahead. Families with one parent, a disabled family member, or dependant children, could be elgible for state or government assistance. Better living conditions could be of benefit to all, and curtail or end some of the destructive habits some of them have. Some of you mentioned a proud people; where did all that pride go? Every ethnic group has the right to be proud.I've had my say, and maybe I'm wrong, but I'm interested in seeing what others have to say.


Qveen Villar 3 months ago

Uhm I'm in class and i have to write about the reaction of the native americans to the European settlers. But i can't do that when I dont know the reaction. What is it ? Any help?


taco sauce 3 months ago

hey ahahah u are talking about mr. adams, im looking on here to look up information


Nekoda Legend 3 months ago

This article helped me a lot in my History essay...thanks for this article I got an A- better than any other of my essays I've ever written for any of my other classes.

Kody L.


hiokhl 2 months ago

hoijk


mason 2 months ago

thank you had and assinment on this and this helped a lot thanks


Isaac Lucero 2 months ago

You comment towards the top of this comment thread that Scottish Clans had a lot in common with Native American tribes yet the Scots were a little better at protecting their boarders than the Native Americans were. Your statement seems to me to have a view that one group was apparently better than the other for some unknown reason yet you don't mention anything about the different types of weapons that Europeans had versus the weaponry of Native Americans at the time. I think of steel vs. wood and stone and later repeating arms vs single shot weapons and the impact superior weaponry has in conflict and warfare. You also do not mention the loss of Native American lives due to having immune systems that hadn't previously been exposed to, such diseases as the plaque, cholera, smallpox, etc. Which also understandably explained why Europeans were seen as being of poor hygiene and of fowl oder. As you likely know a significant reason why such diseases spread throughout Europe was because of a common belief that diseases were carried through water, therefor their was very poor hygiene among Europeans involved in those "early encounters".


winner clennre 2 months ago

tankyou all for this


Priyam 7 weeks ago

My comment is that this uncountabl sentenses of native Ameracan history gave me a A+ in school!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Ello m8 5 weeks ago

YOU HELPED ME WITH MY SOCIAL STUDIES HOMEWORK AND THATS ALL I CARE ABOUT


Dave 5 weeks ago

Amazing I didn't know all of this


trump 3 weeks ago

trump


leelee705 3 weeks ago

This helped me so much! thanks!


ytusssssssssgn 2 weeks ago

so cool


erick hernandez 8 days ago

hola compadritos


lileny 8 days ago

where did you get your imformation ?


trump donald 8 days ago

EHLIII


Ally1o5 2 days ago

Wow this really helped me in my hw thanks robwrite

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