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William Taft: 27th President: Highest Judicial & Executive Office

Angela loves history and feels it is essential to our future to know the past—or else be destined to repeat it.

Official Presidential Portrait

His Family Life

William Howard Taft was the only man to ever serve as both Chief Justice, the highest judicial position, as well as American President, the highest executive position.

Taft was born September 15, 1857, in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Louisa Maria Torrey and Alphonso Taft. He had four brothers and one sister. Alphonso, his father, served under President Ulysses S. Grant as both Secretary of War and attorney general. He also served under Chester A. Arthur as an ambassador.

Taft's Education

Early on, he attended private schools and later attended Yale University, where he played both baseball and football. He was a rather large man, standing 6'2" and weighing 300 pounds. Despite his size, he enjoyed dancing and tennis and was known for his excellent sportsmanship and laughter. In 1910 as President, when the baseball season began, he threw the first ball, a custom many Presidents follow today. While at Yale, he joined the now-notorious secret society Skull and Bones, in which his father had co-founded in 1832.

He later attended the University of Cincinnati College of Law, where he got his law degree. Although he broke tradition by attending the University of Cincinnati College, he followed his ancestors, including his father and grandfather, by going into law.

In 1886, he married Helen "Nellie" Herron, who was a childhood friend of his sister Frances. They meet at a sledding party. Nellie had visited the White House as a youth and often joked she dreamed of someday living there. Taft often joked if ever became President of the United States, it would be because of Nellie. His true desire was to become Supreme Court Justice.

The Supreme Court

A photo of the United States Supreme Court justices in 1925. Taft is in the front center.

A photo of the United States Supreme Court justices in 1925. Taft is in the front center.

Taft as Federal Circuit Judge

At 34, he was appointed a Federal circuit judge. His real ambition was to become a member of the Supreme Court, but many others encouraged him towards politics, including his wife, Helen Herron Taft.

President McKinley took notice of Taft, and in 1900 chose Taft to govern the Philippines when the United States acquired it as a chief civil administrator. Taft significantly improved its economy through several steps. He set up a court system and public schools, built roads, and helped hospitals and banks become established. He also allowed the People to have limited involvement in the government.

His Presidency and the 16th Amendment of the Constitution

After McKinley's assassination, Theodore Roosevelt asked him to serve in the Cabinet as Secretary of War. They became good friends, and in 1908, Roosevelt backed Taft helping him become President as the Republican candidate. He said, "Taft is the most lovable personality I have ever known." Taft did not enjoy the campaign and referred to that time as "one of the most uncomfortable four months of my life."

The man who ran on the Democratic ticket William Jennings Bryan had similar feelings by competing against Taft. He felt that he was opposing two candidates, the western progressive Taft, because progressives were pleased with those who backed Taft. The eastern conservative Taft, because the conservatives were glad to be rid of Roosevelt they called the "man messiah."

Unfortunately, Roosevelt and the Progressive party soon realized that they had very different views with Taft on many issues. First off, Roosevelt felt that Taft needed to focus more on conservation. Taft also felt that Roosevelt stretched his Presidential powers, which he revealed when he stated, Roosevelt "ought more often to have admitted the legal way of reaching the same ends." He did not want to do the same as President.

Unlike Roosevelt, who steered clear of any acts that had to do with tariffs, Taft felt that high tariffs harmed consumers, impeded competition, and protected trusts. Roosevelt warned him against getting involved with such issues. Once he began pursuing this route, liberal Republicans that formed the Progressive Party were incensed due to his involvement in tariffs, while the conservative Republicans wanted fewer reductions and higher tariffs and did not like his proposition. Although Taft eventually pushed through the Payne-Aldrich Act, which was a compromise between the two, it ultimately led to the splitting of the Republican party.

Aside from the uproar in policies, Taft did many good things that are often overlooked. He initiated 80 antitrust suits. Taft also made it so that the people could directly elect senators. He began the Federal income tax by adding the 16th amendment to the Constitution.

Supreme Court Chief Justice

In 1912, when Taft was ready to run for his second term, Roosevelt strongly opposed Taft. The Republicans renominated Taft, so Roosevelt left the Republican party and ran for President under the Progressive Party, which may have caused a split in the conservative vote, which caused both candidates to lose to Woodrow Wilson, a Democratic candidate.

Taft was glad to leave the White House. He referred to his time there as "the lonesomest place in the world." After his presidency, he went back to his judicial roots and served as a professor of law at Yale.

Years later, in 1921, President Harding appointed Taft to Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, a position he held until his death in 1930. He is the only President to have served as both Chief Justice, the highest judicial office, and President the highest executive office. This position suited him well, and he felt this was the greatest honor of his life. He even wrote, "I don't remember that I ever was President."

Fun Facts

  • The first president to have an official White House car. It was a seven-passenger, steam-powered, White Motor Company Model M.
  • He was the only American to have served both as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the highest judicial position, and United States President, the highest executive position.
  • Buried in Arlington National Cemetery along with only one other president. (JFK).
  • New Mexico and Arizona became states while he was in office.
  • He added the 16th Amendment, which established income tax, to the Constitution.

Excerpt from History Channel

Basic Facts

Question Answer

Born

September 15, 1857 - Ohio

President Number

27th

Party

Republican

Military Service

none

Wars Served

none

Age at Beginning of Presidency

52 years old

Term of Office

March 4, 1909 - March 3, 1913

How Long Served as President

4 years

Vice-President

James Sherman

Age and Year of Death

March 8, 1930 (aged 72)

Cause of Death

failing health due to general arteriosclerosis and myocarditis

Signing Arizona's Statehood

February 14,1912, Taft signing Arizona Statehood Bill.

February 14,1912, Taft signing Arizona Statehood Bill.

List of American Presidents

1. George Washington

16. Abraham Lincoln

31. Herbert Hoover

2. John Adams

17. Andrew Johnson

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt

3. Thomas Jefferson

18. Ulysses S. Grant

33. Harry S. Truman

4. James Madison

19. Rutherford B. Hayes

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower

5. James Monroe

20. James Garfield

35. John F. Kennedy

6. John Quincy Adams

21. Chester A. Arthur

36. Lyndon B. Johnson

7. Andrew Jackson

22. Grover Cleveland

37. Richard M. Nixon

8. Martin Van Buren

23. Benjamin Harrison

38. Gerald R. Ford

9. William Henry Harrison

24. Grover Cleveland

39. James Carter

10. John Tyler

25. William McKinley

40. Ronald Reagan

11. James K. Polk

26. Theodore Roosevelt

41. George H. W. Bush

2. Zachary Taylor

27. William Howard Taft

42. William J. Clinton

13. Millard Fillmore

28. Woodrow Wilson

43. George W. Bush

14. Franklin Pierce

29. Warren G. Harding

44. Barack Obama

15. James Buchanan

30. Calvin Coolidge

45. Donald Trump

Sources

  • Freidel, F., & Sidey, H. (2009). William Howard Taft. Retrieved April 22, 2016, from https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/williamhowardtaft
  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/payne-aldrich-tariff-act.htm
  • Sullivan, G. (2001). Mr. President: A book of U.S. presidents. New York: Scholastic.
  • What are some interesting facts about presidents and first ladies? (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2016, from https://www.whitehousehistory.org/questions/what-are-some-interesting-facts-about-presidents-first-ladies
  • "William Howard Taft." Biography.com. August 08, 2016. Accessed April 02, 2018. https://www.biography.com/people/william-howard-taft-9501184.

© 2016 Angela Michelle Schultz

Comments

Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 28, 2016:

That is a very interesting thought, but I have a feeling that it was because Taft was such a people person, that he probably didn't like being disliked for the choices he made. He got a lot of criticism. It doesn't appear most presidents felt the way he did.

Ronald E Franklin from Mechanicsburg, PA on April 27, 2016:

That Taft considered the presidency "the lonesomest place in the world" is interesting. I don't get the impression that modern presidents look at it that way. Is it just that in our media age they've learned to hide the oppressiveness of the weight of presidential responsibility, or is it that presidents today feel they have greater support from staff?