Witches in History and Legend: Circe, the Mistress of Natural Magic and Metamorphosis

Updated on March 20, 2018
Ioana-R profile image

Alexa has studied faeries, witches and magical beings since she can remember. She hasn't seen one yet, but is a fervent admirer nonetheless.

Circe
Circe

Often reffered to as the godess of magic, nymph, fallen godess or just a simple witch, Circe travelled through history and her name is still alive today. She could harness the power of nature, brew dangerous potions or transform people into animals. Who was this legendary character?

Who Was Circe?

In Greek mythology, Circe is depicted as the beloved daughter of Helios, god of the sun, and Perseis, an ocean nymph. Other legends fail to mention the name of Circe's father, but they say she was the daughter of Hecate, goddess of witchcraft. Diodorus Sicilus writes:

Hecate, daughter of Perses, married Aeetes and bore two daughters, Circe and Medea, and a son Aigialeus.

Whoever her parents were, Circe was nonetheless a goddess. Later in history, literature and myth describe her as a powerful sorceress and Plinius calls her the most beautiful of all mortal women.

Source

How Did Circe Become Mortal?

Taking into account her divine parentage, the question that naturally arises is how did Circe lose her immortality? The Greek tradition tells the following story:

The fair-locked goddess Circe was bathing in the ocean, along with the water nymphs, when Poseidon, the Olympian god of the sea, felt her magic touch and her beauty. He fell in love with Circe and took her as his lover. Together, they had a son, named Phaunos. Phaunos was a god of forests. In Nonnus Dionysiaca, Phaunos was described as one of the deities that accompanied Dionysus in his war against the Indians. Most ancient authors identified Phaunos with Pan.

Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty and carnal love, had a gealous nature. She had been Poseidon's first lover and Circe was an unwanted addition to their couple. Aphrodite convinced Zeus, the Master of Plympus, to banish Circe and send her to live a mortal life.

Circe on the Island of Aeaea
Circe on the Island of Aeaea | Source

The Island of Aeaea

Valerius Flaccus wrote in Argonautica, that Circe arrived on her exile island of Aeaea by winged Dragons. He locates the island somewhere south of Elba, within view of the Tyrrhenian shore. However, mortal could not reach it easily, because Circe would protect her home with powerful magic.

The island quickly became Circe's lair. Nature, animals and spirits were all obedient to her will. As a border between the mortal world ad the domains of gods, the island was also an entrance to Hades, the land of the dead. It is said that the mythical island of Aeaea can still open a portal to the underworld.

Source

Circe and Medea

Some authors identify Medea as Circe's sister, while others tell that Medea was Circe's niece. They were close kin and also friends.

Legend and history agree that the sorceress Medea was not in her right mind. She was a deceiver and killer, ready to sacrifice anyone around for her own interests. She even killed her two children with cold blood, just to obtain her revenge on Jason.

Medea did not actually fall in love with Jason, the Argonaut. She wanted to leave with him because of their common greed and wish to become king and queen. Before their marriage, Medea asked for Circe's blessing. Circe did not agree to bless the union. Instead, she cursed Medea for her irresponsible choice and banished her forever from the Island of Aeaea.

Mistress of Natural Magic

Natural Magic is the ancient discipline concerning the manipulation of the environment.

One of the two great divisions of Western magical practice, the other being ritual, or ceremonial magic. Natural magic deals with the magical powers of physical substances—herbs, stones, resins, metals, perfumes, and the like. It has generally been much less controversial than ritual magic, and has been practiced openly even at times when even a rumor of involvement in ritual magic was enough to cause imprisonment and death.

The principle governing natural magic in the Western tradition is the great Hermetic axiom “As above, so below.” Every object in the material world, according to this dictum, is a reflection of astrological and spiritual powers. By making use of these material reflections, the natural magician concentrates or disperses particular powers of the higher levels of being; thus a stone or an herb associated with the sun is infused with the magical energies of the sun, and wearing that stone or hanging that herb on the wall brings those energies into play in a particular situation.

Circe was the mistress of nature forces. She could call the elements in her aid whenever she needed to. Circe was well versed in the art of herbalism and she could use the plants on the Island of Aeaea to brew potent potions and deadly poisons. She was able to create and shape the meteorological patterns, such as creating rain, invoking changes in the course of wind, or even call upon thunder or earthquakes.

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Source
Source

Mistress of Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis, or transmutation, is the magical act of changing the physical properties of some creature, thing, or condition. It is also commonly known as alteration. Circe was known for her great ability to change people into animals and animals into fish or birds. However, she didn't posses the ability to alter her own appearance, from what we know.

Circe and Her Guests
Circe and Her Guests | Source

Circe and Odysseus

In Homer's “Odyssey”, Odysseus' crew accidentaly arrived on Circe's island and her “water mansion” in a clearing in a dense wood, around which prowled harmless lions and wolves, the drugged victims of her magic. She invited the sailors to a feast, but the food was laced with one of her magical potions, and she turned them all into pigs with a magic wand.

Odysseus set out to rescue his men, using the holy herb “molly” given to him by Hermes to protect himself from Circe's potions, and following Hermes’ advice as to how to avoid Circe’s magic and seductions. Having freed his fellows, Odysseus and Circe became lovers, and he and his men remained on the island for a year feasting and drinking wine, after which Circe assisted him in his quest to reach his home.

Later poets extended the story, one version being that Telegonus, Circe’s son by Odysseus was sent by Circe to find Odysseus, who had long since returned to his home on Ithaca, but on arrival Telegonus accidentally killed his father. He brought the body back to Aeaea, taking Odysseus' widow Penelope and their son Telemachus with him, and Circe made them immortal and married Telemachus, while Telegonus made Penelope his wife.

Looking beyond the sorcery and danger of being turned into swine, Circe played the role of a double standards illustration. Odysseus becomes Circe’s lover, but in the scope of the story we are supposed to understand and forgive him even though his wife Penelope resists all suitors and remains faithful until her husband’s return.

Perhaps Circe is the temptress at the root of all tales that include an unfaithful husband who simply didn’t mean to do it. Circe is a witch, a sorceress, a furious woman, which means we can lay all the blame upon her, scorn her, and judge her.

Depictions of Circe in History

Other Witches in History

Who would you like to read more about?

See results

Sources

The Character of Circe in the Odyssey, by JD McClymont

Transformations of Circe: The History of an Enchantress, by J.Yarnall

Questions & Answers

    © 2018 Alexa R

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • profile image

        Dragan 

        5 days ago

        In the mythology and folklore:

        Medea murdered her own brother Apsyrtus on an island in the mouth of the river Ister (the Danube). After reconciliation with Jason, Medea came to Absoros where her brother Apsyrtus was buried, and that the people of Absoros could not cope with the large amount of snakes that were all around the place. So Medea gathered them up and put them in her brother's tomb, where they still remain.

        After returning to Colchis, the Lord of the universe chose Jason to be the saviour. Jason has distinctly both a divine and a human aspect. In his divine aspect he was the god of the spring sunshine, of the great annual rebirth of nature. He cleared the Colchis and neighboring lands of monsters, slew the dragon . Jason's wife, Medea holds the title of Snake Princess, daughter of Hecate, Dark Queen of Shadows. Jason is a skilled healer. Jason's original function as master of healing/magical herbs.

      • profile image

        Sara 

        5 days ago

        Medea did not actually fall in love with Jason, the Argonaut. She wanted to leave with him because of their common greed and wish to become king and queen. Whether it is so?

        If she wanted to, she might have been a queen, as her father asked for. They had invited Styrus, King of the Albanians, to come to Colchis with an offer of marriage for her. Styrus ruled over a powerful tribe in the mountains to the north of the river Cyrus and not only commanded the trade route upon which much of the prosperity of Colchis depended, but threatned the kingdom's eastern frontiers. Medea position in Albania will be one of far greater power than Medea can ever hope to attain in Colchis when Apsyrtus succeeds Aeetes. King Styrus of Albania, who at the time had come to Colchis to marry Medea. He drowned during the pursuit of the Argonauts.

      • profile image

        Ashton 

        3 weeks ago

        Medea's last place, probably came as no surprise to Euripides. He is said to be the author of around 92 plays, but he only won the competition five times. The comic playwright Aristophanes made fun of Euripides's use of language and his characters. Euripides so critical of traditional religion that many believed him to be an atheist. Athens just wasn't ready for these ideas. Euripides was known to be kind of a loner. He spent most of his time writing in a cave on the island of Salamis. Eventually the lack of appreciation may well have been what drove Euripides to leave Athens. He spent the last months of his life in the court of the King of Macedonia, and perhaps met a pack of dogs (sent by Medea) with a taste for playwrights.

      • profile image

        Dayananda 

        3 weeks ago

        This is an excellent article on Circa, as well very good contributions to Medea. I made two versions of myth about Medea (event in the Corinth and end of story) - to me the most logical:

        Version 1:

        Euripides, Neophron, Seneca, Diodorus and others - version of the event in the Corinth: Jason and Medea lived in exile in Corinth. Jason has fallen out of love with her. And now he wants to marry a different woman. She sends a beautiful gown to Glauce as a wedding present, but when Glauce puts it on she goes up in flames. So she kills their two boys.The end: Medea was exiled to Asia and she married an Asian king. Jason was justly punished in this loss, he killed himself.

        Version 2:

        Eumelos, Pindar, Kreophylos, Pausanias and others - version of the event in the Corinth: Medea was the hereditary ruler and queen of the Corinth. Medea killed her children by accident (trying to make them immortal) or they killed them the citizens of Corinth. Jason leaves Medea. Medea didn't stay in Corinth, giving the kingdom to Sisyphus. The end: Jason and Medea reconciled, returned back to Colchis and conquer neighboring lands.

        Woman scorned, bad husband, revenge and hate (version 1) or difficult life, but at the end of the victory of love (version 2) - decide for yourself what you like more.

      • profile image

        Karl 

        6 weeks ago

        1. In the Korinthiaka of Eumelos (reputedly of the mid-eighth century B.C.) Medea concealed her children in the temple of Hera, hoping to make them immortal, but they died. Another version of the myth had Medea leaving her children in the temple where they were killed by Kreon's kin, who then spread the rumor that Medea had murdered them. Euripides appears to have invented the variation of Medea herself murdering the children from jealousy.

        2. Some claims that Euripides rewrote the Medea of Neophron. The strongest evidence for this is that only two actors are required, whereas all other extant tragedies of Euripides require three. Fragments of Neophron's Medea survive, but details of language and meter show that this play was later than that of Euripides.

      • profile image

        Fabian 

        7 weeks ago

        Medea falls in love with Jason. She uses her magic powers to help him steal the Golden Fleece. Medea betrays her family and homeland for the love of Jason, who takes her to Iolcus. On arrival at Iolcus, Jason expects to be crowned king. His uncle Pelias does not keep his promise and threatens to have the young lovers executed. Medea uses her shrewdness and witchcraft to kill Pelias. Jason finally takes the throne of Iolcus. Medea marries him. They have two sons. The king and queen face a new enemy. Acastus, Pelias’ son, wages war on them in his father's name. Jason and Medea lose the battle.Given that Pausanias is writing about Corinth, it is only natural that he focuses on the Corinthian portion of Medea’s life story. 1) Creon’s daughter is given a name, Glauce, and 2) rather than die in the palace in the arms of her father, she leaps into the fountain in order to relieve the poison from the robe. 3) Medea is not a child-killer. Instead, it is the Corinthians who murder Medea’s children, not Medea herself. 4) In fact, Medea conceals the children in the sanctuary of Hera Acraea. Furthermore, 5) Medea was the hereditary ruler at Corinth, summoned when Corinthus turned out to be childless. As for Medea and her children, the cult of Hera Acraea, located at Perachora, the “land across,” i.e., the promontory jutting out into the Gulf of Corinth just north of the isthmus, helped protect mothers in pregnancy and the children who might die in the first years of life. Finally, why is Medea included in the list of Corinthian rulers ? The return of the sons of Heracles is traditionally associated with the arrival of the Dorians, and other figures such as Helius, Sisyphus, and Medea are equally notable. Helius was assigned Acrocorinth by the Titan Briareos and had altars there; Homer mentions Sisyphus as King of Ephyra in Iliad 6.152, 210, and Pausanias reports that he rescued Melicertes, helped establish the Isthmian Games, and was buried on the isthmus; and Medea and her children were central to the cult of Hera Acraea. Moreover, if the chest of the tyrant Cypselus dedicated at Olympia is an object of his patronage, then it suggests that Cypselus included scene of Medea and Jason on the chest to reinforce his right to rule. Pausanias records that the chest depicts Medea sitting on a throne with Jason and Aphrodite standing on either side. Medea’s rule at Corinth is hereditary through her father Aeetes. Medea, as the daughter of Aeetes, inherited the kingdom after Corinthus died childless. When Medea lost her children, she passed on the kingdom to Sisyphus and his sons. In short, Medea becomes the linchpin that makes possible the orderly succession of rulers from Helius to Sisyphus.

      • profile image

        Ivan 

        7 weeks ago

        After expelling from the Corinth, Jason wanderings from city to city. No longer the heroic adventurer once so favored by the gods, he now lives his life as a destitute man haunted by his own personal failures. After a long time, he was invited to participate in the hunting of the Calydonian boar. The hunting of the Calydonian boar was one of the most famous episodes of Greek heroic legend. Although accounts of the hunt vary, some of the more famous names mentioned include Jason, Theseus, Pirithous, Telamon, Peleus, Dioscuri, Laertes, Nestor, Meleager and Atalanta.During the hunt, Peleus accidentally killed his host Eurytion.Some have said, however, that the boar's skin caused a civil war between the Curetes, represented by the sons of Thestius, and the Calydonians, represented by Meleager, and that Meleager killed his mother's brothers in battle, and perished himself in the same war.Peleus was a hero, son of Aeacus, king of the island of Aegina, and Endeis, an oread nymph.He was the husband of the nymph Thetis, with whom he fathered the famous hero Achilles.Along with his brother Telamon, they accidentally killed their half-brother, Phocus, while hunting, and were forced to flee the island of Aegina, in order to avoid punishment. When they reached the region of Phthia, Peleus fell in love with Antigone, the daughter of the region's king Eurytion, with whom he had a daughter, Polydora. Peleus, Telamon, and Eurytion were all participants in the Argonautic Expedition, in Jason's quest to retrieve the Golden Fleece.One day, Peleus reached Iolcus, where the king's wife, Astydameia, fell in love with him. Peleus denied her advances, and for revenge, Astydameia sent a message to Antigone, saying that Peleus would marry her daughter. Antigone was so bitter that she hanged herself. Astydameia then falsely accused Peleus of trying to rape her; the king, Acastus, took Peleus into a forest where he abandoned him just before an attack by centaurs. Peleus was saved by Chiron, a wise centaur, Peleus escaped.Later Jason and Peleus, attacked and defeated Acastus.Peleus ransacked Iolcus, and killed both Astydameia and Acastus.Jason reconciled with the sons of Pelias and settled in Iolcus.After the escape from the Corinth,Medea made her way to Thebes where she healed Heracles from the curse of Hera (that led to the murder of Iphitus, his best friend). In return, Heracles gave her a place to stay in Thebes until the Thebans drove her out in anger, despite Heracles' protests. She then fled to Athens where she met and married Aegeus.When the victorious Theseus returned to Athens with the dead body of the Marathon Bull, Aegeus, goaded on by Medea, became still more suspicious of him. So he had to assent to the plan of the sorceress to poison Theseus during the feast to celebrate his victory. However, as our hero was about to drink the poisoned wine, the eyes of Aegeus fell upon the sword and sandals the young stranger had just worn. Recognizing his son, Aegeus knocked the cup of poisoned wine off his hand and, embracing the youth with great joy and emotion, named Theseus as his son and successor before his subjects.Medea was perpetually banished from Athens. After an exiled (from Athens) Medea has spent a long period of penitence and self-reflection in a wild wood in Thessaly, during which time she dines on acorns, nuts, and roots, she meets Jason as he wanders in the same wood. Jason forgives her, realizes he still loves her, and agrees to take her back (twenty years after Jason and Medea left Iolkos or ten years after divorce) with her son Medus (Thessalus/Polyxenus). After this, they return to civilization and city Iolcus. Jason as having in the end become reconciled to Medea, as having returned with her to Colchis, and as having there restored Aeëtes to his kingdom.

      • profile image

        Ana 

        8 weeks ago

        An excellent text about goddess Circe. I like it.

        Jason and the Argonauty (and Atalanta’s) epic quest to Colchis to get the Golden Fleece to earn his kingdom from evil usurper Pelias. They’ll fight stone giants, dragons, Aeetes and fate! But they wouldn’t have gotten far without Medea, who does everything. Ask Euripides though, you better keep Medea on your side, Jason, cause she’ll mess you up and then peace out on her own dragon-pulled chariot!

      • profile image

        Sid 

        5 months ago

        Medea represented one of the most a powerful woman. She was intelligent, dangerous, and determined and refused to conform to the ideal of loyalty expected of women toward their male family members. She chose her own husband instead of allowing her father to arrange her marriage; she also betrayed her father, murdered her brother and her husband's uncle, and tried to kill her stepson(Theseus). When her husband discarded her, she destroyed his life. Her sons helped her, and the citizens of Corinth killed them, according to one version, or else Medea killed them by accident. Only in the theater play by Euripides (and subsequent adaptations from other authors) does she kill them as revenge on Jason. Long after, Jason is pursued by Medea, resulting in his death and resurrection, much as Medea, for love of Jason, is said to have killed and rejuvenated him. In the Jason and Medea reconciliation version, at the end of the story, Jason (mortal man) becomes a god. (more powerful than Medea - Medieval scholars thought Jason was “really” Jesus). Medea, no one tells the story of her death, but say that she married the Greek hero Achilles and lived with him in a paradise known as the Isles of the Blessed.

      • profile image

        Arno 

        7 months ago

        Jason and Medea in Corinth - another version of myth.

        During the reign of Medea in the Corinth, it was often visited by King Aegeus of Athens. At that time, Medea had two sons with Jason. She was to cure Aegeus of his sterility. Aegeus liked Medea and he urged her to leave the Jason and come to Athens. Neither Medea was indifferent to this courting, especially because Jason often went to various heroic adventures and neglected her as a woman. Jason was younger and more beautiful, but Aegus was more charming. Medea to hesitate, but slowly tilted toward Aegus.

        Medea has adopted seven boys and seven girls, who helped her in ceremonies and rituals. The Corinthians were beginning to become unhappy by being ruled by a foreign woman and so plotted against Medea. They planned to kill her seven boys and seven girls and so the children took refuge in the sanctuary Hera Akraia. However the Corinthians didn’t respect the goddess and they killed all fourteen of the children on the altar. The Medea was very angry, and it was blamed for this by the Kreon (a very important and powerful person in the Corinth), who was the leader of the opposition against her rule. Medea kills Kreon and his daughter(In this version, she was not in any way tied to Jason), with her use of magic. So began a rebellion against her, in which her personal guard and soldiers were defeated by rebels. She then leaves for Athens, fearing the revenge of the Corinthians, but leaves her children (two sons). She believes that their father will protect them, but friends of Kreon kill them (stoned them to death) and spread a rumour that this was done by Medea before she left for Athens. By escaping, Medea deprived the Corinthians of a victim whom they could punish, so they turned against Jason. Jason wanted to kill him, but they did not dare to do it, because he was a great hero with many friends who would revenge him. They banished Jason from Corinth.

      • profile image

        Agnes 

        7 months ago

        In the Greek myth of Jason and the Argonauts, Medea is the daughter of King Aeлtes of Colchis and a paternal granddaughter of the sun-god Helios. Following her failed marriage to Jason while in Corinth, for one of several reasons depending on the version, she marries King Aegeus of Athens and bears a son Medus. After failing to make Aegeus kill his older son Theseus, she and her son fled to Aria, where the Medes takes their name from her, according to in the Pausanias' Description of Greece.According to other versions, such as in Strabo's Geographica and Justin's Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum, she returned home to conquer neighboring lands with her husband Jason, one of which was named after her; while another version related by Diodorus Siculus in Bibliotheca Historica states that after being exiled she married an Asian king and bore Medus, who was greatly admired for his courage, after whom they took their name.

      • profile image

        Alex 

        7 months ago

        The perfect text about the goddess Circe. I congratulate you on the good text.

        Something about Euripides:

        Euripides gained a reputation as a misogynist (and although one legend has him being torn apart by dogs at death, another claims it was women), for he liked exploring abnormal mental states:

        Hippolytus: stepmother Phaedra in love with her stepson

        Andromache: a "barren" jealous wife plans the murder of her husband's concubine and son

        Sthenoboea: a "Joseph and Potiphar's wife" plot

        Aeolus: a brother and sister in love

        Auge: a girl bears an illegitimate child in a temple

        Medea: a mother murders her two sons

      • profile image

        Spencer 

        8 months ago

        Medea is an ancient Greek tragedy written by Euripides, based upon the myth of Jason and Medea. (not mitology, not religius practice, not history). Everyone can make a theater play and proclaim for mythology. After all, Medea, was the most popular Ancient Greek play in the United States in the twentieth century. Wouldn’t the ancient Athenians find that it spoke to them, as well? And the answer is no – evidently they did not. Euripides didn’t take first prize in that year’s competition. He didn’t even take second prize. He finished dead last. As you can probably well imagine, a lot of people have responded to Euripides, and his portrayal of Medea over the ages. And probably the most famous response to Euripides in general was by a man who knew him – the younger comedic playwright, Aristophanes.And again, that was a quote from Aristophanes' play Thesmophoriazusae, which is a satire that essentially accuses Euripides of being a misogynist.The Roman writer Aulus Gellius, who lived during the 100s CE – long after Euripides, obviously – but anyway, the later Roman wrtier Aulus Gellius wrote about the playwright Euripides in his travelogue of Athens - in a book entitled Attic Nights. Gellius wrote that:Euripides is said to have had a strong antipathy toward nearly all women, either shunning their society due to his natural inclination, or because he had two wives simultaneously – since that was legal according to Athenian decree – and they had made marriage abominable to him . So, according to this later Roman historian, and Euripides’ contemporary, Aristophanes, Euripides had a staunch, and unapologetic dislike of women. In fact, misogynistic sentiments pervade many of Euripides’ plays. Women are maligned as “devisers of evil” in the play Medea. They’re called a “source of sorrow” in Euripides’ version of Orestes. Stepmothers are made to look wicked in Euripides’ plays Ion and Alcestis.Remember that Euripides’ version of Medea was a single man’s take on an old ancestral story – an adaptation of a myth that had been around before he came along. Now, anyone who does remakes, or sequels, or prequels, usually has some innovations of his or her own to add. Euripides had one. And here’s the kicker. Scholarship generally agrees that Euripides invented Medea’s murder of her children .In making Medea a child killer, Euripides conscientiously invented a story for her that had not existed before. There were actually many stories about Medea. There is also a version: Jason and Medea reconciled, returned back to Colchis, and as having there restored Aeëtes to his kingdom, and lived happily ever after. Source: Strabo Geography, Justin Epitome, Tacitus Annals, Pompeius Trogus history.

      • profile image

        Ivan 

        8 months ago

        Jason and Medea in Corinth - original story and mitology. (short version) Aeetes came from Corinth: It is said that the land of Ephyra or Ephyraea, which later was called Corinth, was given to Aeetes by his father Helius, whereas Asopia, which is a district in the neighboring region of Sicyonia, was given by Helius to his other son Aloeus. Aeetes, however, did not remain in Corinth , but instead emigrated to Colchis, the land at the eastern end of the Black Sea. On leaving for Colchis, Aeetes entrusted the kingdom to Bunus, the son of Hermes and Alcidamea, and when Bunus died, Epopeus, who some call son of Aloeus, brother of Aeetes, extended his own kingdom to include Corinth. These are the reasons why, when later the Colchian princess Medea came to Hellas, she became Queen of Corinth. What happened to Jason and Medea, after Pelias' death. They were set to have settled on the island of Corfu.Corinthus, son of Marathon, had died childless, the Corinthians had sent for Medea, because her grandfather Helius was the founder of the city of Corinth. Once when they had no king: the Corinthians invited Medea from Corfu and granted her the throne. So Medea settled in Corinth and had made Jason, as king of Corinth. As soon as her children were born, Medea took them to the sanctuary of Hera where she buried them, believing that if they were buried there they would become immortal. In the end, she discovered that her hopes were unfounded. Jason discovered the strange murders, and refused to reconcile with Medea(She begged him to forgive her), so he gone to Corfu or other city. Medea didn't stay in Corinth, giving the kingdom to Sisyphus.Afterwards Medea left for Athens where she married King Aegeus, father of Theseus. Accidental death of the children at the hands of Medea, but there is no suggestion that she deliberately kills the children. There is no antipathy towards Jason and there is no suggestion in evidence that Jason leaves Medea for another woman. There is another version: The second version of events has the Corinthians kill the children. where he says that the Corinthians were beginning to become unhappy by being ruled by a foreign woman and so plotted against Medea.

        Jason, the Greek hero who captured the Golden Fleece after making a great journey to the East. In later Greco-Roman religious practice, this hero somehow acquired a series of temples across the East as well as a mountain in Iran, Mt. Jasonium (Strabo, Geography, 11.13-14). He was also recognized as the conqueror of Armenia before the Trojan War (Strabo, Geography, 11.14; Justin, Epitome, 42.2-3). Pompeius Trogus that Jason “set out on a second voyage for Colchis, accompanied by a numerous train of followers (who, at the fame of his valour, came daily from all parts to join him), by his wife Medea, whom, having previously divorced her, he had now received again from compassion for her exile” (Epitome 42.2). Then, to make amends to Medea’s father for stealing the Golden Fleece and treating his daughter badly, he “carried on great wars with the neighbouring nations; and of the cities which he took, he added part to the kingdom of his father-in-law, to make amends for the injury that he had done him in his former expedition” (Epitome 42.3). This, Trogus and Justin affirm, is the reason that that Jasonia exist across the East, in honor of Jason’s conquest of the entire region.In the end, Jason becomes a god.Thus we read in Strabo that temples and cult of Jason were spread over the whole do Asia, Media, Colchis, Albania, and Iberia, and that Jason enjoyed divine honors also in Thessaly and on the Corinthian gulf. Justin tells us that nearly the whole of the east worshipped Jason and built temples to him, and this confirmed by Tacitus (Annals vi,34). Thus, the healer and savior god Jason was worshipped widely throughout the Roman Empire long before the purported advent of “Jesus Christ.” The name (more correctly Iason) means "healer," and Jason is possibly a local hero of Iolcus to whom healing powers were attributed. The ancients regarded him as the oldest navigator, and the patron of navigation. By the moderns he has been variously explained as a solar deity; a god of summer; a god of storm; a god of rain, who carries off the rain-giving cloud (the golden fleece) to refresh the earth after a long period of drought.

        Princess Medea has been called daughter of Hecate since she served this goddess as her priestess and sister of of the Dread Goddess Circe. She thereby acquired an intimate knowledge of drugs and spells. Her father Aeetes, who had been king of Ephyraea (Corinth) before he emigrated to Colchis, was brother of Pasiphae, the wife of King Minos of Crete. Aeetes & Asterodia - Apsyrtus, Aeetes & Idyia - Chalciope, Aeetes & Hecate - Circe and Medea.

      • Ioana-R profile imageAUTHOR

        Alexa R 

        8 months ago

        Hi Ivan! Thank you for your comment! I find your explanations very useful. As you know, mythology is a fluid territory and unfortunately one can never say what really happened and if it actually happened at all. Please enjoy my article form the sources I've studied and I can't wait to read yours in return!

      • profile image

        Ivan 

        8 months ago

        Learn mythology, my friend ! Based on Greek and Roman historians or on religious practice, not on theater plays.(like Euripides – Medea). The story of Jason and Medea is very complex and has many different elements. e.g: In the original story, Medea was the Queen of Corinth. Euripides’ inventions: 1.This deliberate murder of her children by Medea to be Euripides’ invention. 2. No suggestion in evidence that Jason leaves Medea for another woman before the Medea (by Euripides). Because of these inventions and disgraces of the legendary hero Jason and his wife queen Medea, it is believed Euripides died by being ripped apart by a pack of wild Macedonian dogs (or a pack of red-eyed hellhounds). Later writers represent Jason as having in the end become reconciled to Medea, as having returned with her to Colchis, and as having there restored Aeëtes to his kingdom, of which he had been deprived. Medea was honoured as a goddess at Corinth, and was said to have become the wife of Achilles in the Elysian fields.

      • profile image

        threekeys 

        16 months ago

        Its a interesting book. You wonder how they did it. TlHow Culper and others observed such detail and connected the dots.

        The way the health system is everyone may just need to go back to knowing their herbs etc in trying to heal themselves preventively cause healthcare costs are/will be too unfordable

      • Ioana-R profile imageAUTHOR

        Alexa R 

        16 months ago

        Hello Charmaine,

        Herbalism is an interesting magical school and is also very tangible, appliable to everyday life. It's one of my favorite arts. Esthetical and useful. I am going to look for that book myself. :)

      • profile image

        threekeys 

        16 months ago

        Enjoyed reading about Circe, Alexa.

        When you mentioned "herbalism" and "transformation" my mind travelled to JK Rowland's interview where she said the plant and herbal information she found about her Mandrake figures in Harry Potter, came from the Culper's 1600's Herbalism book, which I have also.

        Maybe its time to pick up this book again?

        Interesting read, Alexa.

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)