World War 1 History: Front Line Slang
Landowners in a Rest Camp
Slang: Us and Them
Like other conflicts of the modern era, front line troops in World War One developed their own slang. This is a psychological phenomenon that simultaneously identified and bound together those who shared the horrors and conditions of trench warfare and excluded those who didn't. Excluded were civilians and politicians back home and, perhaps especially, the generals and staff officers, planning and running the war in the comfort and safety of the rear echelons.
Slang also allowed the men to avoid using terms like “death”, “killed” and “died” and even renamed and trivialized the weapons of war into something less threatening. Slang also allowed commentary on non-lethal subjects such as the quality of the food and, of course, officers. Front line troops oftentimes felt more kinship with the enemy occupying the opposing trenches than those in the rear.
This is by no means an exhaustive dictionary of World War One slang, but contains some of the more prevalent terms used. Much of the slang described in this article relates to the British, but there are a few other nationalities represented. The horror and deprivations of the War to End All Wars were visited upon all who participated in the fighting, regardless of the color of their uniforms. At the end, all uniforms were gray and brown from dried mud and blood.
Alleyman – A German soldier. The British corrupted the French word Allemagne meaning “German”.
Accessory - British term for gas which would be released from hundreds of cylinders-- hopefully when the wind was right. The intent of the term was to maintain secrecy. In much the same manner, they referred to “tanks” of water when communicating about their armed and armored tracked vehicles.
Archie – anti-aircraft fire or anti-aircraft artillery.
Baby's Head - A meat pudding; part of the British army field ration, made with meat, flour, suet, onion, baking powder, pepper and salt.
Base Rat – A soldier who stayed near headquarters in comfort and safety.
Batterie de cuisine – French for "cookware": medals and decorations.
Battle Police - Military police patrols deployed in the trenches following an attack to deal with stragglers and men who had refused to go over the top. There are stories of summary executions occurring, but these were not officially sanctioned.
Bint – A young woman; from the Arabic bint meaning “daughter”.
Blighty - Britain. Derived from the Hindu word Bilayati, meaning “foreign country”, the British in India came to refer to Britain as Blighty and the those in the trenches picked it up.
Blighty One or Blighty Wound – A wound severe enough to warrant being sent back home. Self-inflicted blighty wounds were a capital offense. Though none were executed, nearly 4,000 men were convicted of self-inflicted wounds and sent to prison.
Blind Pig – Mortar bomb.
Boche– A German, from the French tete de boche meaning an “obstinate person”or perhaps caboche meaning “blockhead”.
Brass Hat – A high-ranking staff officer, based on the brass decoration on their hats.
Bully Beef – British canned corned beef. “Bully” is believed to be a corruption of the French bouillie meaning “boiled”. As the war went on and German rations suffered, German troops rarely returned from trench raids without tins of bully beef.
Chinese Attack – Fake attack. A preliminary bombardment would stop and the defending enemy would return to their trenches to face the presumed attack. Then the bombardment would start up again, catching the defenders out of their shelters.
Cold Meat Ticket
Cold Meat Ticket - Identity disc. Soldiers were issued two identity discs. In the event of death, one disc was taken from the body (the cold meat) and one remained.
Cooties - The British coined this term to refer to the lice that proliferated and tormented them in the filthy environment of the trenches.
Daisy Cutter - A shell with an impact fuse so it would explode at ground level.
Devil Dodger - Army chaplain.
Dick Shot Off - D.S.O. (Distinguished Service Order) -- an 'officers only' award.
Doughboy – U.S. soldier. Origin unclear.
Draw Crabs - Attract enemy artillery fire.
Frontschwein – German for "front pig". A German infantryman in the front line.
Gone west – Killed. Dead. “He's gone west.”
Gunfire - Strong tea laced with rum.
Hate - A bombardment. Troops in the trenches often had to endure a morning “hour of hate”, meaning an hour of artillery bombardment.
Heimatschuss – German for a "home shot". A wound severe enough to be sent home (similar to blighty wound).
Jam Tins - Improvised bombs made from jam tins packed with explosive and shrapnel before the British introduced the Mills Bomb (grenade).
Jock – Soldier in a Scottish regiment.
Kiwi – A New Zealand soldier.
La croix de bois - French for “the wooden cross”, meaning killed or dead. “He earned the wooden cross.”
Landowner - Dead and buried.
Macaroni - An Italian Soldier.
Mad Minute – Firing 15 aimed rounds with a .303 Lee Enfield (bolt action British rifle) and hitting a one-foot wide target at 200 meters. This would include at least one 5-round clip being loaded during that minute. A Scottish drill sergeant hit a one-foot target at 300 meters 38 times in one minute.
Pillbox – Small concrete defensive positions, mostly dug into the ground and featuring loopholes to fire through. Their cylindrical or hexagonal shape resembled medical boxes containing pills. First used to describe German fortifications along the Hindenburg Line in 1917.
Pipped - Struck by a bullet.
Plug Street – British Tommys' nickname for the town of Ploegsteert, Belgium. Both Hitler and Churchill served in the general vicinity of Plug Street.
Pork and Beans – Portuguese soldiers. The British army ration of pork and beans contained very little pork, and the Portuguese had very few troops on the Western Front.
Potato Masher – A German stick grenade, which looked like a potato masher. The stick handle enabled the grenade to be thrown further.
Poilu – French for "hairy beast". A French infantryman in the front line.
Red Tabs – British staff officers. Rear echelon officers wore bright red shoulder tabs and hat bands. This was a visible symbol that the wearer did not belong at the front where such markings would have drawn attention from enemy snipers and, therefore, this was a term of disdain.
Rest Camp - A cemetery.
Rob All My Comrades – A nickname for the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) alluding to instances where wounded and unconscious soldiers transported back to field hospitals later found their personal possessions missing.
Strafe – German propaganda frequently used the phrase Gott strafe England! ("God punish England"). The British appropriated the term “strafe” to refer to the punishment inflicted when low-flying planes machine-gunned ground troops.
Tommy- British soldier. Derived from Tommy Atkins, which, much like John Doe in the U.S., was a name on sample forms to represent a a typical British army private soldier. It is said that the original Tommy Atkins was a hero at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, but that is likely a myth.
Urlaubschuss – German for a "leave shot". A wound severe enough to warrant leave.
Wastage or Normal Wastage – British euphemism referring to men killed, wounded or captured outside of set-piece battles, usually caused by shelling, sniping, flare-ups, etc in “quiet” sectors. Sometimes more than 5,000 British casualties a week were classified as normal wastage during "quiet" periods.
Whizz-Bang - A high-velocity shell. Derived from the noise of the rapid flight and the explosion of a German 77mm shell.
Windy - Afraid, nervous. Derived from a person who was said to have the wind-up (the production of intestinal wind or gas due to nerves).
Wipers – British Tommys' nickname for the city of Ypers, Belgium (“EE-pruh”). British soldiers published the “Wipers Times”, a satirical trench magazine.
Zinnwaren – German for "tinware". Medals and decorations.
Questions & Answers
What is the meaning of "miniweffer"?
"Miniweffer" is a corruption of "Minenwerfer" which were German portable 3" (76mm) trench mortars.
What is the meaning of "morning hate"?
Each morning both sides would stand-to in their trenches guarding against an enemy attack as the sun rose. To ease the tension and let the other side know they were alert, both sides fired small arms and machine guns as well as artillery shells in what became a ritual called the "morning hate."
© 2012 David Hunt