World War 1 History: The Kettering Bug—World's First Drone
The American World War I Flying Bomb
After the Allies landed in Normandy on June 6, 1944, the Germans unleashed their V-1 flying bombs against London. By the end of World War II, nearly 10,000 of the terror weapons had been launched against British targets. They were the first pilotless bombs ever used in war, but the very first such weapon (“unmanned aerial vehicle” in modern military-speak or, more commonly, “drone”) was actually developed more than 25 years earlier during World War I by the Americans. It was called the Kettering Bug.
Charles F. Kettering
Development of the Kettering Bug, formally called the Kettering Aerial Torpedo, started in April 1917 in Dayton, Ohio after the U.S. Army asked inventor-engineer Charles F. Kettering to design an unmanned flying bomb with a range of 40 miles. Kettering assembled his team, including Orville Wright, one of the famous Wright brothers, and got to work.
Papier Mache and Cardboard
What emerged was an ungainly-looking contraption. Its fuselage was constructed of papier mache reinforced with wood laminates; its smooth 12-foot wings were made of cardboard. Kettering’s invention looked like a propeller-driven torpedo with wings. It took off from a small four-wheeled carriage, which rolled down a portable “aiming” track. It was, however, a technical marvel for its time.
It had a small gyroscope which kept its heading true. Its elevation was controlled by a small aneroid barometer that was so sensitive it was triggered when moving it from the desk top to the floor. An ingenious arrangement of cranks and bellows (taken from player pianos) controlled its flight.
To set flight duration to target, three factors were needed: wind direction, wind speed and actual distance to target. Using these figures, the number of engine revolutions necessary to carry the Bug to its destination were calculated and a cam was set. When the engine had made that number of revolutions, the cam dropped, shutting off the engine and releasing the wings. The Bug's torpedo-shaped fuselage, carrying high explosive, would then plunge to earth.
Ready to Launch
The Bug Had Bugs
After initial tests were highly successful, it was decided to demonstrate the Bug's progress to the military. One of the witnesses, General Arnold, said:
“After a balky start before the distinguished assemblage, it took off abruptly, but instead of maintaining horizontal flight, it started to climb. At about 600 to 800 feet, as if possessed by the devil, it turned over, made Immelmann turns, and, seeming to spot the group of brass hats below, dived on them, scattering them in all directions. This was repeated several times before the ‘Bug’ finally crashed without casualties.”— General Arnold
Still Needed Tweaking
Adjustments were made and a second demonstration arranged. The Bug was set to fly at 50 mph and the dignitaries piled into cars to give chase so they could witness it crashing into the ground. Unfortunately, instead of flying straight, it went off course and circled the city of Dayton, cars in pursuit. The main concern wasn't what might happen if it crashed in the city, but whether the enemy might get wind of the Kettering Bug. The entourage searched the vicinity where they thought it had come down and came upon some excited farmers who reported a plane crash-- but they couldn't find the pilot. One of the passengers in the pursuit team was a flying officer in a leather coat and goggles and a quick-thinking colonel explained that he was the pilot who jumped out of the plane in his parachute. General Arnold again: “Our secret was secure. The awed farmers didn’t know that the U. S. Air Corps had no parachutes yet.”
$400 Flying Bomb
Despite these setbacks, the Kettering Bug was approved after adjustments were made. The production model flew at 50 mph and had a maximum range of 75 miles, exceeding the original requirement by 35 miles. The power to fly and operate the controls was provided by a 40-horsepower Ford engine, which cost $50, putting the total price per Bug at only $400. Including 300 lbs of explosive, its total weight was just 600 lbs.
Kettering Bug's Successor
The War Ends
The government was impressed and ordered 20,000 Kettering Bugs, but only fifty were produced before World War I ended on November 11, 1918 and none were used in combat. When World War II started, serious consideration was given to reactivating and improving the Kettering Bug, but it was decided that even an improved Bug couldn't hit key targets in Germany from England. Lessons from the Kettering Bug, however, were used in the development of the first guided missiles and radio-controlled drones. It is also interesting to note that the German V-1 flying bomb, while so much more advanced, also had a small propeller whose sole purpose was to determine when to shut off the V-1's jet engine and was launched from a ramp.
Kettering's Aerial Torpedo
© 2012 David Hunt