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Women's Contribution to Early American Literature

Nancy has a degree in English, a love of literature, and an unquenchable thirst for knowledge.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony during the American Women's Rights Movement

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony during the American Women's Rights Movement

Female Perspectives in American Literature

Women’s literature presents a unique glimpse into the female American experience. In the aftermath of the Civil War, the country was in a period of transformation that included political, economic, social, and literary shifts. As the country emerged into the Industrial Revolution, female authors were forging a place for themselves in the literary canon. The feminist movement called into question the role of women in society, and female authors responded by creating works presenting strong, self-reliant, intelligent women.

Historical Background

America experienced vast changes between 1865 and 1912, as post-Civil War reconstruction. Issues over how to rebuild and the fate of those who rebelled led to hostility and the impeachment of President Andrew Jackson. The economic climate shifted from primarily agricultural to industrial as the country entered the Industrial Age. America created the first transcontinental railroad, drastically changing the shipping process and allowing people and merchandise to be transported easily and efficiently over long distances (Rogers, 2013). Scientific advancement and the growth of education also began to affect the nation. Immigration expanded as people came into the United States in search of work and the chance at a better life, leading to mass poverty, poor working conditions, and industrial monopolies owned by the first American wealthy, such as John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie. The people fought against their industrial bosses through vigilantism and, eventually, the formation of the first labor unions (Baym, 2008). Class struggle was rampant, and issues of racism blossomed as immigrants and freed slaves learned to live among one another. Women’s suffrage fought against the limitations enforced by a patriarchal society and the idealism of the “Cult of True Womanhood,” which outlined expectations of women to be submissive, pious wives and mothers relegated to the home (A & E Television, 2013). Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, as well as many other women, fought in the Women's Rights Movement. The feminist movement claimed a huge victory with the right for women to vote in 1920. Literature of the period reflects the many changes of the era, including the 3,000 new words introduced into American English; New slang and dialects were represented in realistic writing, painting a picture of America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Role of Feminine Literature

Women’s literature gained widespread prominence by the end of the 19th century. Feminist causes and the expansion of education for women led to many more female writers than any preceding century (Bomarito & Hunter, 2005). Despite living in a patriarchal society, female writers fought for acceptance in the literary community. In previous eras, women’s writing was relegated primarily to writing for children and poetry. These works were characterized by sentimentality, morality, and depth of feeling considered works of feminine genres (Bomarito & Hunter, 2005). During the 19th century, the women’s suffrage movement reacted to the social, legal, and political inequalities placed on women. Women’s literature reflects the feminist movement through theme, characterization, and situations. The works of Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman reveal women’s individuality and speak out against oppressive social expectations of women. Louisa May Alcott created strong, self-reliant female characters presenting a new definition of the role of women in America. Feminine literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries presented readers with realistic views of women’s intellect, desires, and potential ranging far beyond the limitations of submissive domestic life.

Kate Chopin, 1894

Kate Chopin, 1894

Female Authors of the Period

Kate Chopin

Kate Chopin grew up around strong women, and these early female influences shaped her views. Her first works were published following the death of her husband as she tried to support herself and six children (Baym, 2008). Chopin claimed that she was neither a feminist nor suffragist, but that she believed that women’s freedom was more a matter of spirit, soul, and character living within the constraints placed on women by God (Chopin, n.d.). Despite her political views Chopin’s work emphasized women as individuals. Her stories “The Awakening,” “The Story of an Hour,” and “The Storm” present strong female characters that do not live by societal expectations of the time. At the end of “The Awakening” Chopin writes that “she understood now clearly what she had meant long ago when she said to Adele Ratignolle that she would give up the unessential, but she would never sacrifice herself for her children” (Chopin, 2007, p. 1303, para. 1). This sentiment was considered scandalous but brought into question the social expectations of women.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Unlike Kate Chopin, Charlotte Perkins Gilman was quite interested in the feminist movement. She considered herself a commentator on the evolution of social order and the status of women in America (Beekman, n.d.). Her childhood proved difficult as her father left and her mother withheld affection so that Charlotte would grow up strong and self-reliant. Gilman was raised to support the feminist movement by her mother. She did marry, but the marriage ended in divorce. Gilman’s experience with marriage, her feminist beliefs, and personal encounter with post-partum depression provided insight to writing her famous short story “The Yellow Wallpaper.” This story presents the repression of patriarchal society through the threats of her husband and psychological treatment. Gilman writes “I am absolutely forbidden to work, personally, I disagree with their ideas” (Gilman, 2008, p. 508, para. 12-13). Gilman also subtly speaks out against sensational journalism with this piece. With this single story, Charlotte Perkins Gilman presents the issues facing women in society during this period while presenting a strong thematic and symbolic piece offering views into the intellect of the author.

Louisa May Alcott

Louisa May Alcott

Louisa May Alcott

Louisa May Alcott wrote stories about strong female characters. Her famous fiction story “Little Women” is a work of Realism that presents the story of youth in New England (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013). Alcott’s other stories were considered potboilers containing lurid and violent tales with strong, self-reliant female characters (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013). Alcott writes about women’s potential through the behavior and ideas of her characters, such as “I've got the key to my castle in the air, but whether I can unlock the door remains to be seen” (Alcott, 2013). One of these stories was “A Long Fatal Love Chase” which presents issues of religion, love, betrayal, seduction, and cruelty (Good Reads Inc., 2013). Although the story was not revered as a classic, Alcott presents a different side of women as the protagonist reveals her strength and tenacity against deadly forces. Louisa May Alcott’s writing may not be as aggressive as her female counterparts, but her work presents her perspective of women taken seriously as equal to men with dreams, ambitions, thoughts, and spirituality of their own (Elbert, 2011).

Zitkala Sa

Zitkala Sa

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Intersections of Anti-racism and Feminism in Women's Writing

Several social issues influenced women’s literature during this period. The feminist movement strongly shaped writing. Whether female writers of the era were active in the feminist movement or not, they all expressed similar views: women were recognized as individuals and equal to men. The feminist movement worked in favor of political and social equality. Literature of this period presented the effects of the patriarchal society while also calling attention racial discrimination. Although slavery was abolished following the Civil War, Black people and African Americans were still not recognized as equals in dominant White society and continued to suffer violence and mistreatment as a result of racism. Racism became even more visible as America tried to deal with reconstruction following the war, and the increase in immigration also caused discrimination among various ethnicities. Native Americans were still facing hostility from White America, further oppressing their population.

Zitkala Sa presents the plight of American Indians in her story “In the Land of the Free” “having defrauded us of our land the paleface forced us away…both your sister and uncle might have been happy with us today, had it not been for the heartless paleface” (Sa, 2008, p. 663, para. 10).

Mark Twain

Mark Twain

Comparison to Male Contemporaries

Both female and male writers of the period used Realism to create stories that accurately depicted American life. Women’s literature embraced this form of writing as a means of conveying Regionalism beyond their male counterparts. In the past women were confined to domestic life so Regionalism offered the perfect opportunity to present stories of real American families and communities (Baym, 2013). Examples of women’s literature of this period representing family life are Edith Wharton’s “The Other Two,” Kate Chopin’s “Deseree’s Baby,” and the Native American stories of Sarah Winnemucca “Life Among the Piutes” and Zitkala Sa’s “Impressions of an Indian Childhood.” Literature by male writers often focused less on family and more on broader social issues such as war, as in Ambrose Bierce’s “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” and racism as in Mark Twain’s “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.” Male writers also presented more works of Naturalism, such as Jack London’s “To Build a Fire” or Stephen Crane’s “Red Badge of Courage,” although Edith Wharton’s “House of Mirth” and Ellen Glasgow’s “Barren Ground” are also considered works of Naturalism; these female works center more on the family than their male contemporaries (Campbell, 2010).

Feminist Suffrage Parade New York City 1912

Feminist Suffrage Parade New York City 1912

American literature from 1865 to the early 20th century offered realistic views of society. Female writers were in a unique position to provide representations of America’s social expectations of women as well as realistic female characters that broke this outdated mold. Kate Chopin and Louisa May Alcott’s Regionalism offer stories with accurate depictions of specific American regions, including dialects and family life. Charlotte Perkins Gilman shares patriarchal views and the issues women face in society. Social factors, such as racism and reconstruction, are also present in women’s literature of the period. Much like male writers of the era female writers provide works of Realism and Naturalism. The differences between the genders are the female focus on family and gender issues and the male focus and social issues such as war and racism. Women’s literature provided readers with a realistic portrait of the American women departed from the submissive, pious housewife and mother of the past.


A & E Television. (2013). The fight for women’s suffrage. Retrieved from

Alcott, L.M. (2013). Little women quotes. Retrieved from

Baym, N. (2008). The Norton anthology of American literature. (7th ed.) Vol. 2. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

Baym, N. (2013). 1865 to 1914 overview. Retrieved from

Beekman, M. (n.d.). Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Her life as a social scientist and feminist. Retrieved from

Bomarito, J. & Hunter, J.W. (2005). Women's Literature in the 19th Century: Introduction. Feminism in Literature: A Gale Critical Companion (Vol. 2, pp. 89-90). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from

Campbell, D.M. (2011). Naturalism in American literature. Retrieved from

Chopin, D. (n.d.). Kate Chopin: A re-awakening. Retrieved from

Chopin, K. (2007). The awakening. The American tradition in literature. (11th ed). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Elbert, S. (2011). Louisa May Alcott’s brand of feminism. Retrieved from

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2013). Louisa May Alcott. Retrieved from

Gilman, C.P. (2008). The yellow wallpaper. The Norton anthology of American literature. (7th ed.). Vol. 2. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

Good Reads Inc. (2013). A long fatal love chase by Louisa May Alcott. Retrieved from

Rogers, S. (2013). Week one content outline. Retrieved from University of Phoenix College, ENG/492—American Literature Since 1860 course website.

Sa, Z. (2008). Impressions of an Indian childhood. The Norton anthology of American literature. (7th ed.). Vol. 2. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.


Kristen Howe from Northeast Ohio on August 05, 2015:

Great hub, Nancy. Real fascinating and interesting to know about those female authors that I didn't know about. Voted up!

Nancy Snyder (author) from Pennsylvania on August 19, 2014:

Thanks Ibidii! I like Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," but my favorite is "The Story of an Hour." I will have to check out your Facebook page.

Ibidii on August 19, 2014:

I really enjoyed your review of these great authors of Early American History! I have started to read Kate Chopin's Awakenings after I saw the movie. I love the book so far. I added your hub to my Early American History page at facebook which you can see the link in my profile.

anonymous on January 27, 2014:

There is another similar story to The Flight of the Snowbird by Jean Lively. Its called Benji and the Snowbird by Gregory Harshfield. This might be based on real people and a true story. Benjamin Dooley is a ten year old boy in Iowa who lost his brother Jeffrey to leukemia two years earlier. On a snowy winter he goes outside and makes an igloo with the snow and a snowbird accompanies him. For Christmas he receives an illustrated guide to birds and there is a picture of a snowbird. His brother Jeffrey also loved birds. A snowbird occurs in both stories as a friend and guide.

anonymous on January 26, 2014:

Look up the website Readinginthemornings by Sol Colbaneros Rodriguez. I may have spelled the name wrong. His website is the only one on the Internet which still shows the entire story The Flight of the Snowbird by Jean Lively. No other information is available. Thank you.

anonymous on January 26, 2014:

The Flight of the Snowbird by Jean Lively is about a boy named Benjy who is resentful of his autistic sister Sheryl. Sheryl's differentness angers Benjy and she is a burden to him and annoys him. The mother tells Benjy that he should accompany his sister everywhere. Benjy sees a Snowbird outside his window and its unsteady movements on the ground remind him of his sister's unsteady movements. Yet the bird is graceful in flight and later on we learn that Sheryl is graceful ice skating on the frozen snow. Benjy wants to go outside in the snow and has to take his sister with him. An accident happens which nearly kills his sister. She falls through the ice. Benjy rescues her. The accident brings Benjy closer to his sister and he realizes how special she is and realizes he loves her after all. It could have ended in total tragedy if he failed to rescue her or if they both fell and drowned in icy water as skating on ice is hazardous. Here it ends well in this story as they both survive. Benjy begins to appreciate his sister. This story used to be shown on the Internet until recently. It sounds like it was written sometime during the 20th century. It has to be before 1981. Anywhere between the early 1900s to the 1970s. Obviously its in a cold snowy climate. It could be in any state with cold or snowy winters but is more likely to be in the Northern states, Canada, or Alaska. It could also have been written in the 1800s. There is no extra information about this story or about the author Jean Lively. School textbooks in 7th grade and 8th grade American literature are where this story could be located. It's a heartwarming and wonderful story.

Nancy Snyder (author) from Pennsylvania on January 26, 2014:

Thank you for your inquiry. I was not familiar with the story that you mentioned so I tried to research the story. Unfortunately I only seemed to have found the same information that you already know. There were several references to in online, including summaries of the story, but I really could not track down much on the story, publisher, or author which I find very strange. Even using search engines through colleges or scholarly searches the short story does not appear.

It sounds like a fascinating story so now I am compelled to find it. I will keep looking and keep you posted if I find any results. Thank you for introducing me to this story!

anonymous on January 25, 2014:

Im interested in author Jean Lively who wrote The Flight of the Snowbird about a boy Benjy and his autistic sister Sheryl. It takes place in a cold snowy climate in winter. What year was this story published and what state does it happen? Is this story based on real people and real events? Is author Jean Lively still alive? I first read this story in school in an American literature textbook in 1981-1982.

Nancy Snyder (author) from Pennsylvania on September 02, 2013:

Thank you Paradise7! Yes, I do believe that your comment about men and women writers could form an interesting debate. One of the main differences seems to be content. As we know through history women were delegated to more domestic roles, therefore female writing had a tendency to focus more on family and relationships. I am not sure that is still the case, but I am certainly a fan of women's literature!

Paradise7 from Upstate New York on September 02, 2013:

Good article, good research. I often wondered how we (meaning women) got here from there. It was an uphill battle, very similar to the black Americans' challenges, to become accepted as equal to men.

I'm going to say this though everyone out there will shoot me down with great speed: it makes more sense for women to become writers than men, because I do believe women read more books and read more, generally speaking, than men do.

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