Transhumanism is a movement that embraces the enhancement of our minds and bodies through science. Will it help or hurt mankind?
The famous “Pascal’s Wager” asks us to consider the question of the existence of God as a wager. Which is the better bet—belief or disbelief?
A summary of the major ideas of Plato and how these would influence the development of philosophy is western society.
Writing philosophy essays doesn’t have to be boring. (Perhaps I’m not the best person to talk about this because I never find philosophy essays boring!) The trick is to make it interesting for you. There are different ways you can do this. In...
Since very early prehistoric times archaeologists have discovered evidence that humans have always believed in an afterlife and hence in a God or gods in some form or other.
45 seemingly similar struggles the ENFP faces, why we love the ENFP, and one of the best personalities of all
An analysis of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics in relationship to the continent and incontinent man, one who is ignorant to his actions and controlled by the appetite of his will.
Thomas More's Utopia was humanism in renaissance literature. How much was More influenced by the Renaissance? Like other humanists in the Renaissance, he looked to the future influenced by the past.
The mystery of conscious mind - or even the physical brain - keeps tantalizing the finest minds with their elusive nature. However, scratching its surface may be fun and an intellectual adventure.
de Botton's The Consolations speaks to the reader as if in a warm conversation with a slightly extroverted old man who one would mistake for a beggar rather than a philosopher.
A belief in a soul is quite prevalent, but it raises a lot of questions The simplest answer is that the soul does not exist; it is only an illusion and metaphor.
The kind of person you are is determined by the choices you make not by some external power such as a god.
In this essay, I reflect on Bernard Williams' notion of utilitarianism, his thought experiments, and what philosophers Cahn and Markie have to say about Williams' ethics.
False reasoning leads to false conclusions and precludes rational thinking and debate. Learn how to recognize and avoid logical fallacies and how to defend yourself against them.
This article will help you understand the tension between transcendent criticism and immanent criticism, it is important to examine how each method has been contextualized within the world of critical theory.
We tend to analyze in different ways when faced with philosophical questions. Our ability to comprehend and understand differently makes us unique.
The question of God's existence led three supreme scientists to differing answers, all pervaded by an awareness of the limitations of the human mind as it faces ultimate reality
Evolution is one of the best-supported bodies of knowledge in science. Creationism, Creation Science, and Intelligent Design are religious concepts, not science.
"So you are saying that you are right and everyone else is wrong??" Skeptics often say Christianity is narrow-minded and exclusive. This is how you refute this accusation in 20 seconds or less...
Here are six suggestions to help both the youthful and the mature stay strong in the midst of hostile pressure from folks who no longer care about the premise for moral values.
Cultures and the differences in morals and ethics between them. Why there is no universal morality and why everyone disagrees yet everyone is still right.
A summary of the key ideas of the philosophy of John Locke, including his contributions to empiricism and social contract theory.
An analysis of Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan" and his view on the relationship between liberty and society, and humanity's desire to forgo their rights for security and peace.
Secular humanism is a little understood human–centered philosophy of life. It is non-theistic, rooted in science, with explicit moral and ethical directives.
An Introduction to some basic principles of Existentialism, focusing on the philosophical arguments by the prominent Existentialists including Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre.
Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” and Gretel Ehrlich’s “About Men” critically illuminate the problems of having a false and degrading entity that is derived from otherness.
A philosophy of "ideal" and "practical" history. A practical history presents a substantial, conservative framework which is carefully distinguished from faith and hypothesis.
It's always worth considering different views on how to live and be happy. In the modern day, without religion or authorities telling us how to do so it is becoming more and more important to consider utilitarianism. Modern utilitarianism is ethics based on logic and has helped many people decide how to live through its many modern utilitarian views. Read on to find out all the different modern types of utilitarianism and how they could help you.
Atheists don't believe in God. It doesn't seem like anything that would be up for interpretation but it turns out some believers think that everyone, including non-believers, thinks God is real.
Join us as we take a look at an alternative belief system that has gathered a bit of momentum in recent years.
In this essay, I analyze Alvin Goldman's "Causal Theory of Knowledge" and the problems that arise with generalizations, a priori situations, and cases involving evidence.
The Satanic Temple is a non-theistic religion. This essay provides a basic account of the beliefs and activities of this often misunderstood group.
The main ideas that form the philosophy of Rene Descartes and the foundation for rationalism. A good guide for students.
Persisting difficulties in accounting for the emergence of mind from nature from a strictly materialistic perspective open the way for a re-examination of alternative views of the mind-body problem
In psycho-spiritual healing and education, the concepts of Enlightenment and Empowerment can take on an unexpected meaning in the West.
This article discusses the native realism and challenges to this theory. Alternate theories considered include indirect realism and idealism.
Transhumanism is an international movement that promotes the enhancement of human nature by means of technology and scientific progress.
This article analyzes the meta-ethical theories of morality from a subjectivist, relativist, error theorist, objectivist, and non-cognitivist perspective. Non-cognitivism debunks theories of morality.
Learning to think and reason critically and analytically on a continuous basis is not easy. Everyday living is a series of decisions and choices that always revolve around what we want versus what we need or should do and it can be difficult to separate the two.
Are you ready to step up your game, but feel like you've been spinning your wheels and not getting anywhere? These five books are must reads! Delve in and don't be surprised when results show up fast!
You don't have to be a samurai warrior to appreciate the code of ethics written for the samurai. Learn to apply the values of 'bushido', or the way of the warrior, in modern life.
According to Immanuel Kant, enlightenment was man’s release from “self-incurred tutelage.” Enlightenment was the process by which the public could rid themselves of intellectual bondage after centuries of slumbering. After providing a careful...
This article provides a general analysis of Karl Marx's philosophical views of the 19th Century and explores whether his ideas are still pertinent to today's society.
We are all equal, so it’s only fair that we are all entitled to equal shares of everything. It’s not that simple.
Reports on the demise of the view of human consciousness as immaterial and non-reducible to brain activity are greatly exaggerated
A summery of the central ideas of the philosophy of John Stuart Mill and his contribution to Utilitarianism.
A summary of the main ideas of the philosophy of Soren Kierkegaard and his influence on existentialism.
The ideas held by the founding fathers of America and the ideas held by Aristotle show a number of similarities—let's discuss them together.
A discussion of the various views within ontological metaphysics dating to the classical period of Ancient Greek philosophy, with a focus on Plato and Aristotle.
The idea of a universal life-force which permeates the entire universe and everything in it is a concept which has reverberated throughout the centuries. Does such a universal life-force really exist?
I can't speak for all atheists, but I have a keyboard and some opinions. So here are my answers for five common questions Christians ask atheists.
A discussion of the freedom versus determinism paradox and an analysis of hard determinism, libertarianism, semi-compatibilism, and compatibilism. Reason as causation proves the compatibilist theory.
Dr. Kenneth Miller says that assuming intelligent design would kill scientific inquiry. But could it possibly improve science, instead?
The Greeks were the first to initiate the unreservedly rational investigation of the universe and thus became the forerunners of Western philosophy and science.
Albert Einstein wrote and spoke extensively about God and religion. What you think you know about his beliefs may not be true. What did he really believe and why?
A logical fallacy is an error in the reasoning process, not in the veracity of the premises. Therefore, logical fallacies are not factual errors, nor are they opinions. They are attempts to bypass the steps of a logical argument for the purpose of...
An introductory article on Aristotle's Poetics, explaining the basic concepts in simple language using textual references from famous plays. Read more to get a clear picture of Aristotle's idea.
We all feel like time goes by faster as we age. Here is an easy-to-understand explanation of why this happens.
In his landmark book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn was the first scientist to articulate the what would soon become a buzzword worldwide: paradigm (pair-a-dime).
Some of the deepest scientific questions so far have not yielded to our most inquisitive minds. Will they be answered as science progresses, or will they forever elude our cognitive reach?
A logical argument is given that somethingness is eternal and that it has always included some type of consciousness, be it a God or something else.
Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative explained. The concepts of good will, moral duty, summum bonnum and the five rules of Kant's universal maxims alongside a brief discussion on how Kant's theory could be applied to the modern ethical issue of genetic engineering.
Death has often been depicted as this final end that no one can escape from. From vampires, to zombies, to even angels and demons, we dream that we could live forever in some other life. But why?
An analysis of token-token identity theory, narrow-token identity theory, interactionism, and epiphenominalism, and their attempts to solve existentialism and the mind-body problem.
The euphoric feeling of awe may have evolved in humans to give us a biological advantage to conquer the world.
Elon Musk claims it is certain that life is a computer simulation. The claim is based on our current perception of computer progress. The claim is estimated as 1 to billions it's not true.
This article provides an analysis/comparison of the theories devised by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.
A summary of the basic philosophical ideas of G. W. F. Hegel, and how they influenced later philosophers, including Karl Marx.
This article provides a general analysis of the philosophical interpretations provided by Jean Jacques Rousseau.
God has been used an excuse to kill and abuse animals since people have believed in Him. Without God, there is no moral justification to needlessly kill non-human animals.
In which it is argued that an open-minded examination of the full range of human experience, both ordinary and not, may uncover pointers to a reality that transcends the purely physical domain.
What would Hume and Descartes think of a recent study in the University of Kyoto that cats may understand the laws of physics?
For roughly 16 hours a day, when we are not sleeping, we all experience consciousness; yet philosophers cannot agree on what consciousness is.
Blaise Pascal's genius expressed itself in a nearly unique blend of brilliance in science and mathematics, depth of insight into the human condition, and profound religious sensitivity.
There is a big problem with some sayings that seem perfectly logical. Let’s look at this common example: There is an exception to every rule. Most people would just start thinking of all the rules they can recall to see if it is true, and then ultimately decide it probably is as there is no way for them to know every rule out there. But really they have no way of knowing whether it is true or not. Sounds good, but it isn’t.
In Plato's Republic, Socrates provides a purpose for humanity, and reveals how the highest good is analogous to a perfect society.
Do we know for sure that our consciousness is in our brain? If not, is it possible that it will continue after our death?
Medieval Europeans had a world view much more literal than ours. They saw the universe as more integrated than our own. This connectedness included the four humors and the physical world around us.
Book L of the Metaphysics touches upon what Aristotle calls the "Unmoved Mover." In short, this is Aristotle's conceptualization of God which is worthy of our attention both because of the inherent interest of the topic and because of the...
Asking whether time exists in a universe containing only a clock involves the debate between Materialism and Dualism, and whether Time and consciousness are real.