Here are six suggestions to help both the youthful and the mature stay strong in the midst of hostile pressure from folks who no longer care about the premise for moral values.
This article provides an analysis of the philosophical interpretations provided by Jean Jacques Rousseau and John Locke. Which philosopher was most correct in their views of government and social contracts?
A summary of the key ideas of the philosophy of John Locke, including his contributions to empiricism and social contract theory.
An analysis of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics in relationship to the continent and incontinent man, one who is ignorant to his actions and controlled by the appetite of his will.
Secular humanism is a little understood human–centered philosophy of life. It is non-theistic, rooted in science, with explicit moral and ethical directives.
The ideas held by the founding fathers of America and the ideas held by Aristotle show a number of similarities—let's discuss them together.
Natural Law is a philosophy that uses reason to analyse human nature, and works on the basis that we should abide by the laws of nature. So how does this apply to embryo research?
In which it is argued that an open-minded examination of the full range of human experience, both ordinary and not, may uncover pointers to a reality that transcends the purely physical domain.
Which forms of nature can contemplate? What does it mean to contemplate? Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics argues that only a patient can contemplate in relation to the form of an agent which has been fully actualized.
The question of God's existence led three supreme scientists to differing answers, all pervaded by an awareness of the limitations of the human mind as it faces ultimate reality
45 seemingly similar struggles the ENFP faces, why we love the ENFP, and one of the best personalities of all
According to Immanuel Kant, enlightenment was man’s release from “self-incurred tutelage.” Enlightenment was the process by which the public could rid themselves of intellectual bondage after centuries of slumbering. After providing a careful...
It's always worth considering different views on how to live and be happy. In the modern day, without religion or authorities telling us how to do so it is becoming more and more important to consider utilitarianism. Modern utilitarianism is ethics based on logic and has helped many people decide how to live through its many modern utilitarian views. Read on to find out all the different modern types of utilitarianism and how they could help you.
In this essay, I reflect on Bernard Williams' notion of utilitarianism, his thought experiments, and what philosophers Cahn and Markie have to say about Williams' ethics.
Blaise Pascal's genius expressed itself in a nearly unique blend of brilliance in science and mathematics, depth of insight into the human condition, and profound religious sensitivity.
Asking whether time exists in a universe containing only a clock involves the debate between Materialism and Dualism, and whether Time and consciousness are real.
In Plato's Republic, Socrates provides a purpose for humanity, and reveals how the highest good is analogous to a perfect society.
An introductory article on Aristotle's Poetics, explaining the basic concepts in simple language using textual references from famous plays. Read more to get a clear picture of Aristotle's idea.
One of the most challenging aspects of Plato's philosophy is his Theory of Forms. Plato’s Theory of Forms is the idea that non-physical Forms represent the most accurate version reality.
Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” and Gretel Ehrlich’s “About Men” critically illuminate the problems of having a false and degrading entity that is derived from otherness.
An analysis of Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan" and his view on the relationship between liberty and society, and humanity's desire to forgo their rights for security and peace.
False reasoning leads to false conclusions and precludes rational thinking and debate. Learn how to recognize and avoid logical fallacies and how to defend yourself against them.
A logical fallacy is an error in the reasoning process, not in the veracity of the premises. Therefore, logical fallacies are not factual errors, nor are they opinions. They are attempts to bypass the steps of a logical argument for the purpose of...
A summary of the basic philosophical ideas of G. W. F. Hegel, and how they influenced later philosophers, including Karl Marx.
Does our consciousness originate in our brain? If not, then maybe we can have conscious thoughts, experiences, and feelings after our death. Neuroscientists have been studying these issues for years.
A summary of the main ideas of the philosophy of Soren Kierkegaard and his influence on existentialism.
This article provides an analysis/comparison of the theories devised by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.
Although the majority of the population agree with euthanasia, it is still illegal in the UK. There is discussion after discussion on the subject, yet changes do not seem to be made. That is because until recently, most of the discussions have been philosophical rather than with the political intent of changing the system. Many philosophies oppose euthanasia, but Relative Morality is one that is able to see both sides of the coin.
God has been used an excuse to kill and abuse animals since people have believed in Him. Without God, there is no moral justification to needlessly kill non-human animals.
Sometimes something happens that affects us emotionally and we find ourselves in awe of the experience. This euphoric feeling of being awestruck may have evolved to give us a biological advantage to conquer the world.
Book L of the Metaphysics touches upon what Aristotle calls the "Unmoved Mover." In short, this is Aristotle's conceptualization of God which is worthy of our attention both because of the inherent interest of the topic and because of the...
A belief in a soul is quite prevalent, but it raises a lot of questions The simplest answer is that the soul does not exist; it is only an illusion and metaphor.
There is some debate about death and especially what happens to you if you commit suicide. The first examines the typical Christian attitude that taking ones life is a major sin and hell would be the result. The other more literal one actually...
Dr. Kenneth Miller says that assuming intelligent design would kill scientific inquiry. But could it possibly improve science, instead?
The famous “Pascal’s Wager” asks us to consider the question of the existence of God as a wager. Which is the better bet—belief or disbelief?
Since very early prehistoric times archaeologists have discovered evidence that humans have always believed in an afterlife and hence in a God or gods in some form or other.
The key and important ideas that summarize the philosophy of Edmund Husserl and Phenomenology. These ideas would shape the basis for 20th century Continental Philosophy.
Persisting difficulties in accounting for the emergence of mind from nature from a strictly materialistic perspective open the way for a re-examination of alternative views of the mind-body problem
Transhumanism is a movement that embraces the enhancement of our minds and bodies through science. Will it help or hurt mankind?
A discussion of the freedom versus determinism paradox and an analysis of hard determinism, libertarianism, semi-compatibilism, and compatibilism. Reason as causation proves the compatibilist theory.
We all feel like time goes by faster as we age. There are several reasons why this happens. Our perception of time is effected by our changing frame of reference. I'll describe three causes of this phenomena.
What is justice? Is it better to be a just man or an unjust man? In the Republic, Plato argues with Glaucon that a just man's soul is like a well-working city. It is better to be a just man because of the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
We are all equal, so it’s only fair that we are all entitled to equal shares of everything. It’s not that simple.
Medieval Europeans had a world view much more literal than ours. They saw the universe as more integrated than our own. This connectedness included the four humors and the physical world around us.
For roughly 16 hours a day, when we are not sleeping, we all experience consciousness; yet philosophers cannot agree on what consciousness is.
This article discusses the naive realism and challenges to this theory. Alternate theories considered include indirect realism and idealism.
In his landmark book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn was the first scientist to articulate the what would soon become a buzzword worldwide: paradigm (pair-a-dime).
An overview of the categories which were usually identified in ancient Philosophy. Primarily it is a presentation of the ones named by Diogenes Laertius, in his work on the lives of eminent philosophers. Includes brief notes on the work of Thales, Pythagoras, Parmenides and Zeno.
Voluntary euthanasia, also known as mercy killing, is one in which a person requests to end their life early. Is this moral to grant their request?
The mystery of conscious mind - or even the physical brain - keeps tantalizing the finest minds with their elusive nature. However, scratching its surface may be fun and an intellectual adventure.
An analysis of token-token identity theory, narrow-token identity theory, interactionism, and epiphenominalism, and their attempts to solve existentialism and the mind-body problem.
The kind of person you are is determined by the choices you make not by some external power such as a god.
What would Hume and Descartes think of a recent study in the University of Kyoto that cats may understand the laws of physics?
A discussion of the various views within ontological metaphysics dating to the classical period of Ancient Greek philosophy, with a focus on Plato and Aristotle.
Is free will a good thing? In the battle between good and evil, St. Augustine, much like Socrates and Plato, argues that free choice of the will is a good thing because right action aligns a man's soul with the eternal and divine.
Atheists don't believe in God. It doesn't seem like anything that would be up for interpretation but it turns out some believers think that everyone, including non-believers, thinks God is real.
Writing philosophy essays doesn’t have to be boring. (Perhaps I’m not the best person to talk about this because I never find philosophy essays boring!) The trick is to make it interesting for you. There are different ways you can do this. In...
Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative explained. The concepts of good will, moral duty, summum bonnum and the five rules of Kant's universal maxims alongside a brief discussion on how Kant's theory could be applied to the modern ethical issue of genetic engineering.
In psycho-spiritual healing and education, the concepts of Enlightenment and Empowerment can take on an unexpected meaning in the West.
Evolution is one of the best-supported bodies of knowledge in science. Creationism, Creation Science, and Intelligent Design are religious concepts, not science.
Taking an Ethics class? This article summarizes terms and types of ethical theories that may help you succeed in your course.
Thomas More's Utopia was humanism in renaissance literature. How much was More influenced by the Renaissance? Like other humanists in the Renaissance, he looked to the future influenced by the past.
The Socratic Method (or the Elenctic method) refers to the dialectical method of questioning and analytical probing used by the Athenian Philosopher Socrates (469-399B.C.E.).
Some of the deepest scientific questions so far have not yielded to our most inquisitive minds. Will they be answered as science progresses, or will they forever elude our cognitive reach?
Science is a wondrous achievement. But some of its practitioners and ideological advocates fail us all when succumbing to dogmatic, absolutist, and authoritarian temptations, some examples of which are presented here.
Learning to think and reason critically and analytically on a continuous basis is not easy. Everyday living is a series of decisions and choices that always revolve around what we want versus what we need or should do and it can be difficult to separate the two.
Examining the various and diverse explanations of Postmodernity. In its most simplistic definition, postmodernism is a rejection of modernism in terms of art, philosophy, and literature.
Buddhism and Hinduism are the two well-known philosophies emerged in the Indian sub-continent. Spiritual inquiry in India has never been a systematic progression of a single school of thought. It tolerated experiments and new religious concepts. Nirvana was such a novel idea proposed by Buddha.
The Enchiridion, also known as The Manual or Handbook, is a practical philosophical guide instructing readers on how to live well.
An Introduction to some basic principles of Existentialism, focusing on the philosophical arguments by the prominent Existentialists including Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre.
Are you ready to step up your game, but feel like you've been spinning your wheels and not getting anywhere? These five books are must reads! Delve in and don't be surprised when results show up fast!
A summery of the central ideas of the philosophy of John Stuart Mill and his contribution to Utilitarianism.
There is a big problem with some sayings that seem perfectly logical. Let’s look at this common example: There is an exception to every rule. Most people would just start thinking of all the rules they can recall to see if it is true, and then ultimately decide it probably is as there is no way for them to know every rule out there. But really they have no way of knowing whether it is true or not. Sounds good, but it isn’t.
Reports on the demise of the view of human consciousness as immaterial and non-reducible to brain activity are greatly exaggerated
Death has often been depicted as this final end that no one can escape from. From vampires, to zombies, to even angels and demons, we dream that we could live forever in some other life. But why?
What is the soul? How has the understanding of the soul evolved from the "anima" of philosophy and theology to the "abstraction" of modern science? Has science shown that the soul does not exist?
The Greeks were the first to initiate the unreservedly rational investigation of the universe and thus became the forerunners of Western philosophy and science.
This article provides a general analysis of Karl Marx's philosophical views of the 19th Century and explores whether his ideas are still pertinent to today's society.
Is death the end of consciousness? Why are there so many documented cases in the medical field of people having out-of-body experiences and being conscious of their surroundings while near death?
Once our present becomes the past, we no longer have the ability to change it. This is why backward time travel is doubtful. However, forward time travel can't be ruled out because it doesn’t break any laws of physics.
A philosophy of "ideal" and "practical" history. A practical history presents a substantial, conservative framework which is carefully distinguished from faith and hypothesis.
This article provides an analysis of Plato's theory of the forms, as well as his ideas concerning a "perfect" society.
I can't speak for all atheists, but I have a keyboard and some opinions. So here are my answers for five common questions Christians ask atheists.
The idea of a universal life-force which permeates the entire universe and everything in it is a concept which has reverberated throughout the centuries. Does such a universal life-force really exist?
Elon Musk claims it is certain that life is a computer simulation. The claim is based on our current perception of computer progress. The claim is estimated as 1 to billions it's not true.
Join us as we take a look at an alternative belief system that has gathered a bit of momentum in recent years.
Cultures and the differences in morals and ethics between them. Why there is no universal morality and why everyone disagrees yet everyone is still right.
Transhumanism is an international movement that promotes the enhancement of human nature by means of technology and scientific progress.
The Satanic Temple is a non-theistic religion. This essay provides a basic account of the beliefs and activities of this often misunderstood group.
An exploration of Laudan's argument against the demarcation problem that seeks to define a cleavage between science and pseudoscience, addressing aspects of the philosophy of language and science.
de Botton's The Consolations speaks to the reader as if in a warm conversation with a slightly extroverted old man who one would mistake for a beggar rather than a philosopher.
"So you are saying that you are right and everyone else is wrong??" Skeptics often say Christianity is narrow-minded and exclusive. This is how you refute this accusation in 20 seconds or less...
In this essay, I analyze Alvin Goldman's "Causal Theory of Knowledge" and the problems that arise with generalizations, a priori situations, and cases involving evidence.
In this essay, I review Plato's "Republic", and analyze the three-tiered class system within the society as defined based of the "myth of the metals".
This article explores the fundamental relationship between power and the production of historical knowledge according to Michel Foucault and Edward Said.
This article analyzes the meta-ethical theories of morality from a subjectivist, relativist, error theorist, objectivist, and non-cognitivist perspective. Non-cognitivism debunks theories of morality.
In this analysis of Plato's Euthyphro, I analyze Socrates' conversation with Euthyphro and their discussion about the form and intrinsic quality of piety.
You don't have to be a samurai warrior to appreciate the code of ethics written for the samurai. Learn to apply the values of 'bushido', or the way of the warrior, in modern life.
A logical argument is given that somethingness is eternal and that it has always included some type of consciousness, be it a God or something else.
This article will help you understand the tension between transcendent criticism and immanent criticism, it is important to examine how each method has been contextualized within the world of critical theory.
The main ideas that form the philosophy of Rene Descartes and the foundation for rationalism. A good guide for students.
In the late 1950s, two Californian men invented what they called a religion that was based on chaos.
Albert Einstein wrote and spoke extensively about God and religion. What you think you know about his beliefs may not be true. What did he really believe and why?