Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative explained. The concepts of good will, moral duty, summum bonnum and the five rules of Kant's universal maxims alongside a brief discussion on how Kant's theory could be applied to the modern ethical issue of genetic engineering.
A summary of the main ideas of the philosophy of Soren Kierkegaard and his influence on existentialism.
Since very early prehistoric times archaeologists have discovered evidence that humans have always believed in an afterlife and hence in a God or gods in some form or other.
A discussion of the freedom versus determinism paradox and an analysis of hard determinism, libertarianism, semi-compatibilism, and compatibilism. Reason as causation proves the compatibilist theory.
Secular humanism is a little understood human–centered philosophy of life. It is non-theistic, rooted in science, with explicit moral and ethical directives.
There is a big problem with some sayings that seem perfectly logical. Let’s look at this common example: There is an exception to every rule. Most people would just start thinking of all the rules they can recall to see if it is true, and then ultimately decide it probably is as there is no way for them to know every rule out there. But really they have no way of knowing whether it is true or not. Sounds good, but it isn’t.
An analysis of Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan" and his view on the relationship between liberty and society, and humanity's desire to forgo their rights for security and peace.
A summary of the basic philosophical ideas of G. W. F. Hegel, and how they influenced later philosophers, including Karl Marx.
Natural Law is a philosophy that uses reason to analyse human nature, and works on the basis that we should abide by the laws of nature. So how does this apply to embryo research?
A summary of the key ideas of the philosophy of John Locke, including his contributions to empiricism and social contract theory.
Atheists don't believe in God. It doesn't seem like anything that would be up for interpretation but it turns out some believers think that everyone, including non-believers, thinks God is real.
Is free will an illusion? Are we hard-wired to make the choices we do? If our thoughts and actions are, in a sense, predetermined, how does this impact our view towards those with which we disagree?
The ideas held by the founding fathers of America and the ideas held by Aristotle show a number of similarities—let's discuss them together.
Asking whether time exists in a universe containing only a clock involves the debate between Materialism and Dualism, and whether Time and consciousness are real.
Circular reasoning is a logical fallacy that starts and ends with the same thing. Religious and political groups use this strategy frequently, and no one walks away with a better understanding. It is simply a means of shutting down conversation and lacks a desire to truly prove anything.
Learning to think and reason critically and analytically on a continuous basis is not easy. Everyday living is a series of decisions and choices that always revolve around what we want versus what we need or should do and it can be difficult to separate the two.
This article discusses the naive realism and challenges to this theory. Alternate theories considered include indirect realism and idealism.
I can't speak for all atheists, but I have a keyboard and some opinions. So here are my answers for five common questions Christians ask atheists.
Book L of the Metaphysics touches upon what Aristotle calls the "Unmoved Mover." In short, this is Aristotle's conceptualization of God which is worthy of our attention both because of the inherent interest of the topic and because of the...
This article provides an analysis of Plato's theory of the forms, as well as his ideas concerning a "perfect" society.
de Botton's The Consolations speaks to the reader as if in a warm conversation with a slightly extroverted old man who one would mistake for a beggar rather than a philosopher.
In the late 1950s, two Californian men invented what they called a religion that was based on chaos.
Desire has long been the downfall of many a good man. How did the wise men of old tackle it to achieve fulfillment?
We all feel like time goes by faster as we age. There are several reasons why this happens. Our changing frame-of-reference affects our perception of time. I'll describe three causes of this phenomenon.
A belief in a soul is quite prevalent, but it raises a lot of questions The simplest answer is that the soul does not exist; it is only an illusion and metaphor.
In this analysis of Plato's Euthyphro, I analyze Socrates' conversation with Euthyphro and their discussion about the form and intrinsic quality of piety.
What is justice? Is it better to be a just man or an unjust man? In the Republic, Plato argues with Glaucon that a just man's soul is like a well-working city. It is better to be a just man because of the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
Is death the end of consciousness? Why are there so many documented cases of people having out-of-body experiences and being conscious of their surroundings while near death? Let's examine this question.
Is free will a good thing? In the battle between good and evil, St. Augustine, much like Socrates and Plato, argues that free choice of the will is a good thing because right action aligns a man's soul with the eternal and divine.
Elon Musk claims it is certain that life is a computer simulation. The claim is based on our current perception of computer progress. The claim is estimated as 1 to billions it's not true.
Some of the deepest scientific questions so far have not yielded to our most inquisitive minds. Will they be answered as science progresses, or will they forever elude our cognitive reach?
The idea of a universal life-force which permeates the entire universe and everything in it is a concept which has reverberated throughout the centuries. Does such a universal life-force really exist?
Death has often been depicted as this final end that no one can escape from. From vampires, to zombies, to even angels and demons, we dream that we could live forever in some other life. But why?
"Rick and Morty and Philosophy" is an installment in the deep "and Philosophy" series of books. What can you get out of this book mining an Adult Swim cartoon for wisdom?
The ancient philosophy of forbearance in the face of adversity might be a salve that helps us deal with our topsy-turvy world.
in this article we will look at the next step in Dispensational thought. Progressive Dispensational seeks to respond to the critics.
The kind of person you are is determined by the choices you make not by some external power such as a god.
Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” and Gretel Ehrlich’s “About Men” critically illuminate the problems of having a false and degrading entity that is derived from otherness.
The key and important ideas that summarize the philosophy of Edmund Husserl and Phenomenology. These ideas would shape the basis for 20th century Continental Philosophy.
Blaise Pascal's genius expressed itself in a nearly unique blend of brilliance in science and mathematics, depth of insight into the human condition, and profound religious sensitivity.
In this essay, I reflect on Bernard Williams' notion of utilitarianism, his thought experiments, and what philosophers Cahn and Markie have to say about Williams' ethics.
A discussion of the various views within ontological metaphysics dating to the classical period of Ancient Greek philosophy, with a focus on Plato and Aristotle.
To most people, the idea of an eternal afterlife in paradise seems incredibly alluring. Who wouldn't want to live forever in bliss? Well, it turns out there are some compelling arguments for why an eternal afterlife, usually the Christian heaven, is not so appealing.
Join us as we take a look at an alternative belief system that has gathered a bit of momentum in recent years.
Reports on the demise of the view of human consciousness as immaterial and non-reducible to brain activity are greatly exaggerated
There is some debate about death and especially what happens to you if you commit suicide. The first examines the typical Christian attitude that taking ones life is a major sin and hell would be the result. The other more literal one actually...
The question of God's existence led three supreme scientists to differing answers, all pervaded by an awareness of the limitations of the human mind as it faces ultimate reality
This article provides an analysis of the philosophical interpretations provided by Jean Jacques Rousseau and John Locke. Which philosopher was most correct in their views of government and social contracts?
In this essay, I review Plato's "Republic", and analyze the three-tiered class system within the society as defined based of the "myth of the metals".
Dr. Kenneth Miller says that assuming intelligent design would kill scientific inquiry. But could it possibly improve science, instead?
This article analyzes the meta-ethical theories of morality from a subjectivist, relativist, error theorist, objectivist, and non-cognitivist perspective. Non-cognitivism debunks theories of morality.
What is the soul? How has the understanding of the soul evolved from the "anima" of philosophy and theology to the "abstraction" of modern science? Has science shown that the soul does not exist?
I discuss why the euphoric feeling that makes humans become awestruck may have evolved to give us a biological advantage to conquer the world.
Are you ready to step up your game, but feel like you've been spinning your wheels and not getting anywhere? These five books are must reads! Delve in and don't be surprised when results show up fast!
In his landmark book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn was the first scientist to articulate the what would soon become a buzzword worldwide: paradigm (pair-a-dime).
The life of the Ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus. The often misunderstood exponent of hedonism. Life's pleasures and joy can be easily attained by those with basic wants and limited desires.
Many skeptics believe spirituality is merely based on imagination. They fail to realize that spirituality at its deepest and most useful level is based on science. The differences between religions arise out of the lack of understanding the differing metaphors used by each religion.
According to Immanuel Kant, enlightenment was man’s release from “self-incurred tutelage.” Enlightenment was the process by which the public could rid themselves of intellectual bondage after centuries of slumbering. After providing a careful...
An introductory article on Aristotle's Poetics, explaining the basic concepts in simple language using textual references from famous plays. Read more to get a clear picture of Aristotle's idea.
"So you are saying that you are right and everyone else is wrong??" Skeptics often say Christianity is narrow-minded and exclusive. This is how you refute this accusation in 20 seconds or less...
Medieval Europeans had a world view much more literal than ours. They saw the universe as more integrated than our own. This connectedness included the four humors and the physical world around us.
We are all equal, so it’s only fair that we are all entitled to equal shares of everything. It’s not that simple.
Knowing what it means to be truth-preserving, logically valid, having a sound argument, and how much inductive strength your argument contains can all be hard to pin down. That is, until now.
The Satanic Temple is a non-theistic religion. This essay provides a basic account of the beliefs and activities of this often misunderstood group.
Thomas More's Utopia was humanism in renaissance literature. How much was More influenced by the Renaissance? Like other humanists in the Renaissance, he looked to the future influenced by the past.
Voluntary euthanasia, also known as mercy killing, is one in which a person requests to end their life early. Is this moral to grant their request?
In this essay, I analyze Alvin Goldman's "Causal Theory of Knowledge" and the problems that arise with generalizations, a priori situations, and cases involving evidence.
Transhumanism is a movement that embraces the enhancement of our minds and bodies through science. Will it help or hurt mankind?
Persisting difficulties in accounting for the emergence of mind from nature from a strictly materialistic perspective open the way for a re-examination of alternative views of the mind-body problem
A summery of the central ideas of the philosophy of John Stuart Mill and his contribution to Utilitarianism.
The Greeks were the first to initiate the unreservedly rational investigation of the universe and thus became the forerunners of Western philosophy and science.
An overview of the categories which were usually identified in ancient Philosophy. Primarily it is a presentation of the ones named by Diogenes Laertius, in his work on the lives of eminent philosophers. Includes brief notes on the work of Thales, Pythagoras, Parmenides and Zeno.
Buddhism and Hinduism are the two well-known philosophies emerged in the Indian sub-continent. Spiritual inquiry in India has never been a systematic progression of a single school of thought. It tolerated experiments and new religious concepts. Nirvana was such a novel idea proposed by Buddha.
In Plato's Republic, Socrates provides a purpose for humanity, and reveals how the highest good is analogous to a perfect society.
An analysis of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics in relationship to the continent and incontinent man, one who is ignorant to his actions and controlled by the appetite of his will.
Although the majority of the population agree with euthanasia, it is still illegal in the UK. There is discussion after discussion on the subject, yet changes do not seem to be made. That is because until recently, most of the discussions have been philosophical rather than with the political intent of changing the system. Many philosophies oppose euthanasia, but Relative Morality is one that is able to see both sides of the coin.
How many of your thoughts are your own? Religion, culture, and politics play a strong role in the controlling of your thoughts. It's a danger, because it prevents you from truly being free.
In which it is argued that an open-minded examination of the full range of human experience, both ordinary and not, may uncover pointers to a reality that transcends the purely physical domain.
One of the most challenging aspects of Plato's philosophy is his Theory of Forms, the idea that non-physical Forms represent the most accurate version of reality.
The persistent inability of materialism to account satisfactorily for origin, nature and role of mind and consciousness in nature suggests that this view of the world may be wrong.
Materialism is the ontology adopted by a majority of intellectuals, for a number of reasons. Analyzing them can help one decide whether they are compelling enough to justify materialism's exalted position.
What would Hume and Descartes think of a recent study in the University of Kyoto that cats may understand the laws of physics?
Christianity is the most widely practiced religion of Western culture, while Hinduism holds that position in Eastern culture. Judaism and Islam are the major religions of the Middle East.
Stephen Hawking said, “There is no God. I am an atheist.” What is the science that informs his statement, and why are his critics wrong?
Taking an Ethics class? This article summarizes terms and types of ethical theories that may help you succeed in your course.
Cultures and the differences in morals and ethics between them. Why there is no universal morality and why everyone disagrees yet everyone is still right.
Which forms of nature can contemplate? What does it mean to contemplate? Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics argues that only a patient can contemplate in relation to the form of an agent which has been fully actualized.
The idea of the Way is seemingly universal in world religions. What does that say about our religions' histories, and more importantly, the Way itself?
The Enchiridion, also known as The Manual or Handbook, is a practical philosophical guide instructing readers on how to live well.
Writing philosophy essays doesn’t have to be boring. (Perhaps I’m not the best person to talk about this because I never find philosophy essays boring!) The trick is to make it interesting for you. There are different ways you can do this. In...
The goddess Sophia was the wise and spiritual one of the archetypes of goddesses. Her identity was hidden, as men of her time in history were threatened by strong women.
Examining the various and diverse explanations of Postmodernity. In its most simplistic definition, postmodernism is a rejection of modernism in terms of art, philosophy, and literature.
The Socratic Method (or the Elenctic method) refers to the dialectical method of questioning and analytical probing used by the Athenian Philosopher Socrates (469-399B.C.E.).
The Epicurean worldview is build on a materialistic metaphysics. We'll see an ethics of pleasure rooted in materialism, the practice of limiting desires and eliminating the fear of death.
Evolution is one of the best-supported bodies of knowledge in science. Creationism, Creation Science, and Intelligent Design are religious concepts, not science.
Here are six suggestions to help both the youthful and the mature stay strong in the midst of hostile pressure from folks who no longer care about the premise for moral values.
While interpretations of absurdism are diverse, the fundamental concepts attributed with the discipline make you think. This article offers a detailed perspective on the philosophy of Absurdism.
Does our consciousness originate in our brain? If not, then maybe we can have conscious thoughts, experiences, and feelings after our death. Neuroscientists have been studying these issues for years.
The pervasiveness of violence as the most influential tool throughout human history is undeniable. Given this oft-repeated past, violence would seem to be a basic aspect of human nature. Why, then, is it the object of vast ethical criticism, and can an argument be made in defense of violence?
Deception is one of if not the most prevalent tool for maneuvering throughout society. Deception comes in a plethora of forms but is commonly looked down upon as immoral. We should never lie or deceive at all says philosophers like Kant, but I think deception is as a tool is not inherently immoral.
An Introduction to some basic principles of Existentialism, focusing on the philosophical arguments by the prominent Existentialists including Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre.
Albert Einstein wrote and spoke extensively about God and religion. What you think you know about his beliefs may not be true. What did he really believe and why?
False reasoning leads to false conclusions and precludes rational thinking and debate. Learn how to recognize and avoid logical fallacies and how to defend yourself against them.
This article contains a summary of the major ideas of the philosophy of Aristotle. Read on to learn about how Artistotle differed from his teacher, Plato, and his contributions to Western thought.
In psycho-spiritual healing and education, the concepts of Enlightenment and Empowerment can take on an unexpected meaning in the West.
A philosophy of "ideal" and "practical" history. A practical history presents a substantial, conservative framework which is carefully distinguished from faith and hypothesis.
A subset of humanity that would appear to have a very short life expectancy, claims people can live healthily without food.
An exploration of Laudan's argument against the demarcation problem that seeks to define a cleavage between science and pseudoscience, addressing aspects of the philosophy of language and science.
This article provides an analysis/comparison of the theories devised by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.
God has been used an excuse to kill and abuse animals since people have believed in Him. Without God, there is no moral justification to needlessly kill non-human animals.
Transhumanism is an international movement that promotes the enhancement of human nature by means of technology and scientific progress.
Science is a wondrous achievement. But some of its practitioners and ideological advocates fail us all when succumbing to dogmatic, absolutist, and authoritarian temptations, some examples of which are presented here.
This article explores the fundamental relationship between power and the production of historical knowledge according to Michel Foucault and Edward Said.
It's always worth considering different views on how to live and be happy. In the modern day, without religion or authorities telling us how to do so it is becoming more and more important to consider utilitarianism. Modern utilitarianism is ethics based on logic and has helped many people decide how to live through its many modern utilitarian views. Read on to find out all the different modern types of utilitarianism and how they could help you.
A logical fallacy is an error in the reasoning process, not in the veracity of the premises. Therefore, logical fallacies are not factual errors, nor are they opinions. They are attempts to bypass the steps of a logical argument for the purpose of...
This article will help you understand the tension between transcendent criticism and immanent criticism, it is important to examine how each method has been contextualized within the world of critical theory.
You don't have to be a samurai warrior to appreciate the code of ethics written for the samurai. Learn to apply the values of 'bushido', or the way of the warrior, in modern life.
This article provides a general analysis of Karl Marx's philosophical views of the 19th Century and explores whether his ideas are still pertinent to today's society.
Blanket judgment and stereotyping lead to poor, unhealthy, and even untrue views of the world around us. The way we see other races, sexes, cultures, and religions is influenced heavily by these awful judgments, and we need to put an end to this horrible way of thinking.
A logical argument is given that somethingness is eternal and that it has always included some type of consciousness, be it a God or something else.
The mystery of conscious mind - or even the physical brain - keeps tantalizing the finest minds with their elusive nature. However, scratching its surface may be fun and an intellectual adventure.
An analysis of token-token identity theory, narrow-token identity theory, interactionism, and epiphenominalism, and their attempts to solve existentialism and the mind-body problem.
Life is impossible without emotion. It allows us to express and helps us to enjoy the good times and cope with the bad times, but when our emotions are controlled, expression, psychology, and real healing are thrown out the window. It is a danger, because it prevents reflection and empathy.
Sci-fI has the power to act as a technological lighthouse, illuminating the rocky waters we must avoid – these being the bleak futures depicted in movies. In this, I see Sci-fi as having an entrenched sense of hope hidden behind this pessimism and it is this hope that can stimulate change.
The main ideas that form the philosophy of Rene Descartes and the foundation for rationalism. A good guide for students.
Future time travel might be possible because it doesn’t break any laws of physics. However, traveling to the past is doubtful because we can’t change what already occurred. Here’s a full discussion.
The famous “Pascal’s Wager” asks us to consider the question of the existence of God as a wager. Which is the better bet—belief or disbelief?
Philosophers over the centuries have debated on the concept of whether we have free will or not and fall into one of three categories of determinism, libertarianism, or compatibilism to argue their position whether we have free will or free action or none at all.
This article explores the centuries of dialogic perspectives on Kingship from Plato, Aristotle, and Rushid to Bossuet, Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. Brandon Riederer is an Adjunct Instructor of English at Bryant & Stratton College. He has a M.A. in English from National University.
For roughly 16 hours a day, when we are not sleeping, we all experience consciousness; yet philosophers cannot agree on what consciousness is.
45 seemingly similar struggles the ENFP faces, why we love the ENFP, and one of the best personalities of all
Phenomenology is an area of philosophy that is not often talked about but has some interesting things to say regarding the typical dualism of most philosophy. Unfortunately, its primary writers were largely obtuse and incomprehensible to the average person.