What is the soul? How has the understanding of the soul evolved from the "anima" of philosophy and theology to the "abstraction" of modern science? Has science shown that the soul does not exist?
Some of the deepest scientific questions so far have not yielded to our most inquisitive minds. Will they be answered as science progresses, or will they forever elude our cognitive reach?
Sometimes something happens that affects us emotionally and we find ourselves in awe of the experience. This euphoric feeling of being awestruck may have evolved to give us a biological advantage to conquer the world.
Is death the end of consciousness? Why are there so many documented cases in the medical field of people having out-of-body experiences and being conscious of their surroundings while near death?
An analysis of token-token identity theory, narrow-token identity theory, interactionism, and epiphenominalism, and their attempts to solve existentialism and the mind-body problem.
Transhumanism is a movement that embraces the enhancement of our minds and bodies through science. Will it help or hurt mankind?
Secular humanism is a little understood human–centered philosophy of life. It is non-theistic, rooted in science, with explicit moral and ethical directives.
Science is a wondrous achievement. But some of its practitioners and ideological advocates fail us all when succumbing to dogmatic, absolutist, and authoritarian temptations, some examples of which are presented here.
In this analysis of Plato's Euthyphro, I analyze Socrates' conversation with Euthyphro and their discussion about the form and intrinsic quality of piety.
Natural Law is a philosophy that uses reason to analyse human nature, and works on the basis that we should abide by the laws of nature. So how does this apply to embryo research?
Cultures and the differences in morals and ethics between them. Why there is no universal morality and why everyone disagrees yet everyone is still right.
This article provides an analysis of the philosophical interpretations provided by Jean Jacques Rousseau and John Locke. Which philosopher was most correct in their views of government and social contracts?
The famous “Pascal’s Wager” asks us to consider the question of the existence of God as a wager. Which is the better bet—belief or disbelief?
In this essay, I analyze Alvin Goldman's "Causal Theory of Knowledge" and the problems that arise with generalizations, a priori situations, and cases involving evidence.
The Satanic Temple is a non-theistic religion. This essay provides a basic account of the beliefs and activities of this often misunderstood group.
We are all equal, so it’s only fair that we are all entitled to equal shares of everything. It’s not that simple.
An analysis of Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan" and his view on the relationship between liberty and society, and humanity's desire to forgo their rights for security and peace.
Does our consciousness originate in our brain? If not, then maybe we can have conscious thoughts, experiences, and feelings after our death. Neuroscientists have been studying these issues for years.
What would Hume and Descartes think of a recent study in the University of Kyoto that cats may understand the laws of physics?
Writing philosophy essays doesn’t have to be boring. (Perhaps I’m not the best person to talk about this because I never find philosophy essays boring!) The trick is to make it interesting for you. There are different ways you can do this. In...
Asking whether time exists in a universe containing only a clock involves the debate between Materialism and Dualism, and whether Time and consciousness are real.
In his landmark book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn was the first scientist to articulate the what would soon become a buzzword worldwide: paradigm (pair-a-dime).
in this article we will look at the next step in Dispensational thought. Progressive Dispensational seeks to respond to the critics.
The question of God's existence led three supreme scientists to differing answers, all pervaded by an awareness of the limitations of the human mind as it faces ultimate reality
The goddess Sophia was the wise and spiritual one of the archetypes of goddesses. Her identity was hidden, as men of her time in history were threatened by strong women.
The Enchiridion, also known as The Manual or Handbook, is a practical philosophical guide instructing readers on how to live well.
An analysis of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics in relationship to the continent and incontinent man, one who is ignorant to his actions and controlled by the appetite of his will.
The Socratic Method (or the Elenctic method) refers to the dialectical method of questioning and analytical probing used by the Athenian Philosopher Socrates (469-399B.C.E.).
An overview of the categories which were usually identified in ancient Philosophy. Primarily it is a presentation of the ones named by Diogenes Laertius, in his work on the lives of eminent philosophers. Includes brief notes on the work of Thales, Pythagoras, Parmenides and Zeno.
A summary of the key ideas of the philosophy of John Locke, including his contributions to empiricism and social contract theory.
I can't speak for all atheists, but I have a keyboard and some opinions. So here are my answers for five common questions Christians ask atheists.
Albert Einstein wrote and spoke extensively about God and religion. What you think you know about his beliefs may not be true. What did he really believe and why?
Although the majority of the population agree with euthanasia, it is still illegal in the UK. There is discussion after discussion on the subject, yet changes do not seem to be made. That is because until recently, most of the discussions have been philosophical rather than with the political intent of changing the system. Many philosophies oppose euthanasia, but Relative Morality is one that is able to see both sides of the coin.
In the late 1950s, two Californian men invented what they called a religion that was based on chaos.
Deception is one of if not the most prevalent tool for maneuvering throughout society. Deception comes in a plethora of forms but is commonly looked down upon as immoral. We should never lie or deceive at all says philosophers like Kant, but I think deception is as a tool is not inherently immoral.
Since very early prehistoric times archaeologists have discovered evidence that humans have always believed in an afterlife and hence in a God or gods in some form or other.
A logical argument is given that somethingness is eternal and that it has always included some type of consciousness, be it a God or something else.
There is some debate about death and especially what happens to you if you commit suicide. The first examines the typical Christian attitude that taking ones life is a major sin and hell would be the result. The other more literal one actually...
This article discusses the naive realism and challenges to this theory. Alternate theories considered include indirect realism and idealism.
This article provides a general analysis of Karl Marx's philosophical views of the 19th Century and explores whether his ideas are still pertinent to today's society.
A discussion of the freedom versus determinism paradox and an analysis of hard determinism, libertarianism, semi-compatibilism, and compatibilism. Reason as causation proves the compatibilist theory.
Buddhism and Hinduism are the two well-known philosophies emerged in the Indian sub-continent. Spiritual inquiry in India has never been a systematic progression of a single school of thought. It tolerated experiments and new religious concepts. Nirvana was such a novel idea proposed by Buddha.
Evolution is one of the best-supported bodies of knowledge in science. Creationism, Creation Science, and Intelligent Design are religious concepts, not science.
Learning to think and reason critically and analytically on a continuous basis is not easy. Everyday living is a series of decisions and choices that always revolve around what we want versus what we need or should do and it can be difficult to separate the two.
You don't have to be a samurai warrior to appreciate the code of ethics written for the samurai. Learn to apply the values of 'bushido', or the way of the warrior, in modern life.
The kind of person you are is determined by the choices you make not by some external power such as a god.
A summary of the main ideas of the philosophy of Soren Kierkegaard and his influence on existentialism.
An Introduction to some basic principles of Existentialism, focusing on the philosophical arguments by the prominent Existentialists including Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre.
A summary of the basic philosophical ideas of G. W. F. Hegel, and how they influenced later philosophers, including Karl Marx.
Is free will a good thing? In the battle between good and evil, St. Augustine, much like Socrates and Plato, argues that free choice of the will is a good thing because right action aligns a man's soul with the eternal and divine.
How does language affect our thinking? Do we even need a language to think? How do deaf people think if they never heard speech? Do animals think without language? I researched this to try to answer these questions.
We all feel like time goes by faster as we age. There are several reasons why this happens. Our perception of time is effected by our changing frame of reference. I'll describe three causes of this phenomena.
Death has often been depicted as this final end that no one can escape from. From vampires, to zombies, to even angels and demons, we dream that we could live forever in some other life. But why?
Persisting difficulties in accounting for the emergence of mind from nature from a strictly materialistic perspective open the way for a re-examination of alternative views of the mind-body problem
Reports on the demise of the view of human consciousness as immaterial and non-reducible to brain activity are greatly exaggerated
An introductory article on Aristotle's Poetics, explaining the basic concepts in simple language using textual references from famous plays. Read more to get a clear picture of Aristotle's idea.
Here are six suggestions to help both the youthful and the mature stay strong in the midst of hostile pressure from folks who no longer care about the premise for moral values.
A philosophy of "ideal" and "practical" history. A practical history presents a substantial, conservative framework which is carefully distinguished from faith and hypothesis.
This article analyzes the meta-ethical theories of morality from a subjectivist, relativist, error theorist, objectivist, and non-cognitivist perspective. Non-cognitivism debunks theories of morality.
A discussion of the various views within ontological metaphysics dating to the classical period of Ancient Greek philosophy, with a focus on Plato and Aristotle.
To most people, the idea of an eternal afterlife in paradise seems incredibly alluring. Who wouldn't want to live forever in bliss? Well, it turns out there are some compelling arguments for why an eternal afterlife, usually the Christian heaven, is not so appealing.
Atheists don't believe in God. It doesn't seem like anything that would be up for interpretation but it turns out some believers think that everyone, including non-believers, thinks God is real.
What is justice? Is it better to be a just man or an unjust man? In the Republic, Plato argues with Glaucon that a just man's soul is like a well-working city. It is better to be a just man because of the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
The mystery of conscious mind - or even the physical brain - keeps tantalizing the finest minds with their elusive nature. However, scratching its surface may be fun and an intellectual adventure.
Which forms of nature can contemplate? What does it mean to contemplate? Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics argues that only a patient can contemplate in relation to the form of an agent which has been fully actualized.
Dr. Kenneth Miller says that assuming intelligent design would kill scientific inquiry. But could it possibly improve science, instead?
One of the most challenging aspects of Plato's philosophy is his Theory of Forms. Plato’s Theory of Forms is the idea that non-physical Forms represent the most accurate version reality.
The pervasiveness of violence as the most influential tool throughout human history is undeniable. Given this oft-repeated past, violence would seem to be a basic aspect of human nature. Why, then, is it the object of vast ethical criticism, and can an argument be made in defense of violence?
Elon Musk claims it is certain that life is a computer simulation. The claim is based on our current perception of computer progress. The claim is estimated as 1 to billions it's not true.
In which it is argued that an open-minded examination of the full range of human experience, both ordinary and not, may uncover pointers to a reality that transcends the purely physical domain.
There is a big problem with some sayings that seem perfectly logical. Let’s look at this common example: There is an exception to every rule. Most people would just start thinking of all the rules they can recall to see if it is true, and then ultimately decide it probably is as there is no way for them to know every rule out there. But really they have no way of knowing whether it is true or not. Sounds good, but it isn’t.
The ideas held by the founding fathers of America and the ideas held by Aristotle show a number of similarities—let's discuss them together.
This article provides an analysis of Plato's theory of the forms, as well as his ideas concerning a "perfect" society.
False reasoning leads to false conclusions and precludes rational thinking and debate. Learn how to recognize and avoid logical fallacies and how to defend yourself against them.
The idea of a universal life-force which permeates the entire universe and everything in it is a concept which has reverberated throughout the centuries. Does such a universal life-force really exist?
A logical fallacy is an error in the reasoning process, not in the veracity of the premises. Therefore, logical fallacies are not factual errors, nor are they opinions. They are attempts to bypass the steps of a logical argument for the purpose of...
Book L of the Metaphysics touches upon what Aristotle calls the "Unmoved Mover." In short, this is Aristotle's conceptualization of God which is worthy of our attention both because of the inherent interest of the topic and because of the...
A belief in a soul is quite prevalent, but it raises a lot of questions The simplest answer is that the soul does not exist; it is only an illusion and metaphor.
Thomas More's Utopia was humanism in renaissance literature. How much was More influenced by the Renaissance? Like other humanists in the Renaissance, he looked to the future influenced by the past.
This article provides an analysis/comparison of the theories devised by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.
This article will help you understand the tension between transcendent criticism and immanent criticism, it is important to examine how each method has been contextualized within the world of critical theory.
In psycho-spiritual healing and education, the concepts of Enlightenment and Empowerment can take on an unexpected meaning in the West.
It's always worth considering different views on how to live and be happy. In the modern day, without religion or authorities telling us how to do so it is becoming more and more important to consider utilitarianism. Modern utilitarianism is ethics based on logic and has helped many people decide how to live through its many modern utilitarian views. Read on to find out all the different modern types of utilitarianism and how they could help you.
The key and important ideas that summarize the philosophy of Edmund Husserl and Phenomenology. These ideas would shape the basis for 20th century Continental Philosophy.
Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” and Gretel Ehrlich’s “About Men” critically illuminate the problems of having a false and degrading entity that is derived from otherness.
God has been used an excuse to kill and abuse animals since people have believed in Him. Without God, there is no moral justification to needlessly kill non-human animals.
A summery of the central ideas of the philosophy of John Stuart Mill and his contribution to Utilitarianism.
Join us as we take a look at an alternative belief system that has gathered a bit of momentum in recent years.
Voluntary euthanasia, also known as mercy killing, is one in which a person requests to end their life early. Is this moral to grant their request?
The Greeks were the first to initiate the unreservedly rational investigation of the universe and thus became the forerunners of Western philosophy and science.
An exploration of Laudan's argument against the demarcation problem that seeks to define a cleavage between science and pseudoscience, addressing aspects of the philosophy of language and science.
The main ideas that form the philosophy of Rene Descartes and the foundation for rationalism. A good guide for students.
Examining the various and diverse explanations of Postmodernity. In its most simplistic definition, postmodernism is a rejection of modernism in terms of art, philosophy, and literature.
Stephen Hawking said, “There is no God. I am an atheist.” What is the science that informs his statement, and why are his critics wrong?
In this essay, I reflect on Bernard Williams' notion of utilitarianism, his thought experiments, and what philosophers Cahn and Markie have to say about Williams' ethics.
de Botton's The Consolations speaks to the reader as if in a warm conversation with a slightly extroverted old man who one would mistake for a beggar rather than a philosopher.
According to Immanuel Kant, enlightenment was man’s release from “self-incurred tutelage.” Enlightenment was the process by which the public could rid themselves of intellectual bondage after centuries of slumbering. After providing a careful...
Are you ready to step up your game, but feel like you've been spinning your wheels and not getting anywhere? These five books are must reads! Delve in and don't be surprised when results show up fast!
Transhumanism is an international movement that promotes the enhancement of human nature by means of technology and scientific progress.
Blaise Pascal's genius expressed itself in a nearly unique blend of brilliance in science and mathematics, depth of insight into the human condition, and profound religious sensitivity.
In Plato's Republic, Socrates provides a purpose for humanity, and reveals how the highest good is analogous to a perfect society.
Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative explained. The concepts of good will, moral duty, summum bonnum and the five rules of Kant's universal maxims alongside a brief discussion on how Kant's theory could be applied to the modern ethical issue of genetic engineering.
This article explores the fundamental relationship between power and the production of historical knowledge according to Michel Foucault and Edward Said.
A summary of the major ideas of Plato and how these would influence the development of philosophy is western society.
Phenomenology is an area of philosophy that is not often talked about but has some interesting things to say regarding the typical dualism of most philosophy. Unfortunately, its primary writers were largely obtuse and incomprehensible to the average person.
Taking an Ethics class? This article summarizes terms and types of ethical theories that may help you succeed in your course.
"So you are saying that you are right and everyone else is wrong??" Skeptics often say Christianity is narrow-minded and exclusive. This is how you refute this accusation in 20 seconds or less...
For roughly 16 hours a day, when we are not sleeping, we all experience consciousness; yet philosophers cannot agree on what consciousness is.
Once our present becomes the past, we no longer have the ability to change it. This is why backward time travel is doubtful. However, forward time travel can't be ruled out because it doesn’t break any laws of physics.