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  • Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative explained. The concepts of good will, moral duty, summum bonnum and the five rules of Kant's universal maxims alongside a brief discussion on how Kant's theory could be applied to the modern ethical issue of genetic engineering.

    Immanuel Kant and "The Categorical Imperative" for Dummies

    Immanuel Kant and "The Categorical Imperative" for Dummies

    by Lisa McKnight13

  • "So you are saying that you are right and everyone else is wrong??" Skeptics often say Christianity is narrow-minded and exclusive. This is how you refute this accusation in 20 seconds or less...

    "Christianity is Exclusive!"—How to Answer Skeptics

    "Christianity is Exclusive!"—How to Answer Skeptics

    by Asa Schneidermann6

  • For roughly 16 hours a day, when we are not sleeping, we all experience consciousness; yet philosophers cannot agree on what consciousness is.

    The Philosophy of Consciousness

    The Philosophy of Consciousness

    by Rupert Taylor0

  • The famous “Pascal’s Wager” asks us to consider the question of the existence of God as a wager. Which is the better bet—belief or disbelief?

    Pascal’s Wager—Is it a Good Bet?

    Pascal’s Wager—Is it a Good Bet?

    by Catherine Giordano132

  • Since very early prehistoric times archaeologists have discovered evidence that humans have always believed in an afterlife and hence in a God or gods in some form or other.

    Exploring the Idea of God

    Exploring the Idea of God

    by Stephen Austen2

  • The idea of a universal life-force which permeates the entire universe and everything in it is a concept which has reverberated throughout the centuries. Does such a universal life-force really exist?

    Is There a Universal Life-Force (Reiki, Chi, Orgone)?

    Is There a Universal Life-Force (Reiki, Chi, Orgone)?

    by Sparkster Publishing8

  • The mystery of conscious mind - or even the physical brain - keeps tantalizing the finest minds with their elusive nature. However, scratching its surface may be fun and an intellectual adventure.

    Living Beyond the Reactive Boundaries of the Brain

    Living Beyond the Reactive Boundaries of the Brain

    by Vladimir Karas4

  • How does language affect our thinking? Do we even need a language to think? How to deaf people think if they never heard speech? Do animals think without language? I researched this to try to answer these questions.

    Do We Need Language to Think?

    Do We Need Language to Think?

    by Glenn Stok30

  • This article provides an analysis of the philosophical interpretations provided by Jean Jacques Rousseau and John Locke. Which philosopher was most correct in their views of government and social contracts?

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke

    by Larry Slawson0

  • Elon Musk claims it is certain that life is a computer simulation. The claim is based on our current perception of computer progress. The claim is estimated as 1 to billions it's not true.

    Is Life a Computer Simulation?

    Is Life a Computer Simulation?

    by Buildreps31

  • In the world of philosophy many different answers to the same problem can be equally valid.

    The Philosophy of Truth

    The Philosophy of Truth

    by Rupert Taylor2

  • Reports on the demise of the view of human consciousness as immaterial and non-reducible to brain activity are greatly exaggerated

    What on Earth Happened to the Soul?

    What on Earth Happened to the Soul?

    by John Paul Quester6

  • Is death the end of consciousness? Why are there so many documented cases in the medical field of people having out-of-body experiences and being conscious of their surroundings while near death?

    Consciousness and the Near Death Experience

    Consciousness and the Near Death Experience

    by Glenn Stok22

  • A discussion of the various views within ontological metaphysics dating to the classical period of Ancient Greek philosophy, with a focus on Plato and Aristotle.

    Ontological Metaphysics of Ancient Greece

    Ontological Metaphysics of Ancient Greece

    by syz0

  • The Enchiridion, also known as The Manual or Handbook, is a practical philosophical guide instructing readers on how to live well.

    The Enchiridion Summarized

    The Enchiridion Summarized

    by Sean Fullmer2

  • Perhaps IQ is not as important as we esteem it to be.

    Is IQ Crucial?

    Is IQ Crucial?

    by Ryan Kincaid0

  • A logical fallacy is an error in the reasoning process, not in the veracity of the premises. Therefore, logical fallacies are not factual errors, nor are they opinions. They are attempts to bypass the steps of a logical argument for the purpose of...

    Examples of How Logical Fallacies Are Used

    Examples of How Logical Fallacies Are Used

    by dosters7

  • An analysis of Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan" and his view on the relationship between liberty and society, and humanity's desire to forgo their rights for security and peace.

    Thomas Hobbes and the Laws of Nature

    Thomas Hobbes and the Laws of Nature

    by JourneyHolm2

  • What is justice? Is it better to be a just man or an unjust man? In the Republic, Plato argues with Glaucon that a just man's soul is like a well-working city. It is better to be a just man because of the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.

    Analyzing the Theme of Justice in Plato's "Republic"

    Analyzing the Theme of Justice in Plato's "Republic"

    by JourneyHolm0

  • According to Immanuel Kant, enlightenment was man’s release from “self-incurred tutelage.” Enlightenment was the process by which the public could rid themselves of intellectual bondage after centuries of slumbering. After providing a careful...

    Summary of Immanuel Kant's Enlightenment

    Summary of Immanuel Kant's Enlightenment

    by Ebey Soman2

  • This article provides an analysis/comparison of the theories devised by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.

    Thomas Hobbes and John Locke

    Thomas Hobbes and John Locke

    by Larry Slawson2

  • The kind of person you are is determined by the choices you make not by some external power such as a god.

    Existentialism Explained

    Existentialism Explained

    by Rupert Taylor8

  • Transhumanism is an international movement that promotes the enhancement of human nature by means of technology and scientific progress.

    What Is Transhumanism? A Short Guide

    What Is Transhumanism? A Short Guide

    by Virginia Matteo0

  • Transhumanism is a movement that embraces the enhancement of our minds and bodies through science. Will it help or hurt mankind?

    What is Transhumanism?

    What is Transhumanism?

    by Margaret Perrottet49

  • An analysis of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics in relationship to the continent and incontinent man, one who is ignorant to his actions and controlled by the appetite of his will.

    Analyzing Aristotle's Account of Incontinence

    Analyzing Aristotle's Account of Incontinence

    by JourneyHolm1

  • The ideas held by the founding fathers of America and the ideas held by Aristotle show a number of similarities—let's discuss them together.

    Aristotle–The Great American

    Aristotle–The Great American

    by Katherine Sanger3

  • It's always worth considering different views on how to live and be happy. In the modern day, without religion or authorities telling us how to do so it is becoming more and more important to consider utilitarianism. Modern utilitarianism is ethics based on logic and has helped many people decide how to live through its many modern utilitarian views. Read on to find out all the different modern types of utilitarianism and how they could help you.

    Different Types of Modern Utilitarianism

    Different Types of Modern Utilitarianism

    by DK5

  • Secular humanism is a little understood human–centered philosophy of life. It is non-theistic, rooted in science, with explicit moral and ethical directives.

    What Is Secular Humanism?

    What Is Secular Humanism?

    by Catherine Giordano45

  • In his landmark book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn was the first scientist to articulate the what would soon become a buzzword worldwide: paradigm (pair-a-dime).

    What Is a Scientific Paradigm?

    What Is a Scientific Paradigm?

    by kestrana2

  • We all feel like time goes by faster as we age. There are several reasons why this happens. Our perception of time is effected by our changing frame of reference. I'll describe three causes of this phenomena.

    The Reason Why Time Passes Faster as We Get Older

    The Reason Why Time Passes Faster as We Get Older

    by Glenn Stok31

  • Writing philosophy essays doesn’t have to be boring. (Perhaps I’m not the best person to talk about this because I never find philosophy essays boring!) The trick is to make it interesting for you. There are different ways you can do this. In...

    How to Write a Philosophy Dialogue

    How to Write a Philosophy Dialogue

    by Davids writing1

  • Examining the various and diverse explanations of Postmodernity. In its most simplistic definition, postmodernism is a rejection of modernism in terms of art, philosophy, and literature.

    Postmodernism Explained

    Postmodernism Explained

    by Astrid North's Study Guide0

  • This article provides a general analysis of Karl Marx's philosophical views of the 19th Century and explores whether his ideas are still pertinent to today's society.

    Karl Marx and Modern Philosophy

    Karl Marx and Modern Philosophy

    by Larry Slawson3

  • Natural Law is a philosophy that uses reason to analyse human nature, and works on the basis that we should abide by the laws of nature. So how does this apply to embryo research?

    How Would Natural Law Apply to Embryo Research?

    How Would Natural Law Apply to Embryo Research?

    by Bryony Harrison2

  • Sometimes something happens that affects us emotionally and we find ourselves in awe of the experience. This euphoric feeling of being awestruck may have evolved to give us a biological advantage to conquer the world.

    Why Humans Feel Awestruck and Find Things Amazing

    Why Humans Feel Awestruck and Find Things Amazing

    by Glenn Stok5

  • In this essay, I analyze Alvin Goldman's "Causal Theory of Knowledge" and the problems that arise with generalizations, a priori situations, and cases involving evidence.

    Problems With the Causal Theory of Knowledge

    Problems With the Causal Theory of Knowledge

    by JourneyHolm4

  • Some of the deepest scientific questions so far have not yielded to our most inquisitive minds. Will they be answered as science progresses, or will they forever elude our cognitive reach?

    Is Human Understanding Fundamentally Limited?

    Is Human Understanding Fundamentally Limited?

    by John Paul Quester1

  • Is free will a good thing? In the battle between good and evil, St. Augustine, much like Socrates and Plato, argues that free choice of the will is a good thing because right action aligns a man's soul with the eternal and divine.

    St. Augustine of Hippo on Free Choice of the Will

    St. Augustine of Hippo on Free Choice of the Will

    by JourneyHolm1

  • Atheists don't believe in God. It doesn't seem like anything that would be up for interpretation but it turns out some believers think that everyone, including non-believers, thinks God is real.

    Atheists Don't Think God Is Real

    Atheists Don't Think God Is Real

    by Kylyssa Shay100

  • There is some debate about death and especially what happens to you if you commit suicide. The first examines the typical Christian attitude that taking ones life is a major sin and hell would be the result. The other more literal one actually...

    Eastern vs. Western Views of Death and Suicide

    Eastern vs. Western Views of Death and Suicide

    by Kori Lee F.P.10

  • You don't have to be a samurai warrior to appreciate the code of ethics written for the samurai. Learn to apply the values of 'bushido', or the way of the warrior, in modern life.

    Bushido Values That Are Still Relevant Today

    Bushido Values That Are Still Relevant Today

    by Rachael Lefler3

  • We are all equal, so it’s only fair that we are all entitled to equal shares of everything. It’s not that simple.

    The Philosophy of Fairness

    The Philosophy of Fairness

    by Rupert Taylor0

  • Death has often been depicted as this final end that no one can escape from. From vampires, to zombies, to even angels and demons, we dream that we could live forever in some other life. But why?

    Death Personified: Why Are We so Afraid?

    Death Personified: Why Are We so Afraid?

    by Robin Goodfellow0

  • Book L of the Metaphysics touches upon what Aristotle calls the "Unmoved Mover." In short, this is Aristotle's conceptualization of God which is worthy of our attention both because of the inherent interest of the topic and because of the...

    "The Unmoved-Mover" in Aristotle's Metaphysics

    "The Unmoved-Mover" in Aristotle's Metaphysics

    by Nickny7916

  • In which it is argued that an open-minded examination of the full range of human experience, both ordinary and not, may uncover pointers to a reality that transcends the purely physical domain.

    Searching for Signals of Transcendence

    Searching for Signals of Transcendence

    by John Paul Quester0

  • Although the majority of the population agree with euthanasia, it is still illegal in the UK. There is discussion after discussion on the subject, yet changes do not seem to be made. That is because until recently, most of the discussions have been philosophical rather than with the political intent of changing the system. Many philosophies oppose euthanasia, but Relative Morality is one that is able to see both sides of the coin.

    How Would Relative Morality be Applied to Euthanasia?

    How Would Relative Morality be Applied to Euthanasia?

    by Bryony Harrison4

  • Which forms of nature can contemplate? What does it mean to contemplate? Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics argues that only a patient can contemplate in relation to the form of an agent which has been fully actualized.

    Aristotle's and Jonathan Lear's Account of Contemplation

    Aristotle's and Jonathan Lear's Account of Contemplation

    by JourneyHolm0

  • An Introduction to some basic principles of Existentialism, focusing on the philosophical arguments by the prominent Existentialists including Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre.

    Existentialism: From Kierkegaard to Sartre

    Existentialism: From Kierkegaard to Sartre

    by Monami0

  • There is a big problem with some sayings that seem perfectly logical. Let’s look at this common example: There is an exception to every rule. Most people would just start thinking of all the rules they can recall to see if it is true, and then ultimately decide it probably is as there is no way for them to know every rule out there. But really they have no way of knowing whether it is true or not. Sounds good, but it isn’t.

    There Is an Exception to Every Rule

    There Is an Exception to Every Rule

    by Ron Hooft7

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