Do We Need Language to Think?

Do humans think in sentences with our dominant language? If so, how do animals think? Are they thinking without language?
Do humans think in sentences with our dominant language? If so, how do animals think? Are they thinking without language? | Source
  • How do we think?
  • How do we formulate our thoughts?
  • Do we think in sentences?
  • Do we need a language to think?
  • Can we think without words?

To answer these questions we need to first understand the purpose of language.

Language allows us to communicate with one another. All of our progress as human beings has been achieved with communication.

We need language to express our thoughts to one another. We use language in spoken form and in written form to communicate.

There are tens of thousands of languages in the world. However, do we need language to think our own thoughts or do we consider concepts without putting them into phrases?

How Did Humans Think Before We Had Language?

What did Cavemen do before they developed language? How did they process the events of the day in their minds? They would grunt, but what was going on in their mind? How were they giving thoughtful attention to the events that they were experiencing?

There was a famous story about a boy who grew up with wolves. Of course he never learned a language. So how did the thinking take place in his head? Did he think like we do? If so, how? With what language did he think? How did he put his thoughts into phrases? Was there a totally different way that he processed his thoughts?

How do we actually think in today’s world? Do we just consider things without actual words? Did you ever find yourself doing that? I mean to actually have the ability to think, to comprehend, to process a feeling or a notion or a concept, without words!

The process is actually considering concepts. No language is required for that. Well, maybe a word or two, but not full sentences.

For example, imagine you’re thinking about going shopping for a new pair of shoes. Just the concept is necessary to carry out the idea. You don’t say to yourself, “I will go shopping for a pair a shoes” – do you? You just consider maybe the idea “shoes” in your head and maybe the additional idea “shop” and that’s all that’s necessary.

Cavemen probably did the same thing, but even simpler than that. Without words, just the concept was used in the thought process. However, this is not a good example since Cavemen didn’t have shoes or stores to go shopping. Nevertheless, you’ve got my point!

How Does Language Help Us Think?

Thinking extensively involved cognitive thoughts requires a certain amount of language. This is what sets humans aside from other animals. We have the ability to analyze and interpret our environment, and we do this with words and sentences in a structured language.

However, with thoughts of our own feelings and emotions, it may be completely different. For example: When you think about your own feelings do you find yourself saying "I feel happy" or do you simply feel the emotion without expressing it in words?

Language is important for developing extensive concepts and for abstract thinking, something humans have evolved into doing. Language provides a set of rules that helps us organize our thoughts and construct logical meaning with our thoughts.

However, basic thinking may not necessarily involve sentence structure in our mind. We still have some form of "inner voice" that we use to be self-aware of the world around us and apply our thinking to what we intend to do with that world.

What's It Like to Not Have a Language to Think?

This makes me think about people with extreme autism who have no speech ability. How do they think? What thoughts are in their heads?

I have to revert back to the way cavemen may have thought, at a time in our evolution when we didn't have spoken language yet.

They had their five senses. They had a connection with their world through those senses, but they didn't have a language to express how they felt about things they saw or things they observed with interactions with others. So how did they express their feelings in their own minds just for the sake if being conscious of daily events?

People sometimes think visually, by forming images in their head. Language is not always required. Maybe animals think visually too.
People sometimes think visually, by forming images in their head. Language is not always required. Maybe animals think visually too. | Source

Using their visual sense they may have an understanding of their visual world around them.

Is it just visual images? Maybe color and smell as well. Thinking by expressing thoughts with colors, thinking by contemplating how they’re affected by odors, maybe that's all the cavemen did to express their own thoughts in their heads.

What about music? Isn't that a form of expression without language? You might say music is also a form of thinking. Surely it's not with words.

But music does have tempo. Music is based on a mathematical structure. After all, it follows a beat. Music came about long before spoken language.

The introduction of numbers into language came much later. When cavemen didn’t yet have numbers, they only were able to think in limited numerical terms. Such as "one" or "many." Nothing in between.

There is still a tribe in existence in Brazil, known as the Piraha Tribe, who only have terms such as “few” and “many” in their language. So they couldn’t think in terms of numbers of items.

Thinking is limited to the extent permitted by the language that's used. So even if I am trying to propose the idea that one can think without language, I am also making it clear that language helps us think. Various languages are useful for different thought processes.

Many spoken languages are ambiguous. Computer programming languages are specialized and designed to be logical. Various foreign languages contribute to one form of thinking or another, based on the needs of the region.

Language Can Create Ambiguity

In my own opinion, I feel that most spoken languages are broken. Many words have a certain amount of vagueness, which allows for ambiguity.

Sometimes when two people are talking, neither one realizes that the other is totally misunderstanding what is being said.
Sometimes when two people are talking, neither one realizes that the other is totally misunderstanding what is being said. | Source

On occasion I had witnessed listening to two people talking and I had noticed that neither one knew what the other was saying. They both had an opinion of what the other meant, but they each missed the point that the other was trying to make.

Some people have a desire to communicate well. Those people will put extra effort into considering the ambiguity of their statements and will try to avoid misunderstandings.

These same people will, as listeners, make an effort to understand the speaker. They will catch a phrase that can be taken two ways and question the speaker by asking, “What did you mean by that?” Or they may repeat the statement back again in their own words and ask if that was a correct interpretation.

The ambiguity of language can easily cause erroneous thinking. Which is probably why many of us discover that life hasn't turned out as we had planned when we were younger.

Thinking Fast and Slow

Thinking without words can have a benefit. It can allow us to think faster.

Were you ever aware of yourself considering things without actually putting your thoughts into fully formed sentences? You may have been thinking in abstract terms, like with the example I gave earlier about buying a pair of shoes.

Abstract thinking is definitely something humans can do. It's a quick way to consider ideas by using symbols that represent them. Fast thinking without language can be achieved by using abstract thoughts.

Consider feelings that we have about experiences in our life. Feelings with emotion can be interpreted faster than thinking about it with structured sentences.

Rather than thinking, "I like that painting on the wall with the babbling brook" -- you simply feel the pleasure and you're done with the thought. That's much faster.

When we think with language we are slowing ourselves down. However, language has its benefits too. There's a place for everything.

The Purpose of Specialty Languages

So now this brings me to an interesting point in my discussion. Different languages allow for expression of different ideas.

Well over 30 years ago I started my carrier as a computer programmer. We had different languages designed for different tasks. FORTRAN (FORmular TRANslation) was designed as a specialty language for mathematical expressions. COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language) was used for business programs. BAL (Basic Assembler Language) was the closest you can get to machine language without having to think in pure digits (zero's and one's).

Spoken languages also have special abilities designed into them, based on the needs of the language. I'll give you a couple of examples in the next section...

Thinking in a Foreign Language Can Affect Thought Patterns

There are over 40 words for Camel in the Arabic language.
There are over 40 words for Camel in the Arabic language. | Source

Arabic has over 40 words for Camel. I've done some Google research that shows over 300.

In English we just have one word for Camel, and we include an adjective in front of it in order to describe the kind of Camel we're referring to. Male camel, female camel, old or young, and so on.

Arabic breaks this down into individual words to describe Camels by specific entities such as age, color, number of humps, sex and breeding status.

This direct reference to different kinds of Camels is helpful for communicating since Camels are important for survival in the Arab World. So I would say it’s useful for better cognitive thinking as well.

We have a similar example in the western world with birds. We have many different words for various types of birds. Each word is used to refer to a specific bird. Such as bluejay, dove, robin, woodpecker, hummingbird, parakeet, sparrow, owl, hawk, etc.

Remembering my High School English, I can explain this. When a direct reference to a noun does not exist in a language, then an adjective needs to be used as a descriptive word.

English and Spanish are two examples where we use a descriptive word (adjective) to better define the subject (the noun).

In English the adjective comes before the noun, but this is not common among all languages. Spanish, for example, has the adjective after the noun. In English one would say, “Julie is my favorite cousin.” But in Spanish it would be “Julie is tu prima favorita” or “Julie is my cousin favorite.”

You can begin to see that when someone learns a new language, his or her thought pattern may change as well. The various methods that languages impose restrictions or include more supportive direct references can actually help with thinking as well as communicating.

Non-verbal Reasoning

What is non-verbal reasoning? Thinking without using sentences.

I gave this a lot of thought. Being that the concept was very involved, I was putting my thoughts into sentences in order to try to communicate with myself.

Maybe one part of my brain was communicating with some other part by offering structured sentences to be diagnosed and interpreted.

It's not uncommon to think with image representations. This can even help with interpretation.
It's not uncommon to think with image representations. This can even help with interpretation. | Source

More importantly, I suddenly realized that I was allowing my brain to reflect on the thoughts. I tried to catch myself reflecting on notions without actually using words.

We do think in many alternate non-linguistic ways. How often have you just considered a thought visually? Images can replace language for communication and for thinking.

The world can be represented in ways that do not require language to communicate. Ants do it with smell, using pheromones as chemical signals. Bees do it with dance. They use movement to communicate the direction to where they found food.

Okay. I’m talking too much about communication and not internal thinking. The method of thinking without language is abstract thinking.

Abstract thinking goes beyond concrete thoughts that can only be constructed with sentences. It allows the ability to visualize ideas beyond the obvious.

You’ll know you are doing it when you find yourself interpreting things around you in the form of representation rather than interpreting things literally.

Representation does not require language. For that matter, thinking with representations can be accomplished a lot quicker than literal thinking, because no time is wasted putting it into words.

Child prodigies who can multiply large numbers in their heads are probably using abstract methods of thought.

Moral judgments may be made with ‘feelings’ rather than talking to yourself in sentences.

Maybe some people get through life with a little imaginary person on their shoulder telling them how to behave. “I must not steal.” ... "I should give this person the benefit of the doubt." ... "I better get out of bed or else I'm going to be late."

If you find yourself getting through life making quick decisions that don’t require much mental reasoning, then you are probably thinking abstractly and non-linguistically.

Conscious Thoughts And Feelings do not Require Words

Thinking may be on a conscious level. But I wouldn't rule out unconscious brain activity influencing our thoughts. This may not be in structured sentences.
Thinking may be on a conscious level. But I wouldn't rule out unconscious brain activity influencing our thoughts. This may not be in structured sentences. | Source

Awareness or consciousness does not require words. There is still some form of thinking going on.

Paying attention to what is going on around us or paying attention to our behavior does not necessarily require words. It’s mostly brain activity.

Different regions of the brain are triggered based on what is happening. We may actually have feelings and emotions that come from this brain activity. Thoughts in the form of words may not be required in order to feel the feeling,

How often do you find yourself saying, “I feel good about this” or “I know I should handle this matter differently.” Those thoughts related to feelings might have developed unconsciously in your brain. You didn't need to use actual words or structured sentences. Words are not always needed to describe pleasing or displeasing emotions.

Our Native Language Determines How We Think

Two linguists, Edward Sapir (1884-1939) and Benjamin Whorf (1897-1941), had publicized an interesting theory. Known as the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, they state that the way people think is strongly affected by their native languages.

One of their hypotheses is known as the Linguistic Relativity. The words of a language determine how a subject thinks.

I’m not sure I fully agree with this, since it means that an individual can only think of a concept using the words dictated by the language.

Although I agree that most of us do that most of the time, its only because we had learned a language and we use it. But as I mentioned previously, I think that people have the ability to think in terms of concepts. Therefore words are not always necessary. [UPDATE] Some of my readers have left comments (below) that attest to that.

An individual can have a concept of an idea. Have you ever come up with a concept in your mind that you didn’t yet put into words?

Benjamin Whorf indicates that words place a label on the idea, and that influences our thought about it. That much I agree with. Cavemen may have been limited in the way of thinking since they didn’t have a fully developed language. Language does indeed help with thought process and with communication, but it’s not an essential requirement.

I write many other thought-provoking philosophical articles.
See a complete list »

© 2012 Glenn Stok

More by this Author

Comments 20 comments

BlissfulWriter profile image

BlissfulWriter 4 years ago

Very philosophical. My first thought is that you need language in order to formulate thoughts. But okay, you've convinced me. There may be times when thought occurs without words.

Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 4 years ago from Long Island, NY Author

BlissfulWriter ~ Thanks for being the first to read and comment. Live in modern times with fully developed languages, we do tend to have mental thoughts with words as well. It's mostly abstract feelings that can be 'thought' without words.

Sue Adams profile image

Sue Adams 4 years ago from Andalusia

You are right Glenn, thinking can take many forms. On the one hand you can be babbling to yourself with mondain thoughts like "what shall I buy for dinner today?" and write a verbal shopping list. But I think, from my own experience that on the whole, the process of thinking is much quicker than language. I feel that most thinking occurs in imagery and emotion, a bit like seeing a movie. Often words and language are only a means of communicating already existing thoughts. Words translate thought into language, but the thought is already there before it is expressed in words. I know this having had to learn five new languages while growing up. In my head, I always knew what I wanted, what I was thinking without any words. The problem was expressing the thought to make myself understood in what ever country I happened to be living in. That is where words and language come in, at the point of exit for communication. Then there is also instinctive and emotional thought as when you are forced to quickly respond to a situation. For example, if you accidentally fall off a boat into deep water, you swim without thinking in words:"Hhhmmm, what's the best thing to do now?" Very often the brain makes very rapid instant decisions, often bypassing the much slower, chronological order of strings of words.

Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 4 years ago from Long Island, NY Author

Sue, That in an extremely insightful comment!

I love your idea that "Words translate thought into language." Words are a means to communicate our thoughts to others. In addition, words help us organize our thoughts that were already initiated in our brains.

Being that you had learned several languages, your account of that is testimony to the fact that we think, first, without words.

I enjoyed reading your entire explanation. Your comment adds a whole lot of useful examples to my Hub. Thanks so much for adding your insight. I am sure it will help others understand what I had been trying to explain.

Danette Watt profile image

Danette Watt 4 years ago from Illinois

Sue Adams said, "the process of thinking is much quicker than language." This is very true and I think you touched on it earlier too when you referred to abstract thinking. My younger son and I both talk very fast. I've managed to slow down somewhat because I've started teaching a couple years ago and had to for my students. (He's planning to go into teaching too so I hope he slows down.)

But I commented to him one day that I think a lot faster than I can talk. I often think in "phrases," concepts, images and he agreed he does the same thing.

Very interesting topic. Language is not an easy subject to grasp because it can be so philosophical and abstract. Nicely done.

Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 4 years ago from Long Island, NY Author

Danette, I find that very interesting. But it makes sense that both you and your son have similar ways of thinking since he is from your genes. I think faster than I can type. A variation of what you said. But for the same reason. My thoughts are sometimes conceptual and I have to translate it into grammatical phrases when I type. As humans evolve, maybe someday we'll have keyboards with concepts rather than letters. Thanks for your delightful comment.

Sue Adams profile image

Sue Adams 4 years ago from Andalusia

"keyboards with concepts rather than letters". Isn't that already beginning to happen in today's abbreviated texting language and emotion buttons like smilies etc?

Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 4 years ago from Long Island, NY Author

Sue, Yes I guess it is somewhat similar. I'm glad to see you are reading the comments as well as the Hub. The comments everyone is leaving are really wonderful additions to my Hub. I'm really enjoying the interaction and I hope others are too.

Keith Engel profile image

Keith Engel 4 years ago from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Concepts comes first, then language. It is really that simple. For instance, I am one of those people who didn't start talking until I was like 3 or 4. I communicated in the following fashion as my mothers has told me. If I wanted to say the Cat Drank Water. I would make the meow sound of a cat. This equals the concept of cat that was formed in my mind through my perception, a cat meowed, so I meowed. To say drink I actually did the lapping motion with my tongue, that is how a cat drank, so that is what I did. Then finally and this might sound the oddest, is to say water, I did a burping a sound, as that was the sound that occurred when water came out of a hose, thus I associated that sound with water since I heard it and water came out.

This process and relation of concept formation and language is actually studied quite extensively if you are interested, and are don't go in with preconceived bias, by Ayn Rand in her book Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology.

Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 4 years ago from Long Island, NY Author

Keith, Thanks for that intriguing explanation. I'll have to check out Ayn Rand's book.

TIMETRAVELER2 profile image

TIMETRAVELER2 16 months ago

Fascinating article, Glenn. If you go far back in time, you learn that human beings communicated long before they developed formal languages, and they managed just fine..maybe even more than we do today lol!

Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 16 months ago from Long Island, NY Author

TIMETRAVELER2 - That's right Sondra. And even after formal language began, it continues to develop and change. Webster constantly has to add new words to the dictionary. And the same goes for any language.

Sue Adams profile image

Sue Adams 16 months ago from Andalusia

The answer to the question "Do we need language to think" then appears to be "no", we don't need language to think. We need language to communicate. Our thoughts are already there before we speak or write, or even mime. Here is a morbid example to prove my point, a deaf and paralyzed person cannot speak or write, not even perform sign language, but that person can still think.

Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 16 months ago from Long Island, NY Author

Sue, Thanks for adding these thoughtful viewpoints to my discussion. Yes, now that you mention it, I agree that we need language to communicate. Even animals communicate with some form of language, although not spoken language. Your example you gave makes me think of Stephen Hawking. He thinks all the time. But then again, he does use language to think so it's probably not the same as the point you were making. But I know what you meant, if one is deaf from birth and they never heard anyone speak, then they never learned a language that can be used for thinking. Yet, they can still think!

Grampa 3 months ago

Language comes in many forms. Having been around many types of animals all my life one has only to listen and you will learn the language. The world is full of sounds but we drowned it out with mechanized noise.


Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 3 months ago from Long Island, NY Author

Grampa - Yes, animals have their own method of communicating. Many do so by making various sounds that resemble some form of language. But the question is, do they think? What are your thoughts on that?

Sue Adams profile image

Sue Adams 3 months ago from Andalusia

What about Koko the Gorilla who learned sign language? Birds too chatter away endlessly in the large tree beside my house at dusk.

Of course animals can think. "I'm hungry, feed me!" says my dog coming towards me at the same time every day, agitating his tail.

On the other hand, animals don't see time as we do. They have no concept of past and future. They always live in the present.

Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 3 months ago from Long Island, NY Author

Sue Adams - These are true points you brought up. But how does that relate to using some form of language to think? You're kind of contradicting your comment you left a year ago. Sure, animals make their needs known. But do they actually use sentences in their thinking process? Do they have fully formed thoughts and concerns? Or are they functioning on instinct?

Sue Adams profile image

Sue Adams 3 months ago from Andalusia

I think we all agree that, since the thought come first, to then, if necessary, be communicated in language, we don't need language to think. But that would be a very lonely existence. Check out my latest article, just published yesterday: Hidden Secrets of Languages.

Glenn Stok profile image

Glenn Stok 3 months ago from Long Island, NY Author

Sue Adams - I didn't know what you meant by being a very lonely existence if we don't need language to think. The way I see it, it would be very lonely if we didn't have language to communicate. Any language would do. Even sign language for the deaf provides the ability to communicate and socialize. But that's getting off the subject since my focus here was about thinking, not communicating.

I did just read your article dealing with communicating with different languages and I found it very interesting.

    Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.

    Click to Rate This Article