Understanding Kohlberg's theory of moral development can help you to understand your students, and help you to guide them in their moral development. Young students may be at different stages of moral development than their peers, but you can have your students do different classroom activities to help strengthen their moral character.
In stage one, young children are primarily motivated to behave appropriately to avoid punishment. Understanding this stage can help you to set a code of conduct for your students to encourage good behavior. Perhaps you implement clear punishments, such as loss of privileges, for students who break your classroom rules.
In stage two, young children become more motivated to behave and follow the rules if they are offered rewards. Consider implementing a system to reward students who follow the rules and who exhibit helpful behaviors in the classroom.
By stage three, which most children reach between the ages of 10 and 13, children begin to think more about other people around them, and how their behavior affects other people, and how other people perceive them. At this stage, you can help to strengthen your students' moral character by allowing them to help you to create a code of conduct, thereby letting them be responsible, in part, for the classroom rules that they will be expected to follow.
Allow time for group projects and activities to give students at different stages of development the opportunity to work together and to learn how their behavior affects others in a social context.