What is "the fetishism of commodities"? If, as Marx posits, the social relations within capitalist society exist between commodities and not between workers, then do workers even have socail relations at all? If so, in what context? Marx asks, is a commodity valuable because human labour was expended to produce it or because it is intrinsically valuable?
What is Love? An Evolutionary Perspective - This article explains why loving couples fair better in the course of human evolution, and why love is epitomised in poetry yet shrouded in mystery.
Eating black eyed peas is a fun family tradition in the South now. But once eating cow peas, Southern peas or black eyed peas was a matter of survival.
There’s no doubt that Betsy DeVos, President Donald Trump’s secretary of education, is a polarizing figure within the country’s education community. But what about her effect on special education community? There’s been some hits and misses and a lot of uncertainty.
A look at how media works, through the perspective of media production, media representation and media reception.
Who wants high-tech instruments, algorithms, and forecast models when all you need to know is that a plentiful crop of pine cones means a harsh winter is coming? Or not.
This article discusses how Carl Jung's concept of humanity shapes his theories of personality and his perspective of psychoanalysis.
After a partnership businesses operated for some and want to dissolute them for some reasons, there are some points to be be considered before the dissolution is concluded with just and equitable terms for the partners.
This article explains how propaganda has developed and been utilized over time and in different contexts.
Death can be a celebration of life, or a means to help the soul pass. Everyone has their own way to deal with grief. This article explores how cultures around the world handle death.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) has been a very misinterpreted, underestimated, misunderstood, and feared disorder. DID forms through self-power, not weakness. In this article, I talk about using the system unification method to heal DID.
The Bystander Effect is a tragic, yet real, part of the human experience. Why do we not help others when they may or may not be in trouble? Video examples of this very interesting psychological concept are provided.
The cognitive science of religion tries to understand the psychology of religious belief and behavior. This article summarizes important research and findings.
Great psychologists argued that the manner in which we face our mortality has a profound impact on our attitude towards life and our overall psychological well being.
Fundamentalism and fascism are both relatively new phenomena responding to globalisation and modernity but to what degree are the two related?
For almost two decades James “Whitey” Bulger, described as a “stone cold killer,” reigned supreme in Boston’s criminal world, a position he held thanks to his friends in the FBI.
Psychology research often presents surprising findings regarding how the mind works, how we think about ourselves and others and how we interact with the world. This article discusses several of these results.
There are various ways to cook eggs. People might not know that the way they eat their eggs reveals a lot about them. See what it says about you.
Where did the British people come from? Several hints to their origin originate from medieval documents, and yet other clues come from the genetic record. Could Anatolia be the home of the Brits?
Ethnocentricism in psychology can lead to negative stereotypes and racism. What is cultural bias and how can we counter it?
Have you ever wondered if it's possible for you to outsmart a polygraph test, better known as a lie detector test? You should know it is not only possible but relatively easy to do so!
Hallucinations can range from mild to severe. A hallucination is any perception in the absence of a stimulus. While most people think of visual hallucinations, they can also be sounds, or even smells or tastes. Psychoactive drugs, Schizophrenia, and nerve damage are common causes of hallucinations. While some are pleasant, like the scent of perfume that isn't there, others are overwhelming like the sense that insects are crawling all over you.
Even though the carved cedar pole and potlatch were illegal for many years until 1951, their meanings in a cultural context were never lost. The lineage of the Master Carvers preserved them.
The United Nations Organisation (UNO) aims at maintaining international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations. Principal Organs of UNO.
Most phobias are very specific, like a fear of heights or spiders, so many phobics can still live a reasonably normal life while avoiding their source of fear. But here are 9 weird but very real phobias that can severely disrupt daily life.
There are many different feminist frameworks. This article outlines the various perspectives, theories, applications, and criticisms of "feminist theory," which is relevant to social work practice.
This article discusses the development of criminal law, from inception as an act in itself, towards understanding that both intent and act are vital to the judicial view of the commission of a crime
An introduction to abnormal psychology, describing various aspects of this field, and disorders that differ in many ways to developmental behavior.
Sometimes, we feel the need to step in and try to protect people - and we should, if we can. But people often go about it in very wrong ways, which only make things worse, and can cause legal trouble.
Narcissism has been increasing since the 1970's yet the increase in college students since 2002 has been drastic and could have serious consequences.
The term “monetary standard” refers to the monetary system of a country. There are three main types of monetary standards...
This article discusses differences between suicide related OCD and other types of OCD. Reasons that compulsions associated with suicidal obsessions are ineffective at decreasing anxiety are provided.
Information designed to help the reader gain a basic understanding of the Jungian animus archetype. Explains concepts such as masculine and feminine principles, the divine hermaphrodite, and how to identify and interpret animus dreams.
Does frequent internet use cause social isolation, or are more socially isolated individuals simply more likely to be drawn to the internet?
How does the Federal Reserve use interest rates to control the economy, and how do these changing interest rates affect you as a consumer or business owner?
Taxes are as old as sin, as certain as death, and as popular as a skunk at a lawn party, but they do fund social programs we all rely on.
"I'm bored," you say. But what is boredom and why does it happen? Exploring the scientific perspective leads to surprisingly helpful insights that might banish boredom forever. Interested ? Read on...
The presidential veto is one of the most famous of the president's powers. But where did we get the idea of a presidential veto? In this essay, I give a brief overview of power of the veto that was later given to the office of the president at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Before the spread of Christianity, the ancient people of Europe worshiped land spirits also known as the genius loci. Learn about the genius loci here.
Even though legal issues are probably not what first come to mind when most people think about psychology there is more involved in the practice of professional psychology than theories and treatment options. Psychologists are required to maintain their professional competence, not only by staying up-to-date on changes in the field of psychology but by maintaining awareness of any revisions to laws or regulations that could affect them and their practice. Some of the most significant changes i
This article explains the law of diminishing marginal utility with the help of a schedule and diagram. It also states the assumptions and exceptions of the law of diminishing marginal utility.
This essay highlights the importance of Psychological Research on animals, weighing both the pros and cons of psychological research, especially the ethics of animal research in psychology.
The Advocate describes a person who fights for human rights, speaks out for the voiceless, and lives a life committed to advancing humanitarian causes. They are motivated by a desire to make a change.
Roberto Calvi, who was known as God’s banker, was found hanging under a bridge in London, a gruesome discovery that was first deemed to be suicide but later determined to be murder.
Advice on how to grow stronger as an ISTJ and ISFJ, Myers Briggs awareness, how you can help yourself to grow stronger than you previously realized.
Recently, I was talking to a colleague at work and I mentioned that civilizations tend to last only 500 years. I had heard this somewhere but I couldn't remember where. Of course, to even begin this discussion raises the question of what exactly...
There are many psychological defense mechanisms you use all the time to distance yourself from unpleasant realities. The only way to stop is to know yourself.
What are New York's laws on self storage facilities? What are your rights when dealing with self storage sites?
A look at the hands behind the head position. What its elements suggest about what it means and why someone might be doing it.
Writing a speech analysis requires one to focus on numerous aspects of the speech, including organization, tone, and content. Learn how with these tips and examples.
A dramatic call to police. A small voice gives a name and location. A man yells. A girl screams. And the line goes dead. The name nervously uttered on the call was “Anthonette Cayedito,” a 9-year-old from Gallup, New Mexico, who had been missing for a year.
What is meant by accuracy in second or foreign language acquisition and how does it relate to fluency and complexity?
Want to know who are the best business men and women of India. Then here is the list of Indian entrepreneurs for you to get inspired from their stories.
Indifference curve analysis possesses certain distinguishable and unquestionable merits over Marshall’s cardinal utility analysis. Following are the undeniable merits of indifference curve analysis.
To help society with the issue of crime, criminology or the study of crime has been instrumental in the prediction, deterrence, punishment, and explanation of crime. Criminology is an important part of society today. For people to understand what is happening in the world today, they must go back and look at previous data and research. Perceived notions of past and present criminologists along with hard data and statistics make the criminal justice system what it is today.
Maneki Neko literally means “beckoning cat” and it represents a ceramic or china statuette with a raised paw.
If you listen to two different frequencies played in each ear simultaneously, it can have an instant and profound effect on the subconscious mind. It has the power to affect the way you think & feel.
Many parents, though they fear to admit it, have an unfavored child. When family members prefer one child over another, it can end up hurting the entire family. Here's what you need to know about what the unfavored child is feeling.
Psychopathology - the science and study of psychological illnesses, the nature of them and what causes them to occur.
A comprehensive review for stepmoms trying to understand and survive the chaos of a borderline ex-wife or girlfriend.
The biological approach's explanation for why men and women are different. Evidence for the biological approach and its views on gender development. Key studies and research and their conclusions about gender development.
We've all heard the terms Supply & Demand before, but how much do you really know about one of the fundamental principals of economics? In this article, we'll cover the basics everyone needs to know.
What is the difference between a president and a prime minister? This article is devoted to helping you better understand the difference.
Do I know you? Face detection is something we do every day without even thinking about it. For most of us recognizing faces is an automatic skill, but this is a complex psychological process.
Sugar and spice and everything nice - not always! These 5 stories of little girls who kill proves we should all beware of pretty little packages.
Robert Oakley Marshall wanted out of his marriage to be with his mistress but he couldn't afford for his massive debt to be exposed in a divorce.
John Benson, Flickr At some point in your life, you will feel the urge to become a leader. Maybe it’s becoming the coach of your child's soccer team, or opening up your own business. Or maybe it’s much bigger, such as leading one’s own city,...
This article discusses factors that complicate and hinder change in the socio-political landscape of any given nation.
Indifference curve analysis is basically an attempt to improve cardinal utility analysis (principle of marginal utility). An indifference curve is also known as iso utility curve (“iso” means same).
Though criticized as somewhat reductionist and overly codified, Piaget was the first developmental psychologist to postulate a series of cognitive stages through which children grow and develop.
As the “American City” expanded its industry, people began to pour into the city. Immigrants and people from the hinterlands moved to the city looking for a better life and more opportunities. In other words, they came to work. And as more people moved into the cities, the greater the demand was for living space close to their jobs. As a result, tenement buildings sprung up around the city. The owners of the tenements, in hopes of getting rich quick, built buildings cheaply and divided them in
This list is a collection of five of the best sociological books out there. This list does not include textbooks or readers, but rather, books that one would read outside of the classroom. Scroll down to explore the fascinating world of sociology and culture.
William Jennings Bryan's "Cross of Gold" speech was a masterpiece in its day. It still is -- and it can be used to develop students' rhetorical analysis skills.
The art of traditional tattooing nearly died out among the Hawaiians. But it has been reborn. Join me on a journey through the history of tattooing and my quest to receive a tattoo from Keli'i Makua.
References to a deity that resembles Cronos can be found in Irish texts. Is it possible that this Greek being may have taken up residence in Ireland in the distant past?
After 75 years of being upstaged by plastics, the tagua nut, known as "vegetable ivory" has resurfaced as one of the most sustainable products in the world. Hopefully, its comeback will put an end to the senseless slaughter of animals for their tusks.
An analysis of utopian and dystopian literature as well as some real-world attempts at creating utopian societies during the Protestant Reformation. I also have a summary of modern day utopias.
Some ancestors of Granny Women in Appalachian regions come from Ireland, Scotland,and Wales. Let's step through a door to the past and take a look at some of their ancient healing practices...
The concept of opportunity cost occupies an important place in economic theory. The concept was first developed by Wieser. The opportunity cost of anything is the alternative that has been foregone...
A review of the development and contribution of equity towards law and the country. It includes discussion of equitable remedies, maxims, doctrines, and principles which are still used until today.
Tribal Art and Traditions can be weird and wonderful. From the Long Neck Tribe of Burma to the beautiful energy and color of the dancing Wodaabe Fulani tribesmen of Southern Niger. Including Neck Rings, Lip Plates Nose Plugs and Exotic Makeup.
The development of ethnography, important figures in cultural anthropology, and how ethnographic studies changed history.
If you have an INFJ friend, this article will would give you ideas for how to make their birthday special without overwhelming them with surprises.
The curious cultural differences between the English and the Dutch . Bizarre, strange,puzzling and just plain odd goings on in two very civilised countries.
Giffen goods explanation - Income and substitution effects on Giffen goods - Income and substitution effects on normal goods - Income and substitution effects on inferior goods
Customary Marriage in Papua New Guinea is recognised by Status law and the parties in a marriage decide on which customs to conduct a marriage and conclude it. There are some requirements in it.
MDMA, known as ecstasy, is an illicit substance commonly used in the rave scene. The high is immensely enjoyable, making the user feel simultaneously euphoric, excited, empathetic, loving and at peace with the world. In this article, I take a closer look at the psychology of MDMA use and addiction.
Arguably, both intellectually and physiologically our species, Homo Sapiens, may be fast reaching the limits of its potential. What may come next?
A detailed look at the preamble of the United States Constitution and it's relevance to life today in America.
The Celts were renown for their military prowess and fearlessness in battle. This has been attributed to their belief in reincarnation. Do myths and legends preserve this belief?
The law of returns to scale examines the relationship between output and the scale of inputs in the long-run, when all the inputs are increased in the same proportion.
Understanding brain wave frequencies could be a vital piece of information that could benefit the future of medical and psychological tools to aid in the many health problems people face.
A look at the body language of the hands on the hips posture including a breakdown of its components and what they suggest about its meaning.
Both Adolf Hitler and Winston Churchill changed the world forever. These two opponents during WW2 shared one thing in common -- mental illness.
INFP is the introverted, intuitive, feeling, and perceiving Myers Briggs personality type. INFPs rely heavily on their intuition and are known for being both caring and complex people. Natural idealists, the INFP often incorporates perfectionism and...
Transactional analysis is a powerful model which can help people understand why communication sometimes goes so wrong, and how to make it better.
Though gender roles are clearly defined, in Zuni culture gender is not tightly bound to biological sex. Zuni sacred history promotes a cultural role for people of a third 'middle' gender.
The tort of Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress has evolved, by slow degrees, into the legal lexicon. For some time, physical symptoms were required for a claim to be viewed as valid
A strange phenomenon called the Dunning-Kruger Effect leads some people into believing they are smarter than they really are.
The legends of this underworld testify to its otherness and yet also impart a distinctive British flair.
Matters of economic of growth and decline hinge on the population. This is called human capital, and to truly understand the world, we must understand the role that populations play in an economy's growth or decline. This article will help you understand how human capital reshapes an economy.
After reading this article, you will have an understanding of what Cambridge Analytica is. It describes the roles of the key players and how they collected and analysed big data to influence not only groups of potential Trump voters, but also targeted individuals based on their Facebook profiles.
This issue discusses cyberbullying and answers a question about a type called doxing. Included is a review of the book Cyber bullying Introducing Issues with Opposing Viewpoints by Lauri S. Scherer.
Before marriage, an individual should look into marital properties to see that his or her interests and conjugal rights will be protected.
Join me in my quest to find out, at last, who really stole the cookies from the cookie jar. There is a sure way to ID that little rascal! Exploring microexpression analysis and how to spot a liar.
Meaning and assumptions of consumer's surplus - Measurement of consumer's surplus: The law of diminishing marginal utility approach and the indifference curve approach.
The lives of these successful people, including famous actors, show that the dream of a better life is possible, if not for migrants, then for their children or grandchildren.
A group of American hunters were murdered in the Canadian wilderness, and a local woodsman and guide was fingered for the crime. But did he do it?
Some important economic concepts such as law of demand, consumer's surplus, elasticity of demand and law of substitution are based on the law of diminishing marginal utility.
Gossen, a German economist, is the first to explain the law of diminishing marginal utility based on general observations of human behavior. Therefore, the law is also termed as ‘Gossen’s first law’.
We have had a strong connection to England since our country began. The liberties we have today had a beginning several hundred years ago in a document called the Magna Carta. It is considered the founding document which identified English...
An indifference curve, since it represents level of satisfaction, is a subjective phenomenon. Each person has a unique set of indifference curves. However, all indifference curves possess some...
What does westernization mean for Pakistan? What are the effects of modernization on Pakistani culture? This article discusses the positives and negatives of Western influence in Pakistan.
The Iran-Iraq War was a costly mistake in both human life and economic damage and it directly contributed to Saddam's decision to invade Kuwait.
The success of counseling largely depends on the goals identified by the counselor and the timeframe given for the treatment of a particular condition.
The history and development of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, & how IO Psychology seeks to understand the effects that the working environment has on employee satisfaction and productivity.
Psychologists have proposed a number of theories about the origins and function of emotions. The theorists behind the dissenting views do agree on one thing, however: emotion has a biological basis.
What is the best way to stimulate an economy? Is it best to lower taxes or increase wages, both or neither? These are questions which both Democrat and Republican politicians debate in the course of attempting to determine the best path for growing...
The Amish life is steeped in tradition and an adherence to the teachings of the bible. With a culture that goes back 400 years, there are many surprising traditions and beliefs that exist in stark contrast to modern day life.
Some modern critics disparage fairy tales for their depiction of women. But, the truth is that fairy tales are complex with much to offer women of any age.
The Kikuyu claim that their father was called Gikuyu and his wife was called Mumbi. The entire Kikuyu community refers to itself as the 'House of Mumbi.'
Have you ever wondered why you choose the romantic partners you date? According to the matching hypothesis, people date those of similar attractiveness to their own.
Image couresty of Real Future Real Future The idea of the modern state that exists today never attained fruition until the perhaps the 18th century. The modern state and its accompanying instruments, institutions and mechanisms that we know of and...
The INFJ personality is one of the rarest and most unique.Learn more about INFJ careers and INFJ relationships and Famous INFJ personalities here.
It's no secret that homeowners associations wield power and sometimes it seems they wield too much. Begging the question: Can they do that?
Taman Shud mystery: The body found on Somerton Beach, Australia, in December 1948 was never identified. The story involving an unknown man, espionage, crime, murder, cipher code, and love triangles.
Marriage under statute law of Papua New Guinea. The Consent and other terms and conditions are met before marriage is concluded
We rely on DNA, fingerprinting and dental records for the identification of murder victims. Sometimes killers ensure their victims are not identified. Luckily, forensic science continues to evolve.
There used to be many traditions and customs for the Chinese New Year. Some of them are no longer observed by the younger generations.
Meaning of consumer's equilibrium - assumptions - budget line or price line - indifference map - necessary conditions for consumer's equilibrium - deriving consumer's equilibrium graphically
Psychologist Dr. Billy Kidd interviews a 1960s Acid Guide. They discuss the psychology of psychedelics and make the counterculture movement come alive.
Huge deadline tomorrow, but all you want to do is dance? Wish you could change the world, but doubt you're even good enough to change a tire? Feeling isolated and misunderstood? You might be INFP!
NORAID was pivotal to the Irish cause during the troubles, but this contribution has largely been overlooked.
A study guide to Industrial/Organizational Psychology examining the interaction of employees and their working environment, with an interesting look at workplace behavior and motivational concepts.
There are three types of equilibrium, namely stable, neutral and unstable equilibrium. Prof. Schumpeter explains the three positions with a simple illustration of a ball placed in three different...
The largest Ancient Mayan site ever discovered, using modern technology to see beneath the green jungle canopy of northern Guatemala.
Although with some brilliant contributions, this book's lack of focus and array of more mediocre or limited chapters means that it isn't very useful to most studying the European linguistic situation.
Building on Catholic social teachings, distributism is a political theory that calls for the benefits of capitalism to be spread wider.
In a rapidly changing global society where traditional cultures under pressure, we must respect our many diverse ways of life without giving up the ethical demand for universal human rights.
Although object recognition is important, facial recognition is even more so.In this paper the cognitive processes involved in facial recognition, identification, and classification will be explained.
The British Celts have given us the Mabinogion and Arthurian Legends. Is it possible that constellation lore is imbedded within them?
Where did conspiracy theories originate? Like anything involving conspiracy theories, the answer isn't straightforward.
Persephone is one of the deities of the Greek pantheon who is often overlooked, but she was the daughter of Demeter and Zeus, as well as the wife of Hades, so an important goddess in Ancient Greece.
Sociology, the systematic study of social behavior and society through the scientific method, has not always been recognized as a formal discipline. The beginnings of sociology go back to Ancient Greece where Aristotle developed the first system of...
Barack Obama a relative unknown defeated John McCain a long-established politician in the 2008 presidential race. How'd he do it?
"Mansplain" is a new buzzword in regards to the sometimes awkward communication challenges between men and women. It refers to the way in which men seem to sometimes talk down to women. But the explanation for the behavior may lie in the cognitive sciences, instead of the social sciences.
Some people would rather not be "put in a box." Get over your insecurities and come to terms with the fact that you have a personality, and it is likely not an assortment of every recognizable temperament.
Many people know of the Jersey Devil, but not many people know of the man the legend likely originated from.
Spiral Dynamics is identifying the inner workings of our minds and gives us a common language and road map to understand how people think about things and why they make the decisions they make.
This interview was done in 2015, when I visited Felix Padel, famous anthropologist and the great-great grandson of Charles Darwin, in Odisha
In the folklore and mythology of every culture there have been stories and legends of giants. Were the myths based on facts or were the facts exaggerated into mythological legends over time?
Handfasting is common practice in Neopagan circles. Many believe this practice dates back to the pagan Celts, but does it really?
Ever since the tuberculosis bacterium and its transmission modes were identified in the late 1800s, municipalities across the country have struggled with enacting and enforcing effective laws against spitting.
Here are seven personality disorders that can be hard to spot because their symptoms often mimic other mental disorders. As a result, they are usually overlooked as typical, if slightly eccentric, traits.
I originally wrote the base paper for this hub as part of an assignment for my Econ 224 Macroeconomics class over at American InterContinental University Online. I received an A on the paper, although it was a bit of a bear for me to write. There...
This article, the first in a three article series, discusses three theories of moral development, the Piagetian, Biological & Psychodynamic models. Each theory is discussed and examples given.
Psychology has played an important role in the U.S. Space Program since it's inception. However, at the beginning it was relied upon for selection & to address initial problems in the program. Today, psychology is regularly utilized to ensure the well-being of astronauts & their families.
Their names, race, county of crime, and date of execution is all the information the state offers about the men they've executed. Now I share the stories of how they got there.
In order to understand what types of people lead and join cults, we need to study the personalities and characteristics of these individuals in relation to their cult involvement.
In the process of business expansion, producers may benefit from the emergence of economies of scale. These economies are broadly classified into two types: Internal Economies and External Economies.
Signs you're an extrovert, dating an extrovert, and why extroverts love people and the world so much.
The purpose of prehistoric cave art drawings and symbols is still unclear, but they must have possessed some decorative or ritualistic value. Probably they were not really meant to 'pretty up' their enclaves but rather, have some sort of religious significance.
This article examines the concept of humanity that underlines Karen Horney's psychoanalytic social theory.
A questionnaire refers to a device for securing answers to questions by using a form which the respondent fills in by himself. It consists of a number of questions printed or typed in a definite order. A schedule is a structure of set of questions on a given topic which are asked by the interviewer or investigator personally.
There is scholarly debate on whether or not shamanism was present in many European cultures. Prehistoric shamanism lingered on in the European folk tradition, it is simply often overlooked.
The archetypal Trickster God shows up around the world in most mythologies bringing with them a strange ability to switch sexes whenever their mood suits them. What can this teach us about the now?
Hybristophiliacs are people who are sexually aroused and attracted to people who have committed cruel, gruesome crimes such as murder and rape. It occurs more often in women than in men. There are two categories of hybristophiliacs: 1) Passive...
These women are classified as missing but homicide detectives believe their husbands know more than they are telling.
How a con man duped struggling farmers into a pigeon breeding scheme that had fraud written all over it.
Our mothers always told us that breakfast was the most important meal of the day; our mothers, as usual, were right.
The glitch spot of the INFJ -- why your extroverted sensing function sucks, and why your introverted intuition rocks.
Anglo-Indians are a community that is fast dying out. They were never a large community, but they made an impact on recent popular culture that is massively disproportionate to their small number.
What is your animal personality profile? The BOLT test results may surprise you! There are four personality types: the bull, owl, lamb, and tiger. Knowing the types and understanding the differences between them improves communication, sales, and customer service.
Subliminal messages are perceived by the unconscious brain. There is not as much subliminal messaging happening in the US now as previously reported, but there could be subtle messages that are received unconsciously. Messaging has probably been used by or political operatives, yet it may not work.
US citizens like to pride themselves on living in the “greatest democracy in the world.” But can the US be considered a proper democracy at all?
Have you ever noticed that the US is a numbers society? Or have you noticed that Americans are quite business oriented? It's not a coincidence. It's part of my argument that the US is a very left-brained society.
The fees charged by lawyers put professional legal representation out of reach for large numbers of people.
Modern psychology is decidedly naturalistic in its outlook. Yet, the reading of influential psychologists reveals a surprising variety of perspectives on the mystery of death