A descendant of Mohawk Nation and trained in anthropology, Patty has researched and reported on indigenous peoples for over four decades.
The Wedding Wheel
Smiles the earth, and smile the waters,
Smile the cloudless skies above us,
But I lose the way of smiling
When thou art no longer near me!
— Song of Hiawatha: XI. Hiawatha's Wedding-Feast; Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
A wedding wheel is hung at the site of many Iroquois weddings, including those of Mohawk people. The first thing to be seen when coming to the wedding, the ornamental wheel is a symbol of the couple's hopes and dreams for a happy future in marriage.
The wheel is traditionally handmade of a wooden branch, bent and decorated with white deerskin strips and often having a "burnt feather" design, recalling the Feather Dance performed after the marriage ceremony, as discussed later. The burnt aspect is represented by dark-tipped features that may stand for burnt sacrifices or the tradition of smudging the air with burning herbs for cleansing and good fortune.
When children are born to the married couple, dream catchers are made for each child and hung above each youngster's bed. There, they catch bad dreams and allow good dreams to come through to each sleeping child. Each morning, mother and child go to the front door and shake out the bad dreams from the catcher.
Mohawk Marriage Means "Never Alone Again"
Any traditional Native American wedding reflects the couple's spirituality and beliefs. Traditional Mohawk marriage ceremonies mark the entrance of the couple into a combined extended family of the bride and groom, and further, into the larger community of the native band or village. Forever after, the married man and woman are contributing members in a large caring group, so they are never alone again: They have their nuclear family, an extended family, and the community as a large family under the governance of the Council of Chiefs. They are also expected not to divorce.
The Longhouse Sacred Ceremony
A traditional ceremony often follows the rites of the Longhouse Religion, or Code of Handsome Lake, observed by the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, which incorporates ancient religious beliefs and some tenements of Christianity. The latter include beliefs and customs of Catholics, Quakers, Methodists, and even Charismatics who have interacted with Native North Americans in recent centuries. While some native bands have discarded the ancient beliefs, at least 5,000 people still follow the Longhouse Religion, according to the US Department of the Interior in 2015.
Ground Rules of the Ceremony
No drug, substance, or alcohol is allowed in the Longhouse during the wedding and the following marriage supper, and no photos may be taken during the ceremony. This is because the marriage ceremony is sacred and people remember it by holding it in their hearts. They will speak of it and tell stories about it to their children and grandchildren. The children will act it out after hearing about it.
- Parker, Arthur C. "The Code of Handsome Lake, the Seneca Prophet" in New York State Museum Bulletin 1913, as discussed in New York State Education Department Bulletin (163: November 1, 1912).
The Couple Gains Approval to Marry
The Mohawk Nation is divided into three clans and the members of each clan are more closely related to others in their own clan than to members in either of the other two clans.
Overall, Mohawk people are considered to be related to all other Mohawks; marrying a member of another clan provides a greater genetic diversity than does inbreeding within a clan. For official approval by the Council of Chiefs, the bride and groom must be of different clans among the Turtle, Wolf, and Bear groups, each named for its founding member, who was an animal that could become a man and move back and forth between these two forms.
The groom will go to live with his wife's family after the marriage ceremony is completed.
Among the three clans of the largest Mohawk group, the Kanienkehaka, the Turtle clan is the oldest and Grandmother Turtle is said to have formed Earth by diving into the waters covering a mud ball at the beginning of Creation to bring up a chunk of mud that expanded to become the continents. The Bear group has the largest number of members.
The Council of Chiefs is the tribal group's governing body over eight communities or bands in North America. The council approves marriages and supports them if approved.
The Haudenosaunee or Iroquios Confederacy recognizes the council as the federal government of Mohawks known as the People of the Flint, who are headquartered on the St. Regis Indian Reservation. Tribal lands extend into Upstate New York to parts of Quebec and Ontario and parts of Vermont and Massachusetts. Marriage ceremonies can vary somewhat according to local cultures among states and provinces.
The eight communities of the tribe include:
- Ahkwesahsne (St. Regis): New York, Ontario, and Quebec
- Ganienke: New York
- Kanatsiohareke: New York
- Kanienkehaka: This is the largest community, located in Quebec and Ontario, including on the Six Nations Reserve. Ohsweken is the Six Nations or Grand River group in Ontario that also includes some Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora people.
- Tyendinaga and Wahta: Ontario
- Kanesatake and Kahnawake: Quebec
For the groom's gift, the bride sews and embroiders new white deer skins into moccasins. Her materials include decorations made from rabbit pelts, sinews, and beads that are either commercially purchased or made of bone. Embroidery is done with hand dyed fibers and porcupine quills made be used for quilling decorations.
The bride's and groom's families create a wedding dress for the woman, often made of white doe skin leather. Various tribal groups also add leather fringes, beads, feathers, ermine fur, and other decorations. The groom usually receives a new handmade shirt and breeches of doe skin as well.
The Commitment of Four on a Bench
A couple wishing to marry presents a wedding request to the Council of Chiefs, who approve it and help to choose a wedding date. The accepted date is announced to the whole community and an invitation is extended to everyone, with no one being left out. Friends, associates, and family that live elsewhere are also invited for celebration and support.
On the wedding day in the longhouse, the couple and their families dress in their best regalia and enter the building, where they fine a bench in the center of the large room. The bride and groom sit together in the center of the bench, while their mothers sit on either end, each mother sitting beside her own child. The mothers will forever be a part of this marriage commitment, supporting the marriage and giving advice.
Next, the head of the council will ask a series of questions of those on the bench.
The Ceremonial Questions
A council chief asks the bride's mother:
- What is your daughter's name?
- To what clan does your daughter belong?
- Do you think that your daughter is capable of fulfilling the responsibilities of marriage?
- Are you satisfied with your daughter's choice?
- If hard times come, and your daughter and her husband become homeless, would you open your home to them and their children?
The Chief asks the same questions about the groom to his mother. If both mothers answer yes to all questions, the wedding proceeds. If not, the ceremony ends here and the community disperses.
The chief next turns to the bride and groom, asking the woman:
- Are you prepared to be the wife of the man that you have chosen for the rest of your life?
- Will you prepare food for your husband and children?
- Will you care for your husband if he becomes ill?
- When it is dinnertime and your children are out playing with others, you are to call ALL of the children in to eat. If they have dirty faces, you will wash all their faces, just as if they all were all your own children. Do you accept this responsibility?
- As a wife and mother, it is your responsibility to prepare and bring your children to all group ceremonies.
- Marriage is a partnership and no one has the authority over the other; you do not dominate your husband nor does he dominate you.
To the man, the Chief asks the same questions and makes the same statements. Remember that this questioning happens as the couple continue to sit with their mothers in the center of the room with the whole community and many out-of-towners surrounding them.
If both groom and bride agree with the Chief in every question, the ceremony continues.
Two Important Speeches
One of the council chiefs, male or female, with next give a traditional speech called a Thanksgiving Address while holding the nation’s beaded wampum, as though he were holding all the gold at Fort Knox - it is the tribe's wealth. The speech begins with prayer and ends with thanks to all the guests for supporting and witnessing the ceremony.
The chief next gives the Speech of Marriage over the couple and their mothers, explaining the responsibilities and duties that make a marriage strong over a lifetime. After the two speeches, the bride and groom stand to face each other.
The Marriage Baskets
The Mohawk bride and groom hold marriage baskets while facing each other. The baskets are a spiritual symbol that are exchanged instead of wedding rings. At the exchange, the bride tells her groom that she will do all that is required in marriage, naming her new tasks. The groom tells her he will do the same, naming his own new responsibilities.
The woman's marriage basket contains material and clothing to represent that she is committed to her husband and future children. This is a symbol that she will sew, mend, and clean for the household.
The groom's basket contains a cake baked from white cornmeal, often as corn bread sweetened with honey and strawberries. His basket symbolizes his commitment to provide food for his wife and children and the children of the whole community.
Holding the Wampum
The presiding chief hands one end of the wampum to the bride and the other end to the groom. The couple holds it in a pledge to the Creator and Great Spirit that they accept their marriage responsibilities.
Now the Council of Chiefs gather with the couple's mothers to stand before the new husband and wife. The wampum is passed to every individual at the wedding. As each man or woman holds it, he or she offers words of celebration and advice to the couple.
After the wampum passing is completed, the chiefs, all the mothers in the clans, the official Faith Keepers, other officials, all the tribal elders, and all the invited guests shake hands with the wedding party and give additional encouragement and advice.
After large amounts of hand shaking, the wife’s family cuts a wedding cake into small slices for the couple to distribute to everyone. The cake is made according to family traditions and may be corn-based, sweetened with honey, berries, and nuts.
A Big Wedding Feast and Dance
After the ceremonial cake is finished, a Feather Dance honors the great Spirit. It starts as the new husband leads all of the men and youth, while the new wife leads all of the women and girls.
This is the final step in the marriage ceremony, to receive blessings and validation from the Creator. Everyone can now enjoy a large feast of the community's favorite dishes.
The wedding feast is huge and during this extended meal, wedding gifts from guests are opened and gift givers are openly thanked.
After the feast, a nighttime social dance is held in which the new husband and wife lead every dance. After the dance is over, the couple moves in with the bride's family to begin their new life together as part of the community.
Image of a Wedding Guest - From The Song of Hiawatha
He was dressed in shirt of doeskin,
White and soft, and fringed with ermine,
All in-wrought with beads of wampum;
He was dressed in deer-skin leggings,
Fringed with hedgehog quills and ermine,
And in moccasins of buck-skin,
Thick with quills and beads embroidered.
On his head were plumes of swan's down,
On his heels were tails of foxes,
In one hand a fan of feathers,
And a pipe was in the other.
- Anderson, Lynn. Medicine Woman. Tarcher; 1981.
- Anderson, Lynn. Spirit Woman: The Teachings of the Shields. Tarcher; 1984.
- ANTHROP 3420 Class: Indians of North America; The Ohio State University.
- Charles River Editors. Native American Tribes: The History and Culture of the Mohawk. 2013.
- Horatio, Hale. The Iroquois Book of Rites. CreateSpace; 2015. Reproduction of 1883 book.
- Keeping the Tradition Pow Wows; Dayton, Ohio; 1978 - 2016.
- Fred Ross lectures and storytelling; Ohio State Fair; 1978 - 1985.
Questions & Answers
Question: Could you please tell me what have been and what still are some traditional Mohawk wedding gifts that could be given to the bride and groom from their wedding guests ?
Answer: Traditionally, giving gifts is sacred at any time among Native Americans; and, at weddings, sometimes the bride and groom give guests gifts instead of the other way around. However, from discussions with Native American presenters at pow wows and festivals, I find that any type of practical gift to be used in the newlyweds' home is acceptable and welcomed, as long as the gift shows respect and honor. This means no "joke" or "sexy" gifts and, since alcohol is disallowed at the wedding and wedding celebration, no bottles of alcohol of any kind and no wine glasses or beer steins, etc. I have heard that the groom in years past sometimes received a newly made bow and arrows; today, fishing gear would be appropriate as well. I have also heard that the bride could receive lovely blankets or even animal skins. In addition, I have seen a couple receive a pair of horses. Another idea is that a Mohawk elder named Jake Swamp wrote a picture book based on the Thanksgiving Address and this would make a fine gift to the couple. These all are some good ideas, but a guest should not give gifts that the couple and their families traditionally make - the wedding wheel, moccasins, marriage baskets, and wedding clothing. Have fun at your next Mohawk wedding!
Question: Are there any Mohawk traditions for marriage later in life?
Answer: I have not discovered any specific traditions for marriage later in life among Mohawk groups. However, a recent related workshop on marriage baskets and marriage traditions was held across two days in October 2019 at a reserve in New York. You might contact Kanatsiohareke Mohawk Community, 4934 State Highway 5, Fonda, NY 12068. Phone (518) 673-4197.
© 2009 Patty Inglish MS
Comments and Experiences
Marlene Bertrand from USA on November 20, 2019:
A fascinating article. I never knew so much about the wonderful and sacred ceremonies. The most surprising tidbit was about the dream catchers. I have heard of them and seen them, but I didn't exactly know what they were for. Interesting that the mothers take the dream catchers and throw the bad dreams outside. How comforting that must have been for the children.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on February 07, 2013:
Certainly good for Valentine's Day!
Jerry Desko from Cashtown, PA on February 07, 2013:
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on September 07, 2011:
Thank you for your lovely visit, Guy Paul. It raises my spirits to read your words. Your range of friends indicates how wonderful it is to have such relationships with diversity, with love; and I hope you find love again and join your smile with another's.
Many blessings to you!
pg.sylvestre on September 07, 2011:
Very inforamtive hub...
I if was to ever re-mary I would do so in a tratitional native joining of two smiles...indeed love for me now feels like the traditional saying says:
The Mohawk ceremony is in the best of traditions...I am ONE of Canada and my vilage is here. I have Christians, Muslims, Mohawks and Jews as friends. Mother earth is one of the sources of our hearts and two stalions spirits and two eagles spirits surround me.
Blessings and be well.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on March 10, 2011:
Though Wisconsin is a land of war and battlefield right now, beauty still stands in the land. I send prayers up for peace, safety, and prosperity for your family and the state. Spread your art widely and let there be peace from its enjoyment.
Thanks for writing kind words about this Hub - I admire much of the Mohawk ceremony.
Blessings to you and your wife,
Ben Zoltak from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA on March 10, 2011:
Just beautiful Patty thank you. My wife and I indulged in a tribal native American ritual though we stayed a few feet away from the pyramidal mounds of Aztalan and the peace pipe as they were not our specific family traditions. I love how you have spelled out specific Mohawk ritual, keen on those who are aligned to take this to heart. Thank you also for the kind words on my art, lots of love from the grove and Madison, Wisconsin say a prayer for us here we need Gitchi Manitou on our side.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on August 06, 2009:
I'm glad you liked it - thanks for commenting!
Mr. Happy from Toronto, Canada on August 05, 2009:
Thank you for a great post. Cheers!
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on June 15, 2009:
Andrea - that's very intereting and I hope they are getting along very well in life!
Andrea on June 15, 2009:
I think I know the mohawk groom
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on January 27, 2009:
I wonder if there are reservations in your area that open weddings to the surrounding community outside the reservation? Thanks for visiting, cgull8m. I know that there are retreats held at longhouses all around the eastern US. You might look at http://www.tnasweb.org/tnasedpage4.htm
cgull8m from North Carolina on January 27, 2009:
Thanks Patty, this is the first time get to know about native Indians wedding. Would love to attend one ceremony.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on January 27, 2009:
Hi G-Ma -- With community support, a solid courtship period, and a real promise of commitment, what's not to work? If the couple has agreed to the traditional marriage, then the couple has a job together to help support the community as well as each other. it is a life long job, and not negotiable. They'd have to leave the community to get divorced because they were "tired of each other." And, a person mistreating their spouse is dealt with by the community quickly and definitely. It's a lot like some Nigerian community's customs with which I am familiar. There are no juries, just police and judges there. A crime is dealt with defintely and finally; and some are called only The Abominations there- rape, incest, child abuse, spousal abuse, others - all punishable by immediate death.
Not everyone chooses the traditional marriage, though; it's too hard for them
Scotty and Netters - these are fun to write and I am happy to give information.
Netters from Land of Enchantment - NM on January 26, 2009:
Very interesting. I love reading your hubs. Thank you!
scotty smith from Worldwide on January 25, 2009:
I also did not know what dream catchers were all about, thanks for the information
Merle Ann Johnson from NW in the land of the Free on January 25, 2009:
so this is today's ceremony? all these things are done as it was long ago?...Seems hard to believe in this day and age...but more power to them...I too like many of the procedures they do and the promises made...what happens if it doesn't work? I learned how to make baskets out of pine needles...the indians used to carry water in...I have 2 I made...and it is difficult...Love the dream catchers and was not aware of the shaking away the bad deams...I must begin to do that with mine...Also that the originals are made from branches...I need to find one... Thanks for a wonderful hub my dear...G-Ma :o) Hugs & Peace
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on January 25, 2009:
This was a good toipic to bring out some thoughtful ideas and traditions and I hope it spaks some new ideas for Valentine's Day this year. With the world flyng apart some days, something good and solid for Valentine's Day might bring some people together. I like the baskets, too.
Wendy Iturrizaga from France on January 25, 2009:
Very original hub Patty. You never stop surprising me with your hubs. I had seen the dream catchers several times but had no idea what they meant or how they worked. I like the Exchange of basquets during the wedding, seems to make more sense and to be more meaninful than exchanging rings.