report

South Pacific—the Maori People of New Zealand

Maori Warrior
Maori Warrior | Source

Possible Migration From Egypt

ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY

The Maori peoples in New Zealand are its First Nations and are named from the words Ma-Uri, meaning Children of Heaven.

Well known anthropologist and explorer Joseph Birdsell believed that Aboriginals located in New Zealand originally migrated from Egypt on the continent of Africa, eastward, and after reaching the western part of the Oceana region, took a northerly route.

According to the Birdsell theory, the Indigenous People settled north of Australia in what is now New Zealand. Their migratory route, as outlined by Birdsell, is shown on the map of the Southern Hemisphere and Aboriginal history provided by the University of Monash in Australia (see below).

Other researchers at Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand institutions concluded that Maori women are genetically different from the Maori men, the women's DNA coming from mainland Southeast Asia perhaps 6,000 years ago.

It looks like Melanesian men joined with them and some Southeast Asian men and traveled to New Zealand about 1,000 years ago; but others suggest that they all likely mixed with Indigenous Peoples already there.

The Maori Waka

The War Canoe
The War Canoe | Source

Interestingly, some ongoing research is examining the question of whether Indigenous Southeast Asians, Melanesians, Polynesians, and Indigenous Peoples of New Zealand, wherever they are from, as well as the Phoenicians, all boated to North America and became part of the genetic heritage of Native North Americans throughout the continent and especially from California to the Eastern Seaboard.

Related Boats

Maori Woman

Maori King Tawaiho, 1895

From New Zealand Tourism. (Library of Congress, public domain.)
From New Zealand Tourism. (Library of Congress, public domain.)

Polynesian Explorers and Discoveries

Before the time of Birdsell, a Polynesian from Hawaiki, named Kupe, found New Zealand in 950 AD.

Kupe called the land Aotearoa, meaning the Land of the Long White Cloud. There is some evidence of Aboriginal peoples already living there upon Kupe's landing and this supports Birdsell's Egypt/African migration ideas.

The Smithsonian Institution's DNA tracking and human migration project seeks to link blood types and subtypes among global peoples to, among other things, settle the score on the migrations of all peoples around the world as far back into antiquity as possible. Work is still active in the Oceana migrations.

New Zealand indigenous Maori history has been maintained by descendants only in epic-length, stylized songs and chants memorized and handed down through the generations. The use of oral histories is very specific and very complex. It entails a prescribed etiquette that must be maintained, including aggressive and explosive verbal greetings, the haka or war chant, and the wero, which is a challenge. On one level, the tradition recalls the oral recitations necessary among an alien race in the film Enemy Mine, starring Roy Gossett Jr.

Around 1350 AD, many people from Polynesian Hawaiki immigrated to New Zealand, based on Kupe's reports and maps surviving from 950 AD.

The resulting intermix of peoples formed tribes (nations called Iwi) and bands called Hapu, while smaller communities are known as Whanau.

Maori Tribes have been distinguished each by its own particular style of canoe and the unique craftsmanship and artwork applied to them. In this respect, the Maori are similar to the First Nations peoples of the Pacific Northwest of Canada and USA. In fact, one theory of the Totem Pole in the Pacific Northwest is that it came into being after Native North Americans found a Polynesian carved pole washed up onto the beach in the Queen Charlotte Islands (see map below). This is no longer far fetched, since debris from Japanese natural disasters in the 2010s washed up in the American West.

People, Artifacts and Debris May Have Traveled to the North American West Coast

show route and directions
A markerPolynesia -
Polynesia
get directions

B markerJapan -
Japan
get directions

C markerHawaiki -
Hawaiki Bay, Bay Of Plenty 3073, New Zealand
get directions

D markerQueen Charlotte Islands -
Haida Gwaii, Skeena-Queen Charlotte E, BC, Canada
get directions

E markerCalifornia -
California, USA
get directions

Maori Carving, Similar to the Pacific Northwest Groups

Gate in Auckland City. Wahanui (entry gate) by Māori sculptor and painter Selwyn Muru.
Gate in Auckland City. Wahanui (entry gate) by Māori sculptor and painter Selwyn Muru. | Source

Possible Route of Carved Poles from Oceana

show route and directions
A markerNew Zealand -
New Zealand
get directions

B markerPolynesia -
Polynesia
get directions

C markerQueen Charlotte Islands -
Haida Gwaii, Skeena-Queen Charlotte E, BC, Canada
get directions

Maori carved poles
Maori carved poles | Source
Maori carved pole at the Arataki Visitor Centre.
Maori carved pole at the Arataki Visitor Centre. | Source
A markerQueen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand -
Queen Charlotte Sound (Totaranui), New Zealand
get directions

Maori Group Interaction

At least one of the Maori bands was cannibalistic, according to history, and lived in the Queen Charlotte Sounds region (see the map to the right for the location, between the islands).

Maori tribes and sub-tribes/bands apparently battled over land during the period in which they were hunters and agriculturalists, and they occasionally took the losers in battle as slaves. Many human groups have done the same all over the world.

Sometimes, the losers to the Maori group were beheaded and the heads kept as a symbol of power by the victorious. However, only one group is though to have eaten its losers to gain their brain and muscular powers.

This tradition is also similar to some other groups internationally.It may or may not be part of the evidence for a specific migration route out of Africa.

Most of the Iwi group in antiquity lived as three social classes:

  1. Nobility,
  2. Priesthood, and
  3. Slaves.

There appeared to be no "middle classes."

Land was owned by the whole Iwi or Hapu group together. In the center of each Indigenous village was a place reserved for the Spirit Ancestors to reside. In preserving their Spirit Ancestors, the Maori are similar in traditiuons to Australian Aboriginals and some other groups.

Papua New Guinea

A markerNew Guinea -
New Guinea
get directions

Orchid Island, Taiwan

A markerOrchid Island -
Orchid Island, Lanyu Township, Taitung County, Taiwan 952
get directions

Human Migration Project Claims All Migration from West to East.

Further, in the vein of Birdsell's work, it was thought that the African Group that split in two, to the north and south at Oceana, each or both migrated further to New Zealand and Tasmania, and then to other islands.

The Human Migration Project and DNA tracking by partners National Choreographic, The Smithsonian, and IBM shows through DNA tracking analysis that human migration was completely west to east. That is, Africans migrated to Australia and later up to New Guinea, then to New Zealand, and from there to the islands to the east and northeast in the Pacific Ocean.

There seems to be controversy over the historical records and oral traditions related to Kupe from Hawiki having discovered New Zealand so-to-speak for Polynesians that later reportedly migrated to that island nation.

Theoretical Migration to New Zealand and Australia

Gold pathways are migration lines. Note the North and South lines at Oceana (from Joseph Birdsell).
Gold pathways are migration lines. Note the North and South lines at Oceana (from Joseph Birdsell).
Source

Controversy In Foundation Stories Of New Zealand

Different groups of researchers and the public find different versions of the founding discovery and settlement of New Zealand to be most accurate.

In 2013, the Smithsonian/National Geographic/IBM Human Genome and Migration project shows no migration into New Zealand at all.

The organization may post information after enough Maori purchase the $200 DNA individual test kits and send in their test swabs. Until then, we can only think that there is not enough solid evidence by Western standards to say who were the First People in New Zealand.

The leading thought in the early 2010s has been that the first people to arrive in New Zealand were any of:

  • Australian Aborigines, who are related more closely to Africans that to Asians or Europeans through DNA.
  • Chinese
  • Taiwanese (see Orchid Island, above)
  • Polynesians
  • Of Unknown Origin: see quotation below -

"The Original Inhabitants of New Zealand: Their Origin, Physical Peculiarities, and Culture.

According to Maori tradition, the first inhabitants of New Zealand were a people of unknown origin, whose racial or tribal name, if any, has not been preserved. The Maori knows them as Maruiwi, which name is said to have been not a tribal one, but merely that of one of their chiefs at the time when the Maori from eastern Polynesia arrived on these shores. The first of these Maori settlers are shown in tradition to have reached New Zealand twenty-eight to thirty generations ago. At that time the Maruiwi folk were occupying many portions of the North Island. They were the descendants of castaways who had reached these shores in past times, and landed on the Taranaki coast. They had been driven from their own land by a westerly storm. Their home-land, according to the accounts given by their descendants, was a hot country—a much warmer land than this In appearance these folk are said to have been tall and slim-built, dark-skinned, having big or protuberant bones, flat-faced and flat-nosed, with upturned nostrils. Their eyes were curiously restless, and they had a habit of glancing sideways without turning the head. Their hair in some cases stood upright, in others it was bushy."

-- Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 1868-1961. National Library of New Zealand at http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_48/rsnz_48_00_004950.html Retrieved July 12, 2013.

Carving of a woman and a man with traditional tattoos.
Carving of a woman and a man with traditional tattoos. | Source

A Maori Scene

From "Murderer's Bay" (Golden Bay) when Abel Tasman's ships landed in 1642. Meeting the Maori. (public domain)
From "Murderer's Bay" (Golden Bay) when Abel Tasman's ships landed in 1642. Meeting the Maori. (public domain)

Maori - European Interaction

Able Tasman is recorded as the earliest European to find New Zealand, by ship in the mid-17th century. He arrived from Holland to the New Zealand western coastal areas, found the land uninhabitable, as had other Dutch in western Australia, and left the region.

Captain James Cook arrived from England over 100 years later in 1769 (18th century). He claimed the land for the British Crown, but was attacked by the Maori before he left and lost some sailors in these battles. After this period of exploration, many other European explorers merchants entered New Zealand to search for gold and other resources. The Maoris were involved in inter-tribal wars at this time as well as in resisting European invasion and this resulted in a various forms of frequent violence.

Conflicts continued until 1840. In that year the Maoris signed the Treaty of Waitangi, giving up their national sovereignty to the British Crown to become a colony, in exchange for protection and guaranteed ownership of traditional Maori lands. Unfortunately, the Europeans did not abide by the treaty and war ensued in 1860, resulting in the loss of many Maori lives.

At the end of the 19th century, gold was discovered and sheep ranching had taken hold to bring prosperity to New Zealand. In the light of these successes, the government enacted human rights reforms that included the women's vote, social security, trade unions, and child care services for all. New Zealand become increasing independent until declared a sovereign nation in 1947.

Maoritanga, the culture and the people of the Maoris, began to increase from the early 1900 to the 21st century. In 1985, the Treaty of Waitangi was revised and reparations were paid to the Maoris for injustices done by Europeans.

However, there have been some problems with defining what constitutes an appropriate amount for reparations and some Maoris continue to protest inequities.

A Maori Elder, Maki Ruka

Elder Mac Wirema Korako Ruka belongs to the Waitaha Maoris of new Zealand, a nation that traces its lineage through the women in the family. Such a system is called matrilineage. Elder Ruka is the grandson of a Matriarch (queen) and states that his whole life of performing ceremonies dates back 500,000 years. Waitaha is a Maori word that means, water carriers.

Jim Elder Yellow Horse Man, a Cherokee medicine man, traveled through New Zealand with Elder Ruka and worked with him. This is the first working partner that Elder Ruka ever took and he did so after an elderly Cree woman from Canada told Maki Ruka about a dream she had had about him working with a man. The woman had met Jim and then Maki Ruka. She told Elder Ruka of the dream and then related it to Jim. Jim and Maki Ruka then met and found that they had all of the same prophecies given to them independently.

Elder Ruka was initiated into a type of priesthood by his tribal elders at the age of only three. This process was similar to that of choosing a new Dalai Llama for Tibet, but with unique Maori specifications.

Elder Ruka was chosen as an adult by the United Nations as one of just seven spiritual elders globally to announce to the world the ancient prophecies of their cultures. Elder Ruka met with other spiritual leaders that included Pope John Paul II, the Dali Lama, and Mother Theresa, among others. He spoke at gatherings in South America at Machu Picchu, in Israel, and in India, China, and Russia.

BACK TO EGYPT, THE POSSIBLE ORIGIN

Elder Maki Ruka also spoke and performed a significant ceremony in Egypt, from where scientist Joseph Birdsell claimed that the Maoris originated, migrating southeast to Oceana and then taking a northern rout to New Zealand.

Elder Raku performed The Unveiling of the Goddess, in order to introduce his cultural perspective of matrilineage and divine Matriarchy to Egypt.

PROPHECIES, ELDER MAKI RUKA, 1997

From Manataka American Indian Council:

We see great changes in the weather. We see water upon water upon water. The changing of the climate of the great mother earth, and the shifting. The coming of the Millennium, the year 2000, we see the changes in the structures of government. The fall of the monetary system. We see a time of beauty. We are living in the time of chaos, technology, where technology has left man behind. This is the sad part. Technology is leaving us so far behind. Billions and Billions of dollars to create one plane. This money could feed thousands of children's in many, many countries.

New Zealand All Blacks; Haka 2006

© 2008 Patty Inglish

More by this Author


Comments & Additions 40 comments

Stacie Naczelnik profile image

Stacie Naczelnik 8 years ago from Seattle

This is really interesting Patty, and the photos are fabulous.


MrMarmalade profile image

MrMarmalade 8 years ago from Sydney

Patti,

Val loved your hub, we do agree with inspirepub.

Thank you


Adrienne Suzanne 8 years ago

Very cool hub. My grandfather spent alot of time in Australia during WWII and I inherited some very interesting black and whites of the actual tribe he lived near. I've always been interested in Egyptology as well and find the correlations facinating. Thanks, this was fun!


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Thanks everyone. There's quite a bit of controvery about migration that I am attempting to make clear, but no final answers seem forthcoming very soon. The next Hub will continue and add more data to the pot. :)


compu-smart profile image

compu-smart 8 years ago from London UK

Patty, Wow! very interesting!!

Another great hub! Thanks!!


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Thanks compu-smart! The next one sums up the rest of Oceana a bit and has a lot of migration charts to make clear the latest information about human migration. I need more eyes to read all the charts and diagrams. :)


cgull8m profile image

cgull8m 8 years ago from North Carolina

Interesting Patty, I love this topic, I have bookmarked it want to know more about this one. Check out this video it shows the actual human migration from Africa to all corners of the world it is a bit long but shows how humans migrated. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsOYdksCoYE


compu-smart profile image

compu-smart 8 years ago from London UK

I look forward to it!

:)


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Thanks cgull8 and compu-smart! I'm using a newer map at

http://hubpages.com/politics/Aboriginals-New-Guine

It's a little different, if you want to look. New details.


Lissie profile image

Lissie 8 years ago from New Zealand

Nice Hub Patty on my part of the world. I don't have the ref to hand but there was a bit of news coverage last yeare (?) re some DNA link with Maori back to an obscure island off Taiwan - there were linguistic links too from memory. The title of the hub threw me a bit - a think you are using Aboriginal as an anthorpological term but here Aborigines distinctincly relates to the Australian original inhabitants - except for the Torres Strait Islanders who are racially Melaniesim - same as PNG. In NZ the Maori (who are polynesians) displayed an earlier Polynesian race called the Morrioris who were displaced to the Chatham Islands and died out in the 1930's though part-blood descendents still exist.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

AMAZING! Thanks for the clarifications Lissie! Yes, I was being anthropological. I am going to investigate the Maori link to the island off Taiwan. This is wonderful information - good leads to fascinating material.  Thanks very much!


JarrodHaze profile image

JarrodHaze 8 years ago

Excellent history! Wonderful! I have a few comments, myself! I spent a good deal of time in New Zealand, and learned right away that you don't pronounce it "May-or-ee" as most tourists would, but "Marr-ee" with an R - E sound at the end. Also, it's fascinating to see, for the msot part, descendants of a European culture that embraces it's aboriginal heritage. I think it has a lot to do with so many Maori players on the All Blacks, and the love of the Haka... which, when you see it in a stadium, is really moving. The All Blacks do some exhibition games in the off-season in other countries, so if you have the chance to catch them please do so! And if you don't understand rugby, don't worry, you'll enjoy it! Excellent article, Patty.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Thanks for the pronunciation guide, Jarrod! I'd heard it pronounced several ways. I;ve watched some videos of the haka besides the one above, and the challenge/greeting ritual. I'd enjoy seeing a full rugby game - I'll check all the ESPN channels!


JarrodHaze profile image

JarrodHaze 8 years ago

Unfortunately ESPN is behind the times when it comes to international sports, so we in the States have to deal with what we can watch now and then in Spanish or at a good English/Irish style pub with satellite feeds!

But if you get the VS channel you can sometimes catch the show about the South Sydney Rabbitohs! My old team from Sydney! Russel Crowe bought the team and took them from last place to 8th place in one season, and they played an exhibition game in Florida against an English team... I was lucky enough to be able to fly down for it and see some of my old Aussie mates!

But yeah, the haka is amazing, and Maori culture is generally held in high regard by Kiwis of all colors... it's inspiring. :)

http://blogs.wncn.info/jbaker/files/2007/11/haka_h...

That's a poster of how to perform the haka, complete with the lyrics under each gesture. Maybe I'll write a Hub about it. :) I haven't published in a couple days, I feel like a slacker! Anyways, print that out and have some fun, Patty!

P.S. - If people get a PhDs and are then called Doctors, why don't people have to call us Masters? Just a suggestion. :)


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Thanks Jarrod - I don't have cable TV myself, but I watch at a couple of friend's houses. I check out your suggestions abd the blog!

About degrees - after one accumulates a certain number, they begin to lose personal importance, except in their useful application, imo. They can also make one "overqualified" for any job and "underqualified" for jobs in establishments that are credential-happy. LOL

I don't know why they are called Masters Degrees, anyway - someone else out there probably does. Anyway, they're midway in the process to a professional license or PhD/post-doc/shingle many times. Maybe they should call us "Middles" as far as academic education goes. haha One of the best professors in my masters program had an MS and refused to get the PhD - no classes, only research for a professor for up to 10 years at a small stipend. I can't fault him for that, because he was about 12 years from retirement. :)


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

I LOVE that HAKA FORM! It's laid out like many martial arts forms are, in print and figures! Thank you muchly so.


JarrodHaze profile image

JarrodHaze 8 years ago

I agree about the quantity of degrees... five schools, three degrees, 9 years... finally graduated last year! I just want the title after all that work, though... it'd be nice to be called Master! ;)

I thought you'd like that haka. I'm working on the full hub, so expect that shortly... just waiting for a few of my Kiwi friends to get back to me with some library info they're tracking down.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Yes, 9 years is about enough to nearly become a doctor.

Your Hub will be stupendeous! I can't wait.

I could make you an Honorary Master in my federation. heehee

Patty 


JarrodHaze profile image

JarrodHaze 8 years ago

Honorary Anything always sounds good to me! And yeah, my brother went to school for ten years and just graduated last year as a Doctor. My next goal is to pay off my student loans quicker than he does! Ahhh... Sibling rivalry.

Anyway, I just received some scans of newspaper articles from some great Kiwi friends so I'm gonna get back to the research! Will publish this week. :)


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Greetings, Honorary Master,

Well, school and professional training is long. Student loan interest is rather ridiculous in the US as well. I look forward to your publishing!


Lissie profile image

Lissie 8 years ago from New Zealand

If you are interested in Rugby in your local area check out what Adsense shows on this hub http://hubpages.com/hub/Rugby-Sevens 7's is the shortened form of the game: it's an Olympic sport but the crowd gets into it a fair bit too!


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 8 years ago from North America Author

Thanks Lissie, I'll take a look!


Bueller's Way profile image

Bueller's Way 7 years ago from Massachussetts

Love the way you laid out the hub and all the information about the topic. Very professional looking and a great inspiration for all of us at hubpages trying to step up our game and not live life in a cubicle.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 7 years ago from North America Author

Cubicle containment can be limiting. My first classes in college were anthopology courses pertianing to all the Indigenous Peoples throughout the world (some still undiscovered at the time). The topics have never lost their fascination. Some of the migration patterns of nations traveling by traditional boats in the South Pacific have been charted and re-charted and we may never know the true routes, but it's all interesting.


salt profile image

salt 6 years ago from australia

Wonderful hub. In Australia, we call our indigenous people aboriginals, yet I have never heard an Australian or New Zealander call a Maori an aboriginal. We call a Maori a Maori.

As there are over 280 aboriginal nations per se in australia, if you know the local people, you refer to them by their tribe, yorta yorta, nungar people... etc.. with respect as they are the original land owners.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 6 years ago from North America Author

Sounds more and more like North America the more I read your writing, salt. Looking forward to realted Hubs!


barryrutherford profile image

barryrutherford 5 years ago from Queensland Australia

The Maori's were more warrior like from accounts ans as such it seems that is why they were able to get the Treaty of Whaitangi

unlike the Australian Aborigines...


Sapphire 5 years ago

It's odd seeing research about your own back yard from an outside point of view I'm from small town new zealand where the Maori pakeha mix is about 50/50 there are many tribes around here each with subtle cultural and linguistic differences we learnt Maori at school and in my area anyway many common Maori words are integrated into our everyday speech I'm always surprised by the way NZ culture is potrayed cos round here we just live and let live combining traditional Maori culture and many other cultures and ways of life


Sapphire 5 years ago

Also Maori don't have s in their alphabet so round here we just don't add one ie "the women swung their poi around" even if they have two we wouldn't say "pois" it sounds funny


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 5 years ago from North America Author

Intriguing comments - thank you very much, Sapphire.


literal profile image

literal 5 years ago from Aotearoa

The definition of Maori means natural or normal.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 5 years ago from North America Author

Thanks for the alternate definition.


Badger H.Bloomfield 4 years ago

the chinese were here as well as other cultures pre .Mauri{Maori}..Kupe. I have in my possession many stone carved tools -weapons -jewellery-ect . all these carved stones are carved with faces of various cultures in relief and around the periphery .they are retrieved from 3metres down ,buried by a massive Tsunami 26 thous yrs. ago .. this discovery changes world history ....


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 4 years ago from North America Author

Thanks for the interesting information.


Rosie Tinsley 3 years ago

In relation to the very top photo of the "Maori Warrior". Could you or would you have any knowledge at all of who he is????


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 3 years ago from North America Author

The photo is located on Fotopedia, Flickriver, Google Images, and elsewhere and was snapped at the Akaroa Museum in New Zealand on the Banks Peninsula. If you live in New Zealand, you could probably call the museum and find somebody there looking after things who might know. If you find out, I'd be glad to list the person's identity.

The subject looks alive, but possibly could be a sculpture; and I cannot locate any identification of the subject on the Internet. Thanks for reading!


peter 3 years ago

was New Zealand empty when the Canoes arrived or was the land occupied and if so by whom and where are they or their decendents now


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 3 years ago from North America Author

Peter, that is an interesting question, because it has become more controverial in the 2010s. I'm gathering the viewpoint and will add a section to the Hub for you to read.

One of the most interesting points is that in 1996, I found a paragraph of news connected to the Human Migration Project of the Smithsonian that speculated that an original people lived in New Zealand who was/were not related to any other people in the world. Later in 1996, the item disappeared and does not show up anywhere.

Check this Hub later today!


Athlyn Green profile image

Athlyn Green 3 years ago from West Kootenays

Interesting info. We've just published a Maori-English bilingual Bedbug book. It seems many speak both languages or would like to.


Patty Inglish, MS profile image

Patty Inglish, MS 3 years ago from North America Author

That sounds a very useful book these days!

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