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Areas of Sociology

Christopher F. Bueno is currently the Dean of the College of Education, University of Northern Philippines, Vigan City.


Seven Areas of Sociology

The term “sociology” was coined by August Comte in the nineteenth century from the Latin word “socios” (companion with others) and the Greek word “logos” (reason) to describe the new science of social life.

While sociology has changed a lot since Comte's day, it is still an important discipline that helps us understand the world we live and how we live in it. Currently, there are seven major areas of sociology. This article will briefly discuss these areas and why sociologists are interested in them.

1. Social Organization

Social organization refers to a pattern of relationships between and among different groups and individual people. Social organization could be said to the fundamental basis of modern society, as it allows for the carrying out of very complex activities that other members of society either participate in or are affected by.

Identifying and classifying different groupings of people is a crucial job for sociologists. Typically, sociologists define a group as consisting of at least two members who:

  • interact with each other,
  • have a sense of identity or belonging,
  • share norms or expectations that those outside the group do not.

While the larger society of a particular nation is itself an example of social organization, that society is in turn made up of a collection of organized groups of interacting individuals. It is precisely how those groups interact and organize that sociologists study.

Typically, when sociologists discuss social organizations, they are referring to:

  • Social institutions, such as the family or school.
  • Social groups, such as professional associations, or voluntary organizations like the Kiwanis Club or neighborhood associations.
  • Social inequality, which groups people according to class, such as the middle-class, working class, underclass, upper class, etc.
  • Religious groups, such as churches and affiliated charities.
  • Bureaucracies, including government agencies administrative units.

2. Sociological Social Psychology

Sociological social psychology emphasizes the relationship between individual people and the larger social structures and processes in which they participate. While the study of social organization and structure is the defining core of sociology, all social structure comes out of interactions between individuals. So, to understand the significance, nature, and effects of social structure, we need to understand the the people whose behavior constitutes that structure.

Major areas of study include deviance, socialization, group dynamics, health, race and ethnicity, and gender. Sociologists in this field have studied some really interesting subjects, such as obedience and disobedience during the Holocaust, the psychological consequences of work and family life, and the attitudes of minority groups to the cultural mainstream.

3. Social Change

Sociologists are interested in studying both “what is” and “what changes.” In this sense, social change refers to any alteration in how a society is organized. Sociologists thus seek to explain the causes and affects of these social changes.

Some theories of social change emphasize evolutionary explanations. These theories hold that society develops from simple to increasingly complex forms of organization. Social change, then, is linear and progressive.

Sociologists typically identify a few key factors that influence social change:

  • The physical environment. Changes in the environment, such as climate change, may require different forms of social organization in order for humans to survive. Very rapid changes in the physical environment can cause severe disruptions to social and cultural life.
  • Population changes. Migrations and conquest bring new people into new places, which in turn can lead to forms of social change.
  • Isolation and contact. Societies that are cut off from the larger world may change very quickly once they come into contact with outside cultures and peoples.
  • Technology. Advances in technology, such as the car or airplane, can dramatically change social organization as these new technologies offer new ways for people to interact.

Major topics of study for this field include: ecological changes, population, migration, technological change, new production techniques, culture change, political processes, social transformation, modernization, mass communication, and the impact of natural disaster.

4. Human Ecology

This is the study of the nature and behavior of a given population and its interaction with the surrounding environment. Specifically, it focuses on how social structures adapt to the quality and quantity of natural resources and to the existence of other human groups

Studies of this kind have shown the prevalence of mental illness, criminality, delinquency, prostitution, and drug addiction in urban centers and other modern, developed locales.

5. Population and Demographics


This area of study is concerned with the study of population number, composition, change, and quality and how these factors influence the larger economic, social, and political systems.

This area also focuses on things such as fertility and mortality rates, the impact of migration on the distribution of certain populations. Examples of topics that sociologists in this field study include trends in population growth and how those trends are affected by fertility, mortality, and migration rates, how population is distributed over a particular area (for example, segregation), poverty and inequality.

6. Applied Sociology

This field is concerned with using sociological problems to solve social problems. For instance, some of the main social problems where I live include squatters, prostitution, too-large families, nurse shortages, and poor nutrition. An applied sociologist would bring his or her knowledge to bear on how to solve these problems.

Let's take a look and see what that might look like:


Squatters are usually newcomers to urban areas who live on land or in buildings that don't belong to them. An applied sociologist would wonder why squatters came to the city in the first place. The research variables to analyze would include the squatters' background, their employment and educational history, their occupation and sources of income.

The sociologist might discover that squatters migrate to the city to find gainful employment but can't find a job that suits their educational qualifications. They are usually farmers, fishermen, laborers on unskilled workers. Lack of income is the primary reason squatters can't afford to buy their own house and land.


An applied sociologist might learn that prostitution and squatting have many of the same causes. Usually, squatter areas are breeding grounds for prostitution, drug abuse, and illegal gambling. The research variables may still focus on low income and unemployment.

Migration of Nurses

Why might nurses prefer to work in other countries? Likely because of the high salary that nurses can earn in the US, Europe, and Canada. Compared to a staff nurse in a government hospital, nurses working abroad can make 10 times as much.

The research variables to study the migration of nurses include salary, overtime pay, the exchange rate, and the country that they want to work.

Poor Nutrition

Since children are typically the ones most affected by poor nutrition, the research variables for this social problem would include: the family income, food intake, and family employment. Low income and unemployment is usually the cause of poor nutrition.

7. Sociological Methods & Research

This field is concerned with the applicability of sociological principles and insights to study and regulate peoples' social environment. It represents an effort to build and develop theories that can explain people's actions and behaviors.


Garima on July 19, 2020:

Do human development:The childhood studies is also come under sociology?

Xybhe on June 16, 2020:

For you what is the most important of the seven areas

Xybhe on June 16, 2020:

What the most important of the seven areas?

Portia on January 28, 2020:

Its very important infomation human being must know

Johnny Law on November 11, 2019:

I am interested in studying Ufology within Sociology. Which seven areas of sociology do I come under?

Ezeike Aishat akazeta on June 18, 2019:

Good work! Children in Internally displaced camp(IDP) are very vulnerable to poor nutrition. How can curb this problem as social scientists.

eloyda sukarap yuvii on November 20, 2017:

its help me to looks how socoilogy important in the economy,

Nam Eam Bahian on June 18, 2017:

Thank you for this research.. For me was a big help to us.. Hope more reseach and knowlegde you share... God bless..

No on June 14, 2017:

"Low income and unemployment is usually the cause of poor nutrition."

Problem 1. Assumed causality

Problem 2. Rich and middle class people are also super fat

Dan Olekima on March 08, 2017:

An amazing and informative work. Kudos sir Christopher Bueno.

skyen on January 04, 2017:


jay on December 08, 2016:

tanx :)

krisbert on June 21, 2016:

cool that can help me

dess on February 17, 2016:

thank for ur help

Jasonelmy on December 28, 2015:

There are no such thing called 7 areas of sociology! Sociology is broad realm and it covers every known field that we know today. If the question would be how many sociological perspectives then the answer would be much easier and short. Three main sociological perspectives!

Jewell on November 24, 2015:

Thanks a lot!

shi on November 12, 2015:

Thank helps a lot!

choleen on November 10, 2015:

my prof ask 8

baran on October 14, 2015:


Christine May Tupaz Barlas on July 04, 2015:

Thank you forfor the info:)

bryan on July 02, 2015:

Thank you

ella on June 29, 2015:


petlord on June 17, 2015:

thanks for the helpw

eden on January 20, 2015:

thank you.

rolaando e. medel of the university of san agustin, iloilo, philippines. on April 19, 2014:

thanks for the help...u are great!

killer eye on June 22, 2013:

that's all?

karla on June 20, 2013:

where's the 7th? on June 16, 2013:

Yes right..this is the most important to learn any problem in your family and most of them in our society..

leepinky on June 26, 2012:

thanks for the information.O:)

Christopher Fuster Bueno,Ph.D. (author) from Graduate School, University of Northern Philippines, UNESCO Heritage City of Vigan on December 04, 2011:

Clarisse Urbano identified at least seven areas in sociology as human ecology.This is presented in WIKIPEDIA unknown reader would like to know the sources with comment :"Are your references and sources? WIKIPEDIA is not a good source, 'cause anyone could edit it and make false facts." Find out the discussion is originally discuss the areas of sociology relevant to the nursing profession

Christopher Fuster Bueno,Ph.D. (author) from Graduate School, University of Northern Philippines, UNESCO Heritage City of Vigan on November 17, 2011:

Oh yes, in WIKIPEDIA the other area not being mentioned here is human ecology."Human ecology deals with the nature and behavior of a given population and its relationships to the group's present social institutions. For instance, studies of this kind have shown the prevalence of mental illness, criminality, delinquencies, prostitution, and drug addiction in urban centers and other highly developed places." Find out in the other areas the explanation is there.

clarisse urbano on November 15, 2011:

why is it only is? if i know the areas of sociology are 7... why there is no human ecology here?

bien on November 13, 2011:


Grace Marguerite Williams from the Greatest City In The World-New York City, New York on October 14, 2011:

This is an excellent hub. There are so many ills in society which need to be corrected and eliminated. You have made great hypothesis and theories and suggested methodologies to correct them.

Lizy on September 06, 2011:


Kwiringira Japheth on May 28, 2011:

poor sanitation in urban poor enclaves is the measure of governance.