Invasion of USSR and US in Afghanistan and its results
Afghanistan is a mountainous country in Asia. This country is located in the middle of Asia. It is bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, on the extreme northeast by China, on the east and south by Pakistan, and by Iran on the west. The country is split east to west by the Hindu Kush mountain range. Area of Afghanistan is 647,500 sq km. According to one report, population of Afghanistan is 31,822,848 (2014 EST.). The capital of Afghanistan is the Kabul city. Administrative divisions are 34 provinces.
Afghanistan has a long history of about 6000 years. In the beginning its name was Ariana. The famous governments in this period are Ariana Empire, Achaemenia Empire, Graeco-Bactria, Kushanids and Ephthalites. After the expansion of the Islamic religion in 9th century its name became Khorasan. The famous governments in this period are Ghaznavids Empire, Mangols Empire, Safavids Empire, Shaibanids and Hotakioes. In 1947, Ahmad Shah Dorani named the country Afghanistan.
Afghanistan has been attacked by different people and countries from the very beginning. The very recent events which damages Afghanistan badly are under my consideration. December 1979, in the midst of the Cold War, the Soviet 40th Army invaded Afghanistan in order to help the communist government of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) against a growing insurgency. At the time, the United States had been making headway in the Middle East at Moscow’s expense, successfully courting Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. The Soviet Union feared the loss of its communist proxy in Afghanistan. Thus, over the course of the 1980's, the Soviet Union poured in billions of dollars (US) into the war in Afghanistan, and at its peak, more than 100,000 Soviet soldiers were fighting in the country. However, the Afghan resistance (the mujahideen) was heavily supported by a wide variety of international actors, including the US, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, China, and Egypt. In the end, the mujahideen prevailed and the Soviet Army was forced to withdraw from Afghanistan in February 1989, having lost tens of thousands killed and wounded. Even after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Moscow continued to supply and arm the communist regime of Dr. Najibullah, but this was not enough, and Kabul fell to the mujahideen in 1992. The different mujahideen factions could not agree on how to share power, and the country quickly descended into a bloody civil war. In 1994, a movement of Pashtun fundamentalist students most of whom were trained in madrasas (religious schools) in the refugee camps in Pakistan seized Kandahar and started a campaign to wrest the country from the hands of the warlords. Known as the Taliban, this force marched into Kabul in 1996 and took control of most of the rest of the country by 1998. Many mujahideen warlords were forced to flee to the north, where they joined the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan or Northern Alliance, led by Burhanuddin Rabbani and Ahmad Shah Massoud. Even though Rabbani and Massoud’s Jamiat-e-Islami was one of the main mujahideen factions responsible for the defeat of the Soviet Army during the 1980s, Moscow decided to lend its support to the Northern Alliance, as did Iran, India, and others. Russia did not want to see a fundamentalist state emerge in Afghanistan. More importantly, the Taliban and their al-Qaeda allies were providing training and sanctuary to Chechen rebels, Central Asian militants, and others whom Moscow deemed as a threat
The most important thing which has been neglecting by even civilized societies of the world is the bloodshed of innocent people in this competition of power. In the above mentioned brutal nine-year conflict, an estimated one million civilians were killed. What was their sin? No one cares. 90,000 Mujahideen fighters, 18,000 Afghan troops, and 14,500 Soviet soldiers were also killed but got nothing.
The very bad luck incident took place in the world history is 9/11 attacks, which changed the whole political as well as social environment of Afghanistan. September 11 attacks, also called 9/11 attacks, series of airline hijacking and suicide attacks committed in 2001. It was deadliest terrorist attacks on American soil in U.S. history. The attacks against New York and Washington D.C., caused extensive death and destruction and triggered an enormous U.S. effort to combat terrorism. Some 2,750 people were killed in New York, 184 at the Pentagon, and 40 in Pennsylvania, (where one of the hijacked planes crashed after the passengers attempted to retake the plane). Police and fire departments in New York were especially hard-hit: hundreds had rushed to the scene of the attacks, and more than 400 police officers and firefighters were killed. Te whole world condemned and showed their sympathy for the innocent people who suffered in these attacks.
The day after the terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, US President George W Bush vowed to retaliate against the perpetrators. He declared that the US would "make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them". After refusing to hand over Osama Bin Laden by Taliban to US, on October 7, the US military, with the support of a large coalition, began bombing al-Qaeda and Taliban targets in Afghanistan. Bush reiterated that "if any government sponsors the outlaws and killers of innocence, they have become outlaws and murderers themselves".
This war between US and Taliban has been going on and millions of people are suffered including US arms, Taliban and the most important is civilians of Afghanistan. According to Watson institute Stanford University SIGAR, 42,100 Taliban and other militants, 31,429 Afghan civilians, 30,470 Afghan military and police, 3,946 others (contractors, humanitarian workers and journalist), 2,371 US forces and 1,136 US allies lost their lives in this war between 20001-2016. Total deaths are 111,442. This war started in the reaction of 9/11 killings of innocent people but what about the civilians of 31,000 killed after this? What about those who left their houses and living very difficult live in different countries?
In the whole history of world wars innocent people are more suffered. Afghan habitats have been losing their lives, peace, properties and the most important they migrate from their homeland. As a human we should think about our fellow humans on this earth who are suffering from different difficulties. Wars and collisions are not solution of any problems at all. Wars have created problems in the whole history. We should discourage the offensive comments of our political leaders against other nations because we, the civilian suffer by collisions not political leader who are secure by trained persons.