Watson, Pavlov, Thorndike, Skinner and the Development of Behaviorism

Updated on August 8, 2019
Schatzie Speaks profile image

Schatzie has bachelor's degrees in animal science and English. She has a master's in education and is a certified teacher.

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What Is Behaviorism?

Behaviorism theory surmises that human and animal behavior can only be explained by conditioning. Behaviorists believe that psychology should focus on measurable and observable physical behaviors and how these behaviors can be manipulated by changes in the external environment. There is no room in behaviorist theory for thoughts or emotions, in contrast to other theories of psychology.

The four main psychologists who lead to the development of behaviorist theory were Watson, Pavlov, Thorndike, and Skinner.

Watson (1878–1958)

John Watson was the founder of behaviorist theory. Quite innovatively for the time, he found Freudian-based explanations of behavior too theoretical and disagreed with the eugenic idea of heredity determining how one behaves. Instead, he believed that people's reactions in various situations were determined by how their overall experiences had programmed them to react.

In experiments he performed in the early 1900s he showed that he could condition, or train, children to respond to a certain stimulus in a way that was different from what their normal response would be in the absence of such training.

For example, one infant named Albert, who had previously liked and attempted to pet a white rat, was later conditioned by Watson to come to fear it.

This was done by producing loud clanging noises whenever the rat was brought into Albert's line of sight; in a few weeks, the rat alone could induce tears and an attempted flight response by the terrified baby. Because Watson repeatedly stimulated Albert to feel fear when the rat was present, the infant's experiences taught it to be afraid around rats and react accordingly.

Albert not only feared rats but had been programmed through the experiment to fear most other white and fuzzy objects as well, from coats to Santa Claus beards.

Pavlov is known for his use of conditioning techniques on dogs. The dogs associated the bringing of food with the sound of a metronome and thus salivated at the ringing of the metronome, even if food was not present.
Pavlov is known for his use of conditioning techniques on dogs. The dogs associated the bringing of food with the sound of a metronome and thus salivated at the ringing of the metronome, even if food was not present. | Source

Pavlov (1849–1936)

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was the first to introduce the concept of conditioning through his experiments with animals. His conclusions directly influenced Watson and provided him with the original scientific basis for his beliefs.

In these experiments, Pavlov worked with dogs that, like most, salivated naturally in the presence of food. Because this response is innate, the animals were displaying an unconditioned response (salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (food). Pavlov then, for the sake of experimentation, began to produce a metronome sound at the time of each feeding. Eventually, the dogs started to drool after hearing it and in anticipation of food, even when none was present.

At the end of his experiments, Pavlov was able to condition, or teach, these dogs to salivate in unnatural situations (after hearing a sound) to stimuli which would normally not elicit that response (sound). In essence, Pavlov had transformed salivation into a conditioned behavior, and the metronome had become a conditioned stimulus.

Pavlov further discovered that conditioned behaviors of this type would disappear if they failed to deliver the expected outcome; for example, if the metronome was sounded repeatedly and no food was presented, dogs would eventually stop associating the two and their drooling response to the sound would vanish.

Thorndike (1874–1949)

Edward Thorndike came up with the concept of instrumental conditioning and, like Pavlov, reached his main conclusions using data gained through animal-based experimentation.

Such experiments included placing hungry cats in an enclosed container, which Thorndike referred to as a puzzle box, from which they had to escape in order to reach food. The first time a cat was placed in this situation it escaped only after several failed attempts and a single lucky successful guess (such as pushing the right button). However, the time it took to escape decreased each time a cat was returned to the box.

This meant, first of all, that the cats remembered which behavior was necessary to escape and get the reward of food. If they had not, it would take approximately the same time for them to refigure it out and there would not be the trend of a continually faster escape. Secondly, they were clearly able to recognize their current situation (being placed in the puzzle box) was identical to the last time they were placed inside of the puzzle box, and therefore that the same successful behavior used before would achieve the same end result the next time around: freedom and a feast.

As the cats continued to be placed in the puzzle box, they became more adept at escaping the box over time.
As the cats continued to be placed in the puzzle box, they became more adept at escaping the box over time. | Source

Using his data, Thorndike developed two main laws concerning conditioning. The first was the law of exercise, stating simply that the repetition of a response strengthens it. Each time a cat was placed in the puzzle box, it exhibited a stronger inclination to perform the behaviors required, exiting the box with increased proficiency and in a shorter time span.

The second law, the law of effect, established that behaviors were either strengthened or weakened, depending on whether they were rewarded or punished. Each time the successful behavior was repeated, it was done so more quickly because the cat no longer wasted time performing other behaviors which had proven unsuccessful and kept the animal imprisoned.

A rendering of a Skinner Box, wherein a rat is giving a variety of stimuli to reinforce certain behaviors.
A rendering of a Skinner Box, wherein a rat is giving a variety of stimuli to reinforce certain behaviors. | Source

Skinner (1904–1990)

B.F. Skinner developed the behaviorist theory of operant conditioning. Contrary to the theories of both Watson and Pavlov, Skinner believed that it wasn't what comes before a behavior that influences it, but rather what comes directly after it.

In operant conditioning, behaviors are manipulated when they are followed by either positive or negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement increases desired behaviors by following them with rewards. For example, if rat food is dispensed every time a rat pushes a pedal, it will repeatedly push that same pedal to get more edible treats. The action of pushing the pedal, the desired behavior, has been reinforced with food.

Negative reinforcement increases desired behaviors by allowing subjects to escape punishment through their performance. For example, if a rat received a painful electrical jolt that would not cease unless it pressed a pedal, it would begin to press it quickly following each initial jolt to relieve its pain. The action of pushing the pedal, the desired behavior, has again been reinforced, though by a different method than before.

Skinner also showed that behaviors could be altered through punishment or extinction. Punishing behaviors after they occur, discourages them from being later repeated. For example, if a rat was jolted with electricity when it pressed a pedal, it would begin to avoid touching it, avoiding performing the undesirable behavior.

Extinction is when behaviors that were previously reinforced are later unenforced, rendering the behaviors inconsequential and causing them to decrease in frequency over time. If the rat that had been trained to push a pedal for food ceased receiving food for pressing it, eventually it would press it less and less often. In time, after it has become thoroughly discouraged by the lack of dispensed rat treats, it may stop pressing it altogether.

If the rat that was zapped with electricity stopped being zapped, it would also push the pedal to stop the voltage less frequently, as its reason for doing so would be gone. Extinction is the discontinuation of behaviors that had been encouraged by either negative or positive reinforcement.

© 2012 Schatzie Speaks

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    • profile image

      mustafa 

      2 weeks ago

      really nice job ,if you can summarize that it will be better for the college student to write an essay.

    • Schatzie Speaks profile imageAUTHOR

      Schatzie Speaks 

      7 weeks ago

      Glad I could help! Thank you for your comment!

    • Schatzie Speaks profile imageAUTHOR

      Schatzie Speaks 

      7 weeks ago

      Thank you for reading and commenting!

    • profile image

      Liz 

      11 months ago

      good work ,thanks

    • profile image

      clement 

      11 months ago

      wow ,it has been helpful to me ,thanks

    • profile image

      Amy 

      19 months ago

      This has been really helpful, thanks alot :)

    • profile image

      amoc rich 

      21 months ago

      thannks for the good vision

    • profile image

      Sophia 

      2 years ago

      Hello - brilliant article, would I be able to reference this for my university article regarding consumer behaviour and the development of the theories in regards to the impact it's had on current day advertising?

      What's the authors name?

      Thank-you

    • fpherj48 profile image

      Paula 

      4 years ago from Beautiful Upstate New York

      Very well written....interesting and extremely informative! Human behavior is most intriguing!....UP++

    • profile image

      Kevin 

      5 years ago

      Nice overviews. I would like to mention though, that while Skinner investigated punishment, he was in general opposed to it's use on the grounds that it is only effective in the short term. Moreover, Skinner asserted punishment is likely to increase aggressive tendencies. Here's a good overview: http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning...

    • Schatzie Speaks profile imageAUTHOR

      Schatzie Speaks 

      6 years ago

      Hi Epigramman,

      Thank you for reading and commenting! I too find human behavior fascinating (including that of my fellow hubbers!) and love learning about the different theories out there. More interesting still is tying them into the overall societal beliefs of the time and various historical events. I think that’s why I can never stay focused on only one topic; my research on one thing ultimately leads to several other things that must also be explored!

      Schatzie

    • Schatzie Speaks profile imageAUTHOR

      Schatzie Speaks 

      6 years ago

      Hi Nellieanna,

      Sorry I didn't respond to your comment sooner, I must have not seen the notification! Unfortunately I am not the same Schatzie, I am German though! Thanks for reading! :)

      Schatzie

    • epigramman profile image

      epigramman 

      6 years ago

      .......Human behavior (even amongst the hub community -lol) is as deep and as dark as a bottomless well .........so when the topic comes up I am always interested to see/read what makes people tick - and one reason why people become writers too. Love your research here and it made for an enlightening and educational read - sending you warm wishes from lake erie time ontario canada 8:50am

      p.s. - love the eclectic nature of your hubs - such wonderful work you have done here.

    • Nellieanna profile image

      Nellieanna Hay 

      7 years ago from TEXAS

      Excellent work! BTW - have you sisters named Laura, Lisa & one other (whose name escapes me at the moment)? I ask because in the mid 60s, while involved in an NSF study grant @ the Univ. of Ariz, I knew a family of very bright parents with 4 very bright little girls, one nicknamed Schatzie - not a common nick name in the US. But she was born in Germany when her Dad was a teacher at an Air Force base there.

      Your subject here would have been right up their alley now.

      If not - no matter. But it stirred my curiosity.

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