Skip to main content

Native American Sweat Lodge Construction and Ceremony: A Personal Account

  • Author:
  • Updated date:

ShyeAnne's job gives her a unique opportunity to observe humans as they learn to shed their addictions and become productive adults.

Our sweat lodge and our beautiful ShyeAnne

Our sweat lodge and our beautiful ShyeAnne

The Ceremony

I met my guy, Ken, a couple of years ago. He is part Blackfoot and identifies quite strongly with native culture, philosophy, and ceremonies. At the time we met, he regularly attended sweats in a lodge on the property of one of his mentors. There was a sweat lodge ceremony at least once a month.

At first, I was a bit wary of the lodge, but over time, I began to join him when I could see the emotional benefits he appeared to reap from attending.

For personal reasons, Ken's mentor decided to dismantle the lodge on his property. Ken asked for and received blessings from his Elders to put up a sweat lodge. We would again have a place to go and sweat.

Elder members of First Nations communities are traditionally respected, revered, and well looked after by the community. Younger members of the community go to the elders for advice and comfort.

Conducting a sweat lodge is an honor. One must be given blessings from their Elders to conduct, or lead, a sweat lodge ceremony.

People come into the sweat lodge to pray and share their issues and life circumstance. Confidentiality is key.

What is said in the sweat lodge stays in the sweat lodge.

Our sweat lodge with a light snow cover.

Our sweat lodge with a light snow cover.

Their Function

Sweat Lodges have been around and used in Native American, and other cultures, for hundreds of years.

In one form or another, the sweat lodge ceremony and experience is rooted in cultures from the Alaskan Eskimo in the far north to down south into the land of the Mayans.

Its purpose, in most cases, went beyond getting the body clean. The sweat lodge served to cleanse the mind, body, spirit and soul.

Participating in a sweat lodge ceremony is a means of prayer to connect with your spirit and the spirits of the Grandfathers. Grandfathers is a term used by First Nations to refer to the spirits of their Native American ancestors.

The sweat lodge provides a place to pray, a cure for illness, a revitalization for aching muscles, and a sense of racial identity. It provides a safe and secure place that resembles Mother Earth's womb.

The inside of a sweat lodge ideally replicates the warmth, peace, and safety of the womb.

Sweat lodges are unique structures, mostly all dome-shaped; supple willow branches are used for the skeleton of the structure and a variety of rugs, furs and blankets are used to completely enclose the lodge to create blackout darkness inside when the door is closed. Every attempt is made to cover even the smallest ray of light to achieve complete dark.

Me, Helping With Construction.

Me, Helping With Construction.

Sweat Lodge Construction

Sweat lodges vary in size depending upon the number of people participating in the ceremony. We built a lodge about seven or so feet across and four feet high in the center. Ten people can fit comfortably, sitting or standing in a circle. Some lodges are built large enough to hold many more people. My partner has attended sweats with up to sixty people, sitting three deep and shoulder to shoulder, in circles around the fire.

We gathered willow sapling branches, about four dozen, an inch to an inch and a half in diameter and approximately 14 - 16 feet long. Next, we flattened the ground and dug a shallow pit in the center to place the Grandfathers (hot rocks, I will explain) in, and we began to build the lodge. Dirt displaced by digging the pit inside the lodge is used to create an altar outside the lodge's door. This is where participants can place items such as feathers, amulets and other special objects to receive blessings during the ceremony.

One end of a willow branch is placed in a six-inch hole and secured in the ground. Another willow branch is placed on the ground, directly across the pit from the first one. Ken bent the willows toward each other to form a dome shape. I held them in position, and Ken secured them with twine. We moved on to the next two and the next two until we had created a dome-shaped base structure.

We then took willow branches, bent and secured them horizontally to support the vertical willows and helped secure and make the shell sturdy. There are seven horizontal rows of willow branches, each row representing one of the teachings of the seven directions. As each horizontal row of willow branches is put in place, we think about the significance of the seven directions and the seven teachings.

The sacred colors depicting direction, as I was taught.

The sacred colors depicting direction, as I was taught.

Other teachings show a different order.

Other teachings show a different order.

The Seven Directions

A brief description of each direction is as follows:

East - Color Red - Truth

South - Color Yellow - kindness

West - Color Black - Sharing

North - Color White - Caring

Sky - Color Blue - Strength

Earth - Color Green - Respect

Creator - Color Purple - Humility

To finish off the construction we took heavy carpets and blankets and secured them over the dome we had created with the willow branches. We got a piece of wood the width of the doorway Ken had created at the east side of the lodge. We attached four or five heavy blankets to the piece of wood and secured it in place over the entrance. Ideally, no light is supposed to get into the lodge from the outside during the ceremony.

The basic structure is now complete.

My fella lighting the fire to heat the Grandfathers

My fella lighting the fire to heat the Grandfathers

A Fire Pit and Grandfathers

A fire pit is dug and located thirty to forty feet away from the lodge, in a straight line from the east doorway of the lodge. The Grandfathers, or Spirits, come from the sky, following the path of smoke from the fire. The path from the fire to the lodge is referred to as the spiritual path. The Grandfathers, the Spirits that have come to hear our prayers and give us strength, follow the spiritual path into the lodge. Cedar boughs are often laid on this path. Once the fire is started and preparations for the ceremony are underway, with the exception of the conductor and the fire keeper, participants are not supposed to cross the path as this is seen as disrespectful to the Spirits.

Large rocks, ideally the size of a man's head, are used to represent the Grandfathers. Spirits that are prayed to during the ceremony are referred to as Grandfathers. Lava rocks are often used as they are capable of withstanding and absorbing intense heat from the fire. The Grandfathers, the number varies depending on personal preference of the conductor, usually twenty-eight, are placed in the bottom of the fire pit. Sufficient wood is then placed upright in the fire pit, leaving small 'doorways' in each of the four directions to place dry moss or paper to get the fire started.

Many conductors have a designated fire keeper. The fire keeper lights the fire a few hours before the ceremony begins in order to heat the Grandfathers. The fire keeper is responsible for tending to the fire. He/she is also given the responsibility of bringing the Grandfathers in to the sweat lodge, one at a time, to begin the ceremony. The fire keeper and the conductor work together to bring the energies of the Grandfathers to the lodge in a good way.

A large pot of water is placed close to, or in, the fire to heat up the medicines used during the ceremony. These medicines are splashed on the Grandfathers during the ceremony. The medicines release steam and incredibly amazing aromas.

Cedar and sage are two medicines often used during a ceremony. There are many medicines, each with its own meaning and blessing. Cedar is used for kindness, sage for clearing away negative energy and to bring harmony.

Beautiful featherbox my beautiful friend carved for me during a 4 day fast.

Beautiful featherbox my beautiful friend carved for me during a 4 day fast.

How to Begin

When the conductor feels the Grandfathers are glowing hot enough, it is time for the ceremony to begin. Comfortable and loose clothing is worn in the lodge. Most women wear long cotton dresses, the men wear shorts or sweatpants. It is advisable to bring water into the lodge to stay hydrated.

The women enter the lodge first. We walk around the outside perimeter clockwise, to honor the natural order and energies of the Universe. After walking around the outside of the lodge the participant kneels down in the doorway, blesses the Grandfathers and enters the lodge keeping to the left, circling to the right, one at a time. When everyone is in, all the woman are on the right, all men on the left. The pot of medicines is brought in and placed by the pit inside the lodge to be splashed on the Grandfathers by the conductor during the ceremony.

Thinderbird painted on my drum by my guy.

Thinderbird painted on my drum by my guy.

The Ceremony Continues

Some people bring their drums into the lodge with them, if they are lucky enough to have one, to beat during the ceremony. Pictured above is my drum. It was made by one of Ken's good friends. Ken gave it to me when he received another one, made by the same friend. The drum itself is covered in Elk hide stretched tight on a round frame. The Thunderbird on my drum is an original work of art by Ken.

The conductor asks the fire keeper to begin bringing in the Grandfathers. The Grandfathers are brought in one at at time. The conductor asks one or more of the participants to sprinkle on dry medicines, cedar, sage or one of the many other medicines used, to bless each Grandfather as it is brought in to the lodge.

Seven Grandfathers are brought in by the fire keeper, one for each of the directions, east, south, west and north, one for the sky, one for the earth and one the Creator. When the fire keeper is done he enters the lodge (if invited by the conductor). The door is closed and the ceremony begins. Ideally, inside the lodge is pitch black aside from the Grandfathers that are glowing red in the center pit.

Most sweat lodge ceremonies have four rounds.

The first round is to honor and pray for the Grandfathers, Grandmothers and the Creator.

During the second round we pray for our brothers and sisters, two-legged, four-legged, finned and winged.

During the third round the participants pray for specific people, places and things. This is the round to pray for our brothers and sisters that are still suffering with addictions and heartache, to pray for people suffering due to natural disasters such as the recent catastrophic earthquake in Japan, for animals that are displaced and threatened due to callous actions of humans.

The fourth round is for the participants to pray for themselves, for help with their weaknesses, trials and tribulations.

The length of each round depends on how many people are participating. The first round is generally the gentlest in terms of heat. There are just seven Grandfathers. The conductor usually begins each round by beating his drum and singing. Participants join in or remain silent, depending on personal preference. When the song, or songs, are finished, the conductor passes the feather to the participant on his left. That person then proceeds to pray, aloud or in silence, again it depends on personal preference, giving thanks to the Creator and the Grandmothers and Grandfathers, for all that was, all that is, and all that will be.

When that person is done, they feel around in the darkness for the participant to their left, pass the feather to him/her and it is now that person's turn to pray. This continues until everyone has been given the opportunity to pray and share. As each person prays, the conductor splashes medicines from the pot onto the red hot Grandfathers. He splashes four times in honor of the four directions. If there are many people in the lodge and/or the lodge is really hot, the conductor will have everyone pray simultaneously and in silence, to hasten the length of the round. When the end of the round is reached everyone says, "In the name of all my relations", the door is opened. There is a short interlude, ten or fifteen minutes so people can cool down. The fire keeper is then asked by the conductor to bring in seven more Grandfathers with a pitchfork, one at a time, and the next round begins. Each subsequent round is usually hotter than the last. There are fourteen Grandfathers during the second round, twenty one during the third, twenty eight during the fourth, and last, round.

Heat rises and when I feel challenged by the heat I will lay down and get my face as close to the ground as I possibly can. The heat experienced inside the lodge is unique to each person. I may feel like I can barely tolerate the heat meanwhile the person next to me may not feel any discomfort at all. If at any time during a round, a participant is overwhelmed by heat or emotion that is too much for them, all they need to say is, "In the name of all my relations." The conductor will immediately open the door to let the participant out of the lodge. The door is again closed and the round resumes.

Often participants will share deeply personal concerns and issues. Trust is very important and confidentiality is paramount.

The lodge in the summer.

The lodge in the summer.

Ending the Sweat Ceremony

Ken was taught to bring fresh berries to share at the end of the fourth round. After the door is opened, a bowl of fresh berries is passed around, with each person also offering some to the Grandfathers. At some ceremonies, participants bring food dishes and a feast is shared.

The ceremony is about balancing energies and honoring our Creator.

There is much more to a sweat lodge and ceremony than what I have written here. This is but a small snapshot.

The sweat lodge is a kind and gentle way to practise and pray for one's spiritual beliefs. It offers a positive sense of community and helps create bonds with people. It also helps one realise that they are supported in their journey to spiritual peace.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Questions & Answers

Question: Does the conductor of a sweatlodge receive gifts?

Answer: It is common for people coming to a sweat lodge to bring tobacco or other tokens for the lodge-keeper.

Question: I live in North West Florida. Where can I buy the Proper Grandfather's/Rocks to use in the inipi? I have seen people use the wrong kind, and they exploded.

Answer: Hi there, we gathered rocks from the seashore and river beds. I am not knowledgeable as to the quality/type of rocks chosen for the grandfathers. I will research an answer for you.

Question: Is it necessary to have a horseshoe ring of rocks around the fire for a sweat lodge?

Answer: The sweats I participated in had a full ring of rocks around the fire.

Question: Do you know where I can buy willow saplings that length?

Answer: Hi, I live in Canada. We go out into the Bush and select our own, we use alder. We make sure to take only what we need. We make sure to bless and thank the tree.

© 2011 ShyeAnne


ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on September 14, 2020:

So sorry for the late reply. I just saw the alert for this comment now Rich. While the ceremony is in progress medicines such as sage and cedar are splashed on the to Grandfathers..

ShyeAnne on July 17, 2020:

Thank you Nafeesa, she is a beautiful animal . Hi Rich, once the grandfathers are in the lodge a concoction of sage, cedar etc is splashed on them throughout the ceremony.

Nafeesa on July 16, 2020:

I like your dog

Rich on May 07, 2020:

Once the sweat lodge has been constructed, do you also do anything to bless or purify it from the inside at that point?

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on July 08, 2019:

Thank you everyone for your kind words. Brian(wolffather)BBB, Redskyluv(thank you for including the info about the Grandfathers)and Stephanie Fredricksen. Kindness is one of the very best medicines..

Redskyluv on July 06, 2019:

Love reading about how others do their sweats. We do some simalar things with ours. I was really just putting out some info on the rocks. When picking out rocks you do have to be careful as some will explode when they go from fire to having water poured on them. We stay away from river rocks but you may have different types. I like to find lava rock they can really hold the heat.

Stephanie Fredricksen from Utah on July 06, 2019:

Really enjoyed learning about sweat lodges and your experience. I find Native American rituals very fascinating. Thank you for sharing!

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on May 20, 2019:

Hi Arlyne, thank you for your input. Maybe it depends on area/teachings? That is the order I was taught. I will put a couple of examples in my article. Did you notice anything else that doesn't follow your teachings? I appreciate knowing if I have incorrect information. Make it a great day!

Arlyne GreyBear on May 20, 2019:

the colors are not in the right order.

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on May 17, 2019:

Thank you Mitákuye Oyás'iŋ, for your kind words. It has been some time since I have participated in ceremony.

Horse2522 on May 11, 2019:

That was a beautiful and respectful description....your ceremony was done in a good way. Mitákuye Oyás'iŋ

Shelley on March 21, 2019:

What a blessing to help build the lodge Doug. Thank you for your comment.

Doug on March 20, 2019:

My lodge leader has invited me to help build the lodge tomorrow for spring equinox. I am extremely excited and blessed to participate in the event. I believe we will burn the willows from the old lodge when we heat the “grandfathers” This will be my 3rd ceremony and my spiritual journey continues to grow.

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on March 17, 2019:

Many blessings to you also Geoffrey.

ShyeAnne on March 16, 2019:

Thank you Candace for your kind words.

Geoffrey Nielson on March 15, 2019:

I will participate in Sweat Lodge this Saturday, 03/16/19.

I will bring tobacco for the conductor and a food share for the feast following the sweat.

I connect with your good thoughts and actions this weekend.

4 days following the sweat I do not hurt others or self.

Great Spirit guides me into the Spring Equinox this Wednesday, 03/20/19. Spring begins.

I am in the right place at the right time.

Many Blessings and many days to all of you.

Candace Pearson on March 01, 2019:

This is the best article I’ve found. Thank you so much for sharing your experience. I am new and want to join in/experience this, and you’ve really helped me get a good idea of what a profound experience it is.

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on January 16, 2019:

Thank you Cesar N for your kind words.

ShyeAnne on January 13, 2019:

I apologize if my hub offends you Rabbit. This has been published for a few years and I have had no complaints from friends or readers

Rabbit on January 13, 2019:

For the integrity of the sweat lodge, prayers, participants, etc., with respect, I'd strongly recommend you do not take pictures or post pictures of the lodge, particularly when it is covered.

ShyeAnne on November 07, 2017:

Thank you Boop the Cat. I appreciate your positive words.

Boop The Cat on November 07, 2017:

Great article!

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on September 05, 2017:

Thank you for your comment Gina. I haven't been in a sweat lodge for a long time..

Gina on September 03, 2017:

I am thinking of building a sweat lodge at my place and this is very helpful

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on December 17, 2014:

Excellent Dominique , that this instruction helped !

Dominique on December 16, 2014:

These topics are so connusifg but this helped me get the job done.

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on December 07, 2013:

Did you experience a sweat yet, B? Thank you for your comment.

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on December 07, 2013:

I always feel so wonderful after a cleansing sweat!

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on December 07, 2013:

TwoFeathers, the kindest of words, thank you.

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on December 07, 2013:

I do not know how I forgot to check comments on this post. A belated thank you to you.

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on December 07, 2013:

Thank you Neil Sperling, for your comment. This TY is way overdue..

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on December 07, 2013:

Thank you Ripplemaker, so much. I love the meanins also

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on December 07, 2013:

Thank you B, Ripplemaker, TwoFeathers, Paddyboy60,, Niel Sperling, MrHappy, for your encouraging and welcome comments. I have been totally remiss in thanking you. I did not see these comments before !

B on December 06, 2012:

very informitive i am excited to try but now reelize it is not as easy as i thought it would be that is if you want the full benafit. Thank you kindly sir! Mr. Redneck

PADDYBOY60 from Centreville Michigan on January 15, 2012:

I have been in on a couple of sweats. I always felt ten years younger afterwards. Nicely written. Thanks.

TWOFEATHERS on November 23, 2011:


Mr. Happy from Toronto, Canada on October 09, 2011:

Beautifully written! I have read quite a few articles on how to make and operate a sweat lodge and I must say that yours felt very warm and honest. Thank you for sharing this.

Consider using wormwood as a medicine herb if you do not already. It has great powers.

All the very best and do continue to share such knowledge please. I voted you all up (except on the funny part ...)

Neil Sperling from Port Dover Ontario Canada on July 07, 2011:

beautiful ceremony... I've had dreams and awakened from them knowing in my dream I was in a sweat lodge.... been so real that even once awake i could smell the medicines as well as I've had the smell of animal hides linger around me..... unique dreams for sure.

great hub

ken on May 06, 2011:

I'm so very proud of you Honey. Keep doing what you're doing it works. Onah!!

Michelle Simtoco from Cebu, Philippines on April 23, 2011:

I loved the meaning behind seven directions and their meanings. Beautiful part of the process. Congratulations on your Hubnuggets nomination! Please follow this and vote:

ShyeAnne (author) from Qualicum Bay, British Columbia, Canada on March 31, 2011:

Thank you for your kind critique. It means a lot..Yes, time to fast soon.

ken on March 31, 2011:

It's a journey that you've aptly presented. I really enjoyed how you pulled everything together, in the end. It warms my heart to witness your involvement. Time to fast soon Onah!!!