Cultural Differences Between the USA and Japan

Updated on November 25, 2018
aliasis profile image

I'm an aspiring writer with a strong interest in history, fantasy, & science fiction. I've lived in Japan for three years.

The Golden Pavilion in Kyoto
The Golden Pavilion in Kyoto

Japan is often considered to be more culturally "western" than other Asian countries. When it's compared to the United States there are certainly a lot of similarities, but Japan and the U.S. also have many cultural differences. While a group of people cannot be generalized as a whole, and culture in any country can vary from region to region, here are fifteen cultural differences that typically stick out to American expatriates in Japan.

15 Cultural Differences Between Japan and America

  1. Religious practices differ.
  2. Japanese culture is more formal than American culture.
  3. Political participation is less intense in Japan.
  4. America has diverse racial demographics and Japan is predominantly Japanese.
  5. Japanese people bow and Americans shake hands.
  6. Japanese adults are more likely to live with their parents than American adults.
  7. Tipping is not practiced in Japan.
  8. Space is scarce in Japan.
  9. Japanese communication is subtle, whereas Americans tend to be blunt.
  10. Japanese gender roles are strict.
  11. Social hierarchy is important in Japan.
  12. Japan's culture is collectivist and America's is individualistic.
  13. Eating in public can be considered impolite.
  14. Train etiquette is strict in Japan.
  15. Cash is not exchanged by hand.

1. Religious Practices Differ

The vast majority of Japanese people identify as Shinto, Buddhist, or both at the same time. Though Christian missionaries have been present in Japan for hundreds of years, their presence has had little effect on Japan's religious identity and philosophy. Therefore, issues that are the basis of debates in the Abrahamic faiths, such as gay marriage or teaching creationism in schools, lack a religious foundation in Japan. In Japan, Shinto and Buddhist practices are predominantly limited to traditions, celebrations, and superstitions more than strong spiritual beliefs. For example, in America, a politician's religious affiliation may become the cause of heavy debate, but there are few such issues in Japan.

2. Japanese People Are More Formal Than Americans

This generalization depends on which region of Japan you are referring to, but overall Japan, especially Tokyo, is known for being socially colder than most areas of the United States. People tend to stand a relatively far distance apart when speaking, and last names with honorifics are used when people speak to or about one another. An example of this can be seen in different approaches to customer service. In America, ideal customer service is usually warm and friendly. In Japan, it is formal and unobtrusive. Waiters don't usually stop by tables to ask customers how the food is or what their weekend plans are, and strangers won't often chat while waiting for the bus. Physically touching others in public is also less common in Japan than it is in America.

3. Japanese People Are Nationalistic, But Overall Not Very Political

Politicians in Japan have a shockingly low approval rate. Politicians are quick to resign after making mistakes, which is why Japan has switched its prime ministers almost once a year since 2005. Japan has a parliament system with many parties, and politicians don't win elections with a majority vote. In fact, Japanese people have a notoriously low voter turnout rate. On the other hand, Japanese people tend to have a lot of love for their country, and they celebrate their unique history, language, and culture in a way that's not dissimilar to Americans.

4. America Is Made Up of People From Many Different Countries, Whereas Japan Is Predominantly Japanese

The population of Japan is about 98% ethnic Japanese, and the biggest minority groups are Korean and Chinese people. Most Japanese citizens have an identical ethnic and national identity, therefore seeing people who don't appear to be of East Asian descent can lead to instant assumptions. This can affect society in the sense that because Japanese people view their culture as homogeneous, it is expected that everyone understands the traditions and rules of society.

5. Japanese People Bow

It is well known that many Asian countries utilize bowing instead of shaking hands, but Japanese people bow in more situations than just greetings. Bowing can be done while apologizing or expressing gratitude. People might bow to a deep 45 degree angle in business or professional environments, but most bows are just a casual bob of the head and slight incline of the back. Despite the prevalent importance of bowing in Japan, Japanese people are well aware of the fact that foreigners usually shake hands, and they might readily offer their hands in greeting instead of bowing.

6. Japanese People Will Often Live With Their Parents Until They Get Married

In Japan there is less of a social stigma surrounding an unmarried person living with their parents during or after college. In fact, it isn't unheard of for newlyweds to live with one partner's parents until they can find a place of their own. In the U.S. people tend to move out of their parents' homes unless they're financially or culturally discouraged from doing so.

7. There Is No tipping in Japan

Tipping is not practiced at establishments in Japan. It can even be insulting to tip because doing so is considered to be an affront to an employee's salary. If you leave a few bills on the table after eating out, prepare to have the waiter run after you with your "forgotten" item. In America, tips are meant to show appreciation for good service. Considering that many service jobs in the U.S. pay minimum wage or less, tipping has become a necessity in order for waiters and waitresses to survive.

8. Space in Japan Is More Precious

Because Japan is an island country that's only about the size of California, and much of the land it has is mountainous terrain, its available land is precious and often expensive. Apartments and houses are usually small, and yards are often tiny if they exist at all. Still, Japanese people have learned to adapt in ways to maximize space, but it can still be shocking for an American who might take space for granted.

9. Americans Tend to Be More Direct and Blunt, Whereas Japanese People Are More Subtle

Being too direct in Japan can be considered rude. This can be seen in body language too. People in the U.S. are taught to look directly in someone's eyes when speaking or listening to show that they are actively participating in the conversation. In Japan, extended eye contact can be uncomfortable between people who aren't close, and eyes are often averted. Japanese people also tend to be more reserved than Americans, and they share less personal or sensitive information, even with close friends.

10. Gender Roles Are Strict

In 2012, Japan received an embarrassing rank in the Global Gender Gap Report, which measured women's equality in various countries. America received the 22nd place and Japan received the 101st spot. There are very few female politicians and CEOs in Japan. When women join companies, they are often expected to quit when they get married to become housewives and stay-at-home mothers. The concept of masculinity can also be very strict, though among youth culture—typically university-aged people or younger—there is some gender androgyny celebrated in fashion, appearances, and theatrical roles.

11. Social Hierarchy Is Important in Japan

The junior/senior relationship is very important in Japan. An employee who is younger and probably hasn't worked at a company as long as his older coworker will be a "junior" to the "senior," more experienced employee. It is the same for students, especially in school clubs. In theory, the upperclassman serves as a mentor for the underclassmen, and it is the junior's duty to help out and support the senior members of the group. These roles aren't non-existent in America, but roles are often based on personal accomplishments, and they aren't always respected as a rule either.

12. Japan Is a Collectivist Culture, Whereas the United States Is More Individualistic

Japanese culture places importance on groups and communities. Satisfaction and pride are meant to be found within the group you belong to. In the United States, people tend to find satisfaction in their own accomplishments, and people tend to focus on their own aspirations. An example of this can be observed in Japanese business culture. In Japan employees tend to work for one company for their entire lives. Company loyalty is valued, and promotions are often given on the basis of seniority. In Japan, this can also influence the ways that people live in and contribute to society. In America, people focus on their careers independent from the companies they work for, and they will often change companies a number of times throughout their professional lives. Promotions are supposed to be given on the basis of merit in the U.S.

13. Eating in Public

In the U.S. people are often seen eating snacks or small meals while traveling on public transit, during their commute, while shopping, or while they run errands. In Japan, people are less likely to eat while strolling about. People in Japan usually eat while sitting in restaurants, cafes, or at their own kitchen tables. Eating on the go can be messy and food odors in places that are not designated for eating can be unpleasant to others. Even though people in Japan occasionally eat on the go, they don't do it often.

14. Train Etiquette

In the U.S., people tend to do whatever they want while riding trains or buses. People are often observed eating snacks, talking on their phones, listening to music (with or without headphones,) texting, playing mobile games, sleeping, working, dancing, etc. In Japan most people adhere to social etiquette that discourages disruptive activities on trains and buses. People typically silence their phones while they're utilizing public transportation, and they don't usually answer phone calls. Because sexual harassment has been a widespread issue on Japanese trains, many rush hour routes offer cars that are solely for female commuters so they won't be at risk of groping or harassment.

15. Money Exchanges While Shopping

When shopping in Japan, people typically pay for items with cash and they place their cash in a tray beside the register for the salesperson to pick up, count, and process. The salesperson will place change in the tray for the customer to pick up after the transaction is complete. In America, shoppers hand money directly to the salesperson and it can be considered rude for someone to place money on the counter rather than hand it directly to a person.

Traditional Japanese wedding procession
Traditional Japanese wedding procession

You Might Experience Culture Shock When Traveling Between Japan and America

Because there are a lot of cultural differences between Japan and the United States, people can experience culture shock when traveling between the two countries. Culture shock is a feeling of discomfort or disorientation that one experiences when they're in an unfamiliar environment. A good way to prepare for and combat culture shock is to do lots of research prior to traveling. Learn about the specific places that you will visit when you're traveling, study local customs, and try to physically or emotionally prepare for your new environment as much as possible. Culture shock is less overwhelming when a person prepares for it.

References

Questions & Answers

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      • profile image

        These nut in your mouth 

        2 days ago

        hahahahahhahahahahahah thanks for my project

      • profile image

        Commit no living 

        2 days ago

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      • profile image

        cale 

        4 weeks ago

        my friend lives in japan, his name is Yuto

      • profile image

        Yotko 

        4 weeks ago

        I lerned english but i can still speak japanese I've moved to the U.S and they don't have yen here

      • profile image

        FilTrask 

        8 weeks ago

        Thank you so much, I am doing an essay on Japanese culture and this really helps. I myself am a big fan of the culture and want to live there some day.

      • profile image

        CUTEZZZII 

        8 weeks ago

        THIS IS VERY INSTRESTING

      • profile image

        yamileth 

        8 weeks ago

        is good

      • profile image

        hoe 

        2 months ago

        I like it. TAKE ME THERE

      • profile image

        Ori 

        2 months ago

        I'm half Jap and lived in Yokohama for 20 something years and most of your assessments are true. But I don't agree on #6. My cousins lived on their own at the age of 27 or 28. However, their apartments are small but they are comfy. Both are single and both have girlfriends.

      • profile image

        Karen Leanne Sandberg 

        3 months ago

        How are better least tried Japanese depend their personality toward "under graduates have should Japanese simple ability like Middle High School similarity (Student College). Because Japanese more than hard explain why Foreigner humbleness being proud and Japanese spoken second their own continent how allowed them to speaking Japanese for travel tourists?

      • profile image

        courtney 

        3 months ago

        i used this information for school mhahahaha

      • profile image

        Anonymouse 

        4 months ago

        The 2017 Global Gender Gap Report has been published FYI. Japan dropped from 101 to 149 and the US dropped from 22 to 49 within 5 years.

      • profile image

        Kaylie savage 

        7 months ago

        Well that sucks.....

        THEY ARE SRICT ABOUT SIMPLE THINGS!!!!

      • profile image

        Young Pigeon G 

        7 months ago

        Helpful for my 5 page essay on japan

      • profile image

        ustupid 

        7 months ago

        those are help full for school work

      • profile image

        You'll never know! 

        8 months ago

        This was helpful...

        Thank you!

        I don't know what I would do if I had to come up with this stuff by myself!

      • profile image

        not telling 

        8 months ago

        thank you i use for project!!!

      • profile image

        someone 

        8 months ago

        Really helpful for my project. ('↻')

      • profile image

        Jams 

        12 months ago

        I am European & have lived in Japan for years. I love the culture, and in many ways have ceased to be European - I confuse Europeans actually because I don't act quite European anymore while an old Han Chinese couple adore me because I am proper.

        But for many Europeans (Americans included) Japan is quite a cultural shock. And a number of non-Japanese are considered foreigners, even if they have lived in Japan for a long while, not just because of their appearance but because they hang onto their European ideals & beliefs like glue.

        You can't be Japanese after all if you aren't Japanese and, in a way, it is more than just appearance. I have, after all, had a few laughs regarding naive American Japanese kids my age who think they'd be welcomed with open arms in Japan because they "look" Japanese when they are as Americanized as the European who lives next door.

      • profile image

        cholo101 

        12 months ago

        im doing an essay for Germany this helped a lot

      • profile image

        Maddie 

        12 months ago

        Thank you for this! My friend and I can't wait to use these facts on our Student Interest Project!

      • profile image

        naomin 

        12 months ago

        Im Japanese and dont agree with No.6.

        In big cities like Tokyo, If you were a 30 something years old guy (girls tend to be more spoiled in this case) still living with your parents,people would think you a bit weird.

        I started to live on my own at the age of 26,most of my friends would live alone as well.

        So, it depends.

      • profile image

        Susan 

        13 months ago

        I am doing an essay for school and this was really helpful :)

      • profile image

        chloe 

        14 months ago

        i'm doing a report for school on japan and this helped alot thank u

        :)

      • profile image

        Charles 

        15 months ago

        This is a well-informed and pretty accurate overview! I have something to say about the "lot of similarities", though. Having lived in Japan for four years, I would say that the similarities between Japan and the US are confined to modernity and technology. Japan being a first-world country is all that makes it seem similar. Much like South Korea. Japan has vending machines, convenience stores, modern infrastructure and everything else that keeps us from a "comfort shock" when we enter the country. The similarities stop there. Culture is radically different, from their approach to religion to the very way they communicate with each other. Their approach to difference, to dilemmas, to education; it's nothing we're used to in the "western world". A western tourist won't have the opportunity to measure the width of the gap between our cultures because the Japanese ideal of hospitality entails that everyone make an effort towards making things easier for their visitors.

      • profile image

        KEITO KITA 

        17 months ago

        Me as a Japanese, I think Japanese people are very friendly, polite, and kind. And Japan is the safest country for children. Only people who live in Tokyo are kinda cold damn ass.

      • profile image

        Alice Crowder 

        21 months ago

        works well enough for my essay

      • profile image

        JimBob 

        21 months ago

        Very helpful on comparison of Japanese and American cultures. China comment is off-topic and ridiculous.

      • profile image

        Mostafa Tayefi 

        21 months ago

        I enjoy your article and its interesting comparisons.

      • profile image

        kareuche 

        23 months ago

        interesting article!

      • profile image

        Amelia 

        2 years ago

        thank you this was very helpful!

      • CYong74 profile image

        Kuan Leong Yong 

        2 years ago from Singapore

        Very shrewd observations!

      • Anya Wiles profile image

        Anya Wiles 

        2 years ago from New Zealand

        This was really interesting. Thank you for sharing

      • Darshan Dodiya profile image

        Darshan Dodia 

        3 years ago from India

        Very good article.. really interesting...

      • adevwriting profile image

        Arun Dev 

        3 years ago from United Countries of the World

        According to me Japan is a very nice country. It is also very helpful to many other countries. This was a very interesting hub.

      • bnayr profile image

        Ryan 

        3 years ago from Manchester

        Thanks for sharing your tips. I am visiting Japan in September so this info will help a lot.:)

      • aesta1 profile image

        Mary Norton 

        3 years ago from Ontario, Canada

        Really interesting comparison. I find it fascinating.

      • profile image

        Austin Pickett 

        4 years ago

        Thanks for the information! This is a great article for those who are looking for the differences in cultural aspects between the United States and Japan.

      • poppyr profile image

        Poppy 

        4 years ago from Tokyo, Japan

        Good article, and useful for people going to study or work there.

      • Diana Lee profile image

        Diana L Pierce 

        5 years ago from Potter County, Pa.

        This is interesting. My dad spent two years in Japan during the Korean war.

      • profile image

        WhydThatHappen 

        5 years ago

        I like this hub a lot, keep them coming

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