I'm an aspiring writer with a strong interest in history, fantasy, and science fiction. I've lived in Japan for three years.
Japan is often considered to be more culturally "western" than other Asian countries. When it's compared to the United States there are certainly a lot of similarities, but Japan and the U.S. also have many cultural differences. While a group of people cannot be generalized as a whole, and culture in any country can vary from region to region, here are fifteen cultural differences that typically stick out to American expatriates in Japan.
15 Cultural Differences Between Japan and America
- Religious practices differ.
- Japanese culture is more formal than American culture.
- Political participation is less intense in Japan.
- America has diverse racial demographics and Japan is predominantly Japanese.
- Japanese people bow and Americans shake hands.
- Japanese adults are more likely to live with their parents than American adults.
- Tipping is not practiced in Japan.
- Space is scarce in Japan.
- Japanese communication is subtle, whereas Americans tend to be blunt.
- Japanese gender roles are strict.
- Social hierarchy is important in Japan.
- Japan's culture is collectivist and America's is individualistic.
- Eating in public can be considered impolite.
- Train etiquette is strict in Japan.
- Cash is not exchanged by hand.
1. Religious Practices Differ
The vast majority of Japanese people identify as Shinto, Buddhist, or both at the same time. Though Christian missionaries have been present in Japan for hundreds of years, their presence has had little effect on Japan's religious identity and philosophy. Therefore, issues that are the basis of debates in the Abrahamic faiths, such as gay marriage or teaching creationism in schools, lack a religious foundation in Japan. In Japan, Shinto and Buddhist practices are predominantly limited to traditions, celebrations, and superstitions more than strong spiritual beliefs. For example, in America, a politician's religious affiliation may become the cause of heavy debate, but there are few such issues in Japan.
2. Japanese People Are More Formal Than Americans
This generalization depends on which region of Japan you are referring to, but overall Japan, especially Tokyo, is known for being socially colder than most areas of the United States. People tend to stand a relatively far distance apart when speaking, and last names with honorifics are used when people speak to or about one another. An example of this can be seen in different approaches to customer service. In America, ideal customer service is usually warm and friendly. In Japan, it is formal and unobtrusive. Waiters don't usually stop by tables to ask customers how the food is or what their weekend plans are, and strangers won't often chat while waiting for the bus. Physically touching others in public is also less common in Japan than it is in America.
3. Japanese People Are Nationalistic, But Overall Not Very Political
Politicians in Japan have a shockingly low approval rate. Politicians are quick to resign after making mistakes, which is why Japan has switched its prime ministers almost once a year since 2005. Japan has a parliament system with many parties, and politicians don't win elections with a majority vote. In fact, Japanese people have a notoriously low voter turnout rate. On the other hand, Japanese people tend to have a lot of love for their country, and they celebrate their unique history, language, and culture in a way that's not dissimilar to Americans.
4. America Is Made Up of People From Many Different Countries, Whereas Japan Is Predominantly Japanese
The population of Japan is about 98% ethnic Japanese, and the biggest minority groups are Korean and Chinese people. Most Japanese citizens have an identical ethnic and national identity, therefore seeing people who don't appear to be of East Asian descent can lead to instant assumptions. This can affect society in the sense that because Japanese people view their culture as homogeneous, it is expected that everyone understands the traditions and rules of society.
5. Japanese People Bow
It is well known that many Asian countries utilize bowing instead of shaking hands, but Japanese people bow in more situations than just greetings. Bowing can be done while apologizing or expressing gratitude. People might bow to a deep 45 degree angle in business or professional environments, but most bows are just a casual bob of the head and slight incline of the back. Despite the prevalent importance of bowing in Japan, Japanese people are well aware of the fact that foreigners usually shake hands, and they might readily offer their hands in greeting instead of bowing.
6. Japanese People Will Often Live With Their Parents Until They Get Married
In Japan there is less of a social stigma surrounding an unmarried person living with their parents during or after college. In fact, it isn't unheard of for newlyweds to live with one partner's parents until they can find a place of their own. In the U.S. people tend to move out of their parents' homes unless they're financially or culturally discouraged from doing so.
7. There Is No tipping in Japan
Tipping is not practiced at establishments in Japan. It can even be insulting to tip because doing so is considered to be an affront to an employee's salary. If you leave a few bills on the table after eating out, prepare to have the waiter run after you with your "forgotten" item. In America, tips are meant to show appreciation for good service. Considering that many service jobs in the U.S. pay minimum wage or less, tipping has become a necessity in order for waiters and waitresses to survive.
8. Space in Japan Is More Precious
Because Japan is an island country that's only about the size of California, and much of the land it has is mountainous terrain, its available land is precious and often expensive. Apartments and houses are usually small, and yards are often tiny if they exist at all. Still, Japanese people have learned to adapt in ways to maximize space, but it can still be shocking for an American who might take space for granted.
9. Americans Tend to Be More Direct and Blunt, Whereas Japanese People Are More Subtle
Being too direct in Japan can be considered rude. This can be seen in body language too. People in the U.S. are taught to look directly in someone's eyes when speaking or listening to show that they are actively participating in the conversation. In Japan, extended eye contact can be uncomfortable between people who aren't close, and eyes are often averted. Japanese people also tend to be more reserved than Americans, and they share less personal or sensitive information, even with close friends.
10. Gender Roles Are Strict
In 2012, Japan received an embarrassing rank in the Global Gender Gap Report, which measured women's equality in various countries. America received the 22nd place and Japan received the 101st spot. There are very few female politicians and CEOs in Japan. When women join companies, they are often expected to quit when they get married to become housewives and stay-at-home mothers. The concept of masculinity can also be very strict, though among youth culture—typically university-aged people or younger—there is some gender androgyny celebrated in fashion, appearances, and theatrical roles.
11. Social Hierarchy Is Important in Japan
The junior/senior relationship is very important in Japan. An employee who is younger and probably hasn't worked at a company as long as his older coworker will be a "junior" to the "senior," more experienced employee. It is the same for students, especially in school clubs. In theory, the upperclassman serves as a mentor for the underclassmen, and it is the junior's duty to help out and support the senior members of the group. These roles aren't non-existent in America, but roles are often based on personal accomplishments, and they aren't always respected as a rule either.
12. Japan Is a Collectivist Culture, Whereas the United States Is More Individualistic
Japanese culture places importance on groups and communities. Satisfaction and pride are meant to be found within the group you belong to. In the United States, people tend to find satisfaction in their own accomplishments, and people tend to focus on their own aspirations. An example of this can be observed in Japanese business culture. In Japan employees tend to work for one company for their entire lives. Company loyalty is valued, and promotions are often given on the basis of seniority. In Japan, this can also influence the ways that people live in and contribute to society. In America, people focus on their careers independent from the companies they work for, and they will often change companies a number of times throughout their professional lives. Promotions are supposed to be given on the basis of merit in the U.S.
13. Eating in Public
In the U.S. people are often seen eating snacks or small meals while traveling on public transit, during their commute, while shopping, or while they run errands. In Japan, people are less likely to eat while strolling about. People in Japan usually eat while sitting in restaurants, cafes, or at their own kitchen tables. Eating on the go can be messy and food odors in places that are not designated for eating can be unpleasant to others. Even though people in Japan occasionally eat on the go, they don't do it often.
14. Train Etiquette
In the U.S., people tend to do whatever they want while riding trains or buses. People are often observed eating snacks, talking on their phones, listening to music (with or without headphones,) texting, playing mobile games, sleeping, working, dancing, etc. In Japan most people adhere to social etiquette that discourages disruptive activities on trains and buses. People typically silence their phones while they're utilizing public transportation, and they don't usually answer phone calls. Because sexual harassment has been a widespread issue on Japanese trains, many rush hour routes offer cars that are solely for female commuters so they won't be at risk of groping or harassment.
15. Money Exchanges While Shopping
When shopping in Japan, people typically pay for items with cash and they place their cash in a tray beside the register for the salesperson to pick up, count, and process. The salesperson will place change in the tray for the customer to pick up after the transaction is complete. In America, shoppers hand money directly to the salesperson and it can be considered rude for someone to place money on the counter rather than hand it directly to a person.
You Might Experience Culture Shock When Traveling Between Japan and America
Because there are a lot of cultural differences between Japan and the United States, people can experience culture shock when traveling between the two countries. Culture shock is a feeling of discomfort or disorientation that one experiences when they're in an unfamiliar environment. A good way to prepare for and combat culture shock is to do lots of research prior to traveling. Learn about the specific places that you will visit when you're traveling, study local customs, and try to physically or emotionally prepare for your new environment as much as possible. Culture shock is less overwhelming when a person prepares for it.
- Hausmann R., Tyson L.D., Zahidi S. (2012.) The Global Gender Gap Report. World Economic Forum, 8-9. Retrieved on November 9th, 2018.
- Etiquette in Japan. Updated November 20th, 2018. Retrieved from Wikipedia.com.
- Guide to Japan: Etiquette, Customs, Culture, & Business. Kwintessential.co.uk. Retrieved on November 10th, 2018.
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Computer on April 21, 2020:
If I have to design a system for users both in United States and Japan, present a list of cultural differences that l should aware of
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What are these comments?
Mr_Dingles123 on January 31, 2020:
This will be helpful for social studies. Thank you!
Ploty The Plot on December 05, 2019:
Sounds awesome btw japan is like a 2050 world mixed with a old middel age world the usa is not as advance in technolgie but it is a lot bigger
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ScottEM on December 24, 2018:
On multiple levels Japan and its culture seem so appealing. And reading this piece gave me a clearer insight as to the differences between its culture and that of the west. I must admit, though, that there are a few things that would take some getting used to. Like no tipping. I've worked in the service industry. And so I have empathy for others who do also. Therefore, I would feel guilty for not tipping. But for me the biggest plus is the emphasis on being polite. I wouldn't mind the formalities. It seems to me that that ingrained desire to be respectful and polite is part of the fabric of a society. We need more of that in the west.
Thank you for this interesting and informative piece.
cale on November 13, 2018:
my friend lives in japan, his name is Yuto
Yotko on November 13, 2018:
I lerned english but i can still speak japanese I've moved to the U.S and they don't have yen here
FilTrask on October 17, 2018:
Thank you so much, I am doing an essay on Japanese culture and this really helps. I myself am a big fan of the culture and want to live there some day.
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Ori on October 08, 2018:
I'm half Jap and lived in Yokohama for 20 something years and most of your assessments are true. But I don't agree on #6. My cousins lived on their own at the age of 27 or 28. However, their apartments are small but they are comfy. Both are single and both have girlfriends.
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How are better least tried Japanese depend their personality toward "under graduates have should Japanese simple ability like Middle High School similarity (Student College). Because Japanese more than hard explain why Foreigner humbleness being proud and Japanese spoken second their own continent how allowed them to speaking Japanese for travel tourists?
courtney on August 23, 2018:
i used this information for school mhahahaha
Anonymouse on July 18, 2018:
The 2017 Global Gender Gap Report has been published FYI. Japan dropped from 101 to 149 and the US dropped from 22 to 49 within 5 years.
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Well that sucks.....
THEY ARE SRICT ABOUT SIMPLE THINGS!!!!
Young Pigeon G on May 14, 2018:
Helpful for my 5 page essay on japan
ustupid on May 07, 2018:
those are help full for school work
You'll never know! on April 12, 2018:
This was helpful...
I don't know what I would do if I had to come up with this stuff by myself!
not telling on March 26, 2018:
thank you i use for project!!!
someone on March 22, 2018:
Really helpful for my project. ('↻')
Jams on December 14, 2017:
I am European & have lived in Japan for years. I love the culture, and in many ways have ceased to be European - I confuse Europeans actually because I don't act quite European anymore while an old Han Chinese couple adore me because I am proper.
But for many Europeans (Americans included) Japan is quite a cultural shock. And a number of non-Japanese are considered foreigners, even if they have lived in Japan for a long while, not just because of their appearance but because they hang onto their European ideals & beliefs like glue.
You can't be Japanese after all if you aren't Japanese and, in a way, it is more than just appearance. I have, after all, had a few laughs regarding naive American Japanese kids my age who think they'd be welcomed with open arms in Japan because they "look" Japanese when they are as Americanized as the European who lives next door.
cholo101 on December 07, 2017:
im doing an essay for Germany this helped a lot
Maddie on November 27, 2017:
Thank you for this! My friend and I can't wait to use these facts on our Student Interest Project!
naomin on November 21, 2017:
Im Japanese and dont agree with No.6.
In big cities like Tokyo, If you were a 30 something years old guy (girls tend to be more spoiled in this case) still living with your parents,people would think you a bit weird.
I started to live on my own at the age of 26,most of my friends would live alone as well.
So, it depends.
Susan on November 17, 2017:
I am doing an essay for school and this was really helpful :)
chloe on October 11, 2017:
i'm doing a report for school on japan and this helped alot thank u
Charles on September 05, 2017:
This is a well-informed and pretty accurate overview! I have something to say about the "lot of similarities", though. Having lived in Japan for four years, I would say that the similarities between Japan and the US are confined to modernity and technology. Japan being a first-world country is all that makes it seem similar. Much like South Korea. Japan has vending machines, convenience stores, modern infrastructure and everything else that keeps us from a "comfort shock" when we enter the country. The similarities stop there. Culture is radically different, from their approach to religion to the very way they communicate with each other. Their approach to difference, to dilemmas, to education; it's nothing we're used to in the "western world". A western tourist won't have the opportunity to measure the width of the gap between our cultures because the Japanese ideal of hospitality entails that everyone make an effort towards making things easier for their visitors.
KEITO KITA on July 02, 2017:
Me as a Japanese, I think Japanese people are very friendly, polite, and kind. And Japan is the safest country for children. Only people who live in Tokyo are kinda cold damn ass.
Alice Crowder on March 22, 2017:
works well enough for my essay
JimBob on March 13, 2017:
Very helpful on comparison of Japanese and American cultures. China comment is off-topic and ridiculous.
Mostafa Tayefi on March 09, 2017:
I enjoy your article and its interesting comparisons.
kareuche on January 03, 2017:
Amelia on October 06, 2016:
thank you this was very helpful!
Ced Yong from Asia on August 18, 2016:
Very shrewd observations!
Anya Wiles from New Zealand on April 27, 2016:
This was really interesting. Thank you for sharing
Darshan Dodia from India on August 04, 2015:
Very good article.. really interesting...
Arun Dev from United Countries of the World on June 27, 2015:
According to me Japan is a very nice country. It is also very helpful to many other countries. This was a very interesting hub.
Ryan from Manchester on June 17, 2015:
Thanks for sharing your tips. I am visiting Japan in September so this info will help a lot.:)
Mary Norton from Ontario, Canada on June 17, 2015:
Really interesting comparison. I find it fascinating.
Austin Pickett on November 13, 2014:
Thanks for the information! This is a great article for those who are looking for the differences in cultural aspects between the United States and Japan.
Poppy from Enoshima, Japan on July 12, 2014:
Good article, and useful for people going to study or work there.
Diana L Pierce from Potter County, Pa. on September 13, 2013:
This is interesting. My dad spent two years in Japan during the Korean war.
WhydThatHappen on August 09, 2013:
I like this hub a lot, keep them coming