The Increase in Narcissism in College Students

Updated on October 27, 2018
Natalie Frank profile image

Natalie Frank, a Ph.D. in clinical psychology, publishes on topics in psychology, health, behavioral science and social science among others

Enough About Me – What Do You Think About Me?

Narcissism has been increasing in our society for a long time. Authors Twenge and Campbell (2009) reported that research indicates that all the major characteristics that define narcissism increased significantly in adults in the U.S. between the 1950’s and the 1990’s with the increase accelerating since 2002. These traits include assertiveness, extraversion, dominance, self-esteem and individualistic focus.

Moreover, these authors cited a study conducted by Stinson, Dawson and Goldstein et al., (2008) which showed that within a large sample surveyed from 2006-2007, 1 out of 10 individuals in their 20’s displayed narcissistic personality disorder. In fact, it was the more extreme forms of these traits that were being exhibited. This compared with only 1 in 30 individuals over the age of 64 evidencing the symptoms of NPD although it might be predicted that older adults had longer to develop an overly positive self-image based on their sense of having more experience and knowledge than younger adults.

According to the empirical evidence ,in particular today’s new adults (Millennials/GenY, born after 1980) are more “Generation Me” than “Generation We” compared to generations that came before. Five data sets have been used to demonstrate this generational increase in narcissism. While it has been known that college age young adults, teens and children have been showing increased self-esteem over the generations, narcissism is not narcissism is not just confidence. It is exaggerated overconfidence which is linked to negative interpersonal relationships.

Narcissistic traits correlate positively with such characteristics as vanity, materialism, attention seeking, unrealistic expectations for the future, anger and aggression. Those with narcissistic tendencies take more resources than their share while leaving inadequate amounts for others, and value money, fame and image above family, altruism and being supportive of their community (Twenge & Campbell, 2009).

In a meta-analysis examining many studies together, Twenge, Konrath, Foster, Campbell and Bushman (2008), showed that this narcissism appeared to be increasing even faster in college students. By 2006, college students scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) increased by 30% over the average scores for the original sample comprising the years 1979-1985.

This surge toward narcissism appeared to be speeding up, with the years 2000-2006 showing an especially steep increase. Twenge and Campbell (2009) analyzed data gathered from college students in 2008-2009 on the NPI which showed that a full third of college students sampled rated the majority of the questions in the narcissistic direction with two thirds scoring above average on narcissism traits. This compares with a fifth of students in 1994.

The Characteristics of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (2013), the main characteristic of this disorder is “a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy that begins in early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts.” The DSM goes on to state that individuals with the disorder display “a grandiose sense of self importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty or ideal love.

These individuals also display characteristic views of how other are to relate to them. They “believe that they are superior, special or unique and expect others to recognize them as such and generally require excessive admiration.” Their sense of entitlement is displayed by their “unreasonable expectation of especially favorable treatment, and resulting in the conscious or unwitting exploitation of others.” Due to seeing only their own needs they are oblivious to the needs or feelings of others. Yet despite problems in social relationships, they possess the delusional belief that others envy them.

The Difference in Professors and Colleges Students Expectations

Based on numerous interviews with professors and students in colleges across the country, Cox (2009) has concluded that professors and college students view education differently. Professors see college in terms of education. They value teaching students how to learn, think analytically, form opinions that are adequately supported, express themselves professionally both in writing and speaking in addition as well as learn a body of knowledge.

College students, on the other hand, see their degrees as a means to an end and only care of the final product of the class, the grade. Thus, college students are intolerant of professors attempts to promote active engagement, as they see these strategies as getting in the way of their ultimate goal, a degree, only necessary as a requirement on the way to obtaining a choice job.

College students sense of entitlement is evidenced in a number of ways. As a result of the increase in self-confidence and narcissism, there is an associated increase in college students’ sense of entitlement. For example, it has been found that over 65 percent of students endorsed the statement, ‘‘If I explain to a professor that I’m trying hard, he/she should increase my grade.’’ A third of college students also agreed with the statement, ‘‘If I attend most of the classes, I deserve at least a B.’’ These expectations occur even when the syllabus clearly and firmly explains how grades are calculated including that the above statements are not accurate and will not result in altered grades (Twenge, 2013).

The Customer Mentality and Narcissism in College Students

Administration supports the narcissistic intolerance of students against faculty due to colleges now having a ”customer mentality,”(Bauerlein, 2010). In other words, professor’s primary objective should be to keep the customers, the students, happy. Faculty members soon learn that to maintain employment they need to assign little to no homework and lower expectations of student learning, raising grades such that everyone passes, no one complains and everyone’s happy.

Administration supports this approach because colleges need students to stay in business and they need to attract good students that remain until graduation. As today’s Generation Me is used to getting what they want, easy A’s and more time to spend using upscale amenities is attractive. They expect coursework not to interfere. If they perceive it is they have no difficulty reporting a faculty member to a chair or dean, knowing they will be backed.

The marketisation of higher education has resulted in a focus on student satisfaction, not with increased students skills and knowledge. As student satisfaction is largely linked to getting good grades without doing much work to move quickly towards graduation, these values are reinforced by administrators.

In the United States, student satisfaction is now the central message communicated in university marketing, and it also forms the primary promise made in marketing materials. The degree to which the University is successful in fulfilling this promise, goes a long way toward establishing the schools image and reputation. This puts much of the control regarding what occurs in the classroom in the students’ hands and professor retention now relies in large part upon the students perception that professors teach and assign grades the way they want them to (Hall, 2018). This system only reinforces student narcissism however.

Babcock (2011), noted in a large study of college students and professors, that professors receive lower scores on evaluations from students during terms when they graded more rigorously or requires more. Student evaluations are increasingly important for maintaining professors’ position, obtaining promotions and increased salary. College professors soon learn it’s against their best interests to fight what students want. This further reinforces the students’ belief that they can control everything related to their education, further increasing narcissistic characteristics. Babcock states these beliefs and values have resulted in a free fall in standards at U.S. Colleges and Universities.

In his book, The Dumbest Generation, (2008), Bauerlein asserts that such narcissism is the result of over indulgent, permissive, parents, teachers and other adult role models. He predicts that these characteristics will lead this self-absorbed generation to become “dull witted” to the point they will only feel satisfied when their newest power grab has been successful. He asserts that the digital are not expanding the social world of the younger generations. Instead, Bauerlein states it is narrowing it into a self-absorbed environment that blocks out almost everything else.

Conclusions and Implications: Are There Solutions?

Twenge has stated that the increase in narcissistic college students is concerning, a sentiment echoed by many of us. The more narcissistic college students become the more likely they will lack empathy, value self-promotion over helping others and react aggressively to constructive criticism. In the book The Narcissistic Epidemic, Twenge and Campbell add that these students are also at risk for the inability to maintain positive relationship, lack warmth, and exhibit game playing, dishonesty and controlling and violent behavior. In other words they are manipulative and will stop at nothing even potentially violence to get what they want.

Twenge and Campbell (2010), state that given how drastic the upsurge in narcissism is in college students, and how prevalent these characteristics have become, they are unsure if there are remedies to the problem. However, they add decreasing permissiveness and indulgence and more authoritative parenting from the start and carrying throughout young adulthood might help stem this trend. However, while individual families might believe in putting such boundaries in place it is unlikely until there is a general consensus that the younger generation is in trouble that society will change. Thus, these kids will eventually be exposed to and likely pick up the narcissistic attitude of other children and the society around them.

References

American Psychiatric Association, (2013). Narcissistic Personality Disorders. In The DSM-5, APA: Washington.

Babcock, P., (2011, January 21). Falling standards in universities. The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2011.

Bauerlein, M., (2008, May). The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes our Future (Or, Don’t Trust Anyone Under 30). Penguin: New York.

Bauerlein, M., (2010, October 13). Keeping customer’s happy. The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2010.

Cox, R., (2009). The College Fear Factor: How Students and Professors Misunderstand Each Other. Harvard University Press: Boston.

Hall, H. (2018). The marketisation of higher education: symptoms, controversies, trends. Ekonomia i Prawo. Economics and Law, 17(1), 33-42.

Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Goldstein, R. B., et al., (2008). Prevalence, correlates, diability, and comorbidity of DSM IV-TR Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 1033- 1045.

Twenge, J. M., (2006 ). Generation Me: Why Today’s Young Americans are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled – And More Miserable Than Ever Before. Free Press (Simon and Schuster): New York.

Twenge, J. M. (2013). Teaching generation me. Teaching of Psychology, 40(1), 66-69.

Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K., (2010). The Narcissistic Epidemic. Free Press: New York.

Twenge, J. M., Konrath, S., Foster, J., & ., Campbell, W. K., Bushman, B., (2008), Egos inflating over time: A cross temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality, 76, 875-901.

Questions & Answers

    © 2018 Natalie Frank

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment

      • Natalie Frank profile imageAUTHOR

        Natalie Frank 

        4 weeks ago from Chicago, IL

        Thanks Ken. You are right on all counts. While teaching to the test has largely died a painful and too lengthy death in grades below the college level, there are still the Federal tests that existed before the No Child Left Behind movement and similar tests for college students in public universities which determine such things as student funding, University federal funding and student promotion to the next year. This means that college students often have a focus on passing exams and these tests exclusively rather than on the learning process or acquiring knowledge or skills. Many now a days seem to not much care whether they earned a grade or not, just whether they received a high enough grade when all is said and done. Thanks for stopping by and for the comment.

      • Ken Burgess profile image

        Ken Burgess 

        5 weeks ago from Florida

        Great article. Its hard to be a good parent these days, probably harder to be a good teacher, especially for college students that have had years of 'learning' which focuses them on passing the fed tests at the end of the year, more than anything else.

      • Natalie Frank profile imageAUTHOR

        Natalie Frank 

        5 weeks ago from Chicago, IL

        I had the same experience especially in more recent years. It often felt like the patients were running the asylum. When a student can complain against a professor, making up whatever they choose as revenge for bad grades or the refusal of a professor to change a valid and often even curved grade and the professor is the one in trouble we've got a problem. A main issue is that while these students may get away with manipulating the system in their favor so that they don't have to do much work, when they get in the working world they will learn this is no longer tolerated and have a bunch of problems trying to keep a job. They can't go to the boss with a host of excuses or blame others. They don't get that the boss really doesn't care and just needs the job done. Thanks for stopping by and for commenting.

      • Natalie Frank profile imageAUTHOR

        Natalie Frank 

        5 weeks ago from Chicago, IL

        Angel - I couldn't agree with you more. It's almost as if not putting yourself first 100% of the time no matter what the consequences are on others is thought of as weak-willed while narcissistic self-interest is not only tolerated but sometimes even expected. Some people who aren't necessarily narcissists then buy into this mentality because it seems to be the way to success, acceptance and happiness so you have others who may not be narcissists still acting in accordance with the way a narcissist does. This just adds insult to injury. Thanks for stopping by and for the comment.

      • Natalie Frank profile imageAUTHOR

        Natalie Frank 

        5 weeks ago from Chicago, IL

        Hey Gregory - glad you enjoyed the article. Your definition is right on the money. Narcissists often act the way they do because they are covering up and inferiority complex. Thanks for stopping by and for the comment.

      • Larry Slawson profile image

        Larry Slawson 

        5 weeks ago from North Carolina

        I think you are definitely on to something here. As a former college instructor, I certainly noticed this trend in some of my classes (particularly in the last few years that I taught). It was also apparent in a lot of the graduate students that I attended graduate school with.

      • Angel Harper profile image

        Angel Harper 

        5 weeks ago

        I think this is a very serious problem because in today's society self-interest and narcissism seem to be encouraged and even rewarded. It feels like you have to be selfish to be successful.

      • Gregory DeVictor profile image

        Gregory DeVictor 

        5 weeks ago from Squirrel Hill, PA

        Natalie, the title of your article really caught my attention when I saw it in the feed. Therefore, I decided to read it and to digest what you had to say.

        Like others, I completely agree with your findings and research. I have particularly seen displays of narcissism at HP, when newbies request “tips and advice” for their articles, and then “act out” accordingly when we give them “constructive criticism.”

        Another definition of a narcissistic person is “an egomaniac with an inferiority complex.”

      • Natalie Frank profile imageAUTHOR

        Natalie Frank 

        5 weeks ago from Chicago, IL

        Yep, Bill, you and me both. My parents never got involved in what was going on in terms of my college grades. It was my responsibility to do what it took to get good grades and if there was something that needed to be dealt with with a professor it was up to me to take care of it. They never would have called to tell a professor he or she wasn't treating me fairly or ask how dare they give me something below an A when I had told them I deserved one. Yet when I was teaching the number of calls I got from parents who gave me hell because their angel hadn't received an A. It didn't matter that they hadn't hardly come to class, failed two of three tests and turned in less than half of the assignments. They still should have gotten an A! Thanks for stopping by!

      • Natalie Frank profile imageAUTHOR

        Natalie Frank 

        5 weeks ago from Chicago, IL

        Yep, Bill, you and me both. My parents never got involved in what was going on in terms of my college grades. It was my responsibility to do what it took to get good grades and if there was something that needed to be dealt with with a professor it was up to me to take care of it. They never would have called to tell a professor he or she wasn't treating me fairly or ask how dare they give me something below an A when I had told them I deserved one. Yet when I was teaching the number of calls I got from parents who gave me hell because their angel hadn't received an A. It didn't matter that they hadn't hardly come to class, failed two of three tests and turned in less than half of the assignments. They still should have gotten an A! Thanks for stopping by!

      • Natalie Frank profile imageAUTHOR

        Natalie Frank 

        5 weeks ago from Chicago, IL

        Yes Flourish, I agree. When we raise and educate children to believe if they want something they should be able to get it no matter what, they end up entitled. Unfortunately, when they get into the working world they will have to realize that bosses need certain things done and done properly and they don't care about how hard you tried they just care about the outcome. There's no such thing as A for Effort in word environments, there's only F for Fired. Thanks for stopping by and for commenting.

      • Eurofile profile image

        Liz Westwood 

        5 weeks ago from UK

        This is quite a depressing phenomenon. Does it point to an increasing 'me first' attitude of a selfie obsessed generation?

      • billybuc profile image

        Bill Holland 

        6 weeks ago from Olympia, WA

        It saddens me to agree with you. I've seen the evidence of this over the years. It seems so foreign to me, completely opposite how I was raised.

      • FlourishAnyway profile image

        FlourishAnyway 

        6 weeks ago from USA

        Sadly, I agree with everything you’ve put forth here because I’ve seen it. We’ve created a real problem with being so indulgent and permissive and ultimately employers will reap what parents and educators have sown.

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)