The Increase in Narcissism in College Students
Enough About Me – What Do You Think About Me?
Narcissism has been increasing in our society for a long time. Authors Twenge and Campbell (2009) reported that research indicates that all the major characteristics that define narcissism increased significantly in adults in the U.S. between the 1950’s and the 1990’s with the increase accelerating since 2002. These traits include assertiveness, extraversion, dominance, self-esteem and individualistic focus.
Moreover, these authors cited a study conducted by Stinson, Dawson and Goldstein et al., (2008) which showed that within a large sample surveyed from 2006-2007, 1 out of 10 individuals in their 20’s displayed narcissistic personality disorder. In fact, it was the more extreme forms of these traits that were being exhibited. This compared with only 1 in 30 individuals over the age of 64 evidencing the symptoms of NPD although it might be predicted that older adults had longer to develop an overly positive self-image based on their sense of having more experience and knowledge than younger adults.
According to the empirical evidence ,in particular today’s new adults (Millennials/GenY, born after 1980) are more “Generation Me” than “Generation We” compared to generations that came before. Five data sets have been used to demonstrate this generational increase in narcissism. While it has been known that college age young adults, teens and children have been showing increased self-esteem over the generations, narcissism is not narcissism is not just confidence. It is exaggerated overconfidence which is linked to negative interpersonal relationships.
Narcissistic traits correlate positively with such characteristics as vanity, materialism, attention seeking, unrealistic expectations for the future, anger and aggression. Those with narcissistic tendencies take more resources than their share while leaving inadequate amounts for others, and value money, fame and image above family, altruism and being supportive of their community (Twenge & Campbell, 2009).
In a meta-analysis examining many studies together, Twenge, Konrath, Foster, Campbell and Bushman (2008), showed that this narcissism appeared to be increasing even faster in college students. By 2006, college students scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) increased by 30% over the average scores for the original sample comprising the years 1979-1985.
This surge toward narcissism appeared to be speeding up, with the years 2000-2006 showing an especially steep increase. Twenge and Campbell (2009) analyzed data gathered from college students in 2008-2009 on the NPI which showed that a full third of college students sampled rated the majority of the questions in the narcissistic direction with two thirds scoring above average on narcissism traits. This compares with a fifth of students in 1994.
The Characteristics of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (2013), the main characteristic of this disorder is “a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy that begins in early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts.” The DSM goes on to state that individuals with the disorder display “a grandiose sense of self importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty or ideal love.
These individuals also display characteristic views of how other are to relate to them. They “believe that they are superior, special or unique and expect others to recognize them as such and generally require excessive admiration.” Their sense of entitlement is displayed by their “unreasonable expectation of especially favorable treatment, and resulting in the conscious or unwitting exploitation of others.” Due to seeing only their own needs they are oblivious to the needs or feelings of others. Yet despite problems in social relationships, they possess the delusional belief that others envy them.
The Difference in Professors and Colleges Students Expectations
Based on numerous interviews with professors and students in colleges across the country, Cox (2009) has concluded that professors and college students view education differently. Professors see college in terms of education. They value teaching students how to learn, think analytically, form opinions that are adequately supported, express themselves professionally both in writing and speaking in addition as well as learn a body of knowledge.
College students, on the other hand, see their degrees as a means to an end and only care of the final product of the class, the grade. Thus, college students are intolerant of professors attempts to promote active engagement, as they see these strategies as getting in the way of their ultimate goal, a degree, only necessary as a requirement on the way to obtaining a choice job.
College students sense of entitlement is evidenced in a number of ways. As a result of the increase in self-confidence and narcissism, there is an associated increase in college students’ sense of entitlement. For example, it has been found that over 65 percent of students endorsed the statement, ‘‘If I explain to a professor that I’m trying hard, he/she should increase my grade.’’ A third of college students also agreed with the statement, ‘‘If I attend most of the classes, I deserve at least a B.’’ These expectations occur even when the syllabus clearly and firmly explains how grades are calculated including that the above statements are not accurate and will not result in altered grades (Twenge, 2013).
The Customer Mentality and Narcissism in College Students
Administration supports the narcissistic intolerance of students against faculty due to colleges now having a ”customer mentality,”(Bauerlein, 2010). In other words, professor’s primary objective should be to keep the customers, the students, happy. Faculty members soon learn that to maintain employment they need to assign little to no homework and lower expectations of student learning, raising grades such that everyone passes, no one complains and everyone’s happy.
Administration supports this approach because colleges need students to stay in business and they need to attract good students that remain until graduation. As today’s Generation Me is used to getting what they want, easy A’s and more time to spend using upscale amenities is attractive. They expect coursework not to interfere. If they perceive it is they have no difficulty reporting a faculty member to a chair or dean, knowing they will be backed.
The marketisation of higher education has resulted in a focus on student satisfaction, not with increased students skills and knowledge. As student satisfaction is largely linked to getting good grades without doing much work to move quickly towards graduation, these values are reinforced by administrators.
In the United States, student satisfaction is now the central message communicated in university marketing, and it also forms the primary promise made in marketing materials. The degree to which the University is successful in fulfilling this promise, goes a long way toward establishing the schools image and reputation. This puts much of the control regarding what occurs in the classroom in the students’ hands and professor retention now relies in large part upon the students perception that professors teach and assign grades the way they want them to (Hall, 2018). This system only reinforces student narcissism however.
Babcock (2011), noted in a large study of college students and professors, that professors receive lower scores on evaluations from students during terms when they graded more rigorously or requires more. Student evaluations are increasingly important for maintaining professors’ position, obtaining promotions and increased salary. College professors soon learn it’s against their best interests to fight what students want. This further reinforces the students’ belief that they can control everything related to their education, further increasing narcissistic characteristics. Babcock states these beliefs and values have resulted in a free fall in standards at U.S. Colleges and Universities.
In his book, Bauerlein asserts that such narcissism is the result of over indulgent, permissive, parents, teachers and other adult role models. He predicts that these characteristics will lead this self-absorbed generation to become “dull witted” to the point they will only feel satisfied when their newest power grab has been successful. He asserts that the digital are not expanding the social world of the younger generations. Instead, Bauerlein states it is narrowing it into a self-absorbed environment that blocks out almost everything else. The Dumbest Generation, (2008),
Conclusions and Implications: Are There Solutions?
Twenge has stated that the increase in narcissistic college students is concerning, a sentiment echoed by many of us. The more narcissistic college students become the more likely they will lack empathy, value self-promotion over helping others and react aggressively to constructive criticism. In the book Twenge and Campbell add that these students are also at risk for the inability to maintain positive relationship, lack warmth, and exhibit game playing, dishonesty and controlling and violent behavior. In other words they are manipulative and will stop at nothing even potentially violence to get what they want. The Narcissistic Epidemic,
Twenge and Campbell (2010), state that given how drastic the upsurge in narcissism is in college students, and how prevalent these characteristics have become, they are unsure if there are remedies to the problem. However, they add decreasing permissiveness and indulgence and more authoritative parenting from the start and carrying throughout young adulthood might help stem this trend. However, while individual families might believe in putting such boundaries in place it is unlikely until there is a general consensus that the younger generation is in trouble that society will change. Thus, these kids will eventually be exposed to and likely pick up the narcissistic attitude of other children and the society around them.
American Psychiatric Association, (2013). Narcissistic Personality Disorders. In The DSM-5, APA: Washington.
Babcock, P., (2011, January 21). Falling standards in universities. The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
Bauerlein, M., (2008, May). The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes our Future (Or, Don’t Trust Anyone Under 30). Penguin: New York.
Bauerlein, M., (2010, October 13). Keeping customer’s happy. The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
Cox, R., (2009). The College Fear Factor: How Students and Professors Misunderstand Each Other. Harvard University Press: Boston.
Hall, H. (2018). The marketisation of higher education: symptoms, controversies, trends. Ekonomia i Prawo. Economics and Law, 17(1), 33-42.
Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Goldstein, R. B., et al., (2008). Prevalence, correlates, diability, and comorbidity of DSM IV-TR Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 1033- 1045.
Twenge, J. M., (2006 ). Generation Me: Why Today’s Young Americans are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled – And More Miserable Than Ever Before. Free Press (Simon and Schuster): New York.
Twenge, J. M. (2013). Teaching generation me. Teaching of Psychology, 40(1), 66-69.
Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K., (2010). The Narcissistic Epidemic. Free Press: New York.
Twenge, J. M., Konrath, S., Foster, J., & ., Campbell, W. K., Bushman, B., (2008), Egos inflating over time: A cross temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality, 76, 875-901.
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