Lawrence Kohlberg’s Six Stages of Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg is best known for his model on the stages of moral development. Kohlberg developed his six-stage theory on moral development while working on his doctorate degree. His theory was inspired by the research of Jean Piaget and has changed the way sociologists and psychologists look at moral development.
Kohlberg’s Early Life and Education
Kohlberg was born in Bronxville, New York in 1927. After World War II, he helped to smuggle Jewish refugees past the British blockage of Palestine and in 1969, he returned to Israel to study the morality of young people in its collective settlements. He enrolled at the University of Chicago and was able to complete his bachelor's degree in only one year, 1948, because his scores on the admissions test were so high. He then earned his doctorate degree in 1958. He was the assistant professor of psychology at Yale University from 1956 until 1961 when he spent a year at the Advanced Center for Behavioral Science from 1961 until 1962. He then became an assistant, and then associate professor of psychology and human development at the University of Chicago from 1962 until 1967. He spent the next ten years as a professor of education and social psychology (Bookrags).
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Kohlberg became interested in Jean Piaget's theories of moral development in children and adolescents while studying for his doctorate degree. His research involved studying American boys. Piaget's two stages of moral development were the basis for Kohlberg's six stages (Bookrags). Kohlberg’s model for moral development and moral reasoning, while similar to Piaget’s, is more complex. Kohlberg’s theory includes three levels of moral reasoning. The three levels that Kohlberg described are Level 1: Pre-Conventional morality, Level 2: Conventional Morality, and Level 3: Post-Conventional morality. Each of these levels are divided into two stages, for a total of six stages (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 375).
Level 1 – Pre-Conventional
The first level, Pre-Conventional morality is typically found in children between the ages of 4 and 10 years old. This level consists of Stage 1 and Stage 2.
The first stage of this level, or Stage 1, is described as “orientation toward punishment and obedience.” Children in this stage tend to obey rules only to avoid punishment.
The second stage, Stage 2, is “instrumental purpose and exchange.” In this stage, children’s actions are based on consideration for what others can do for them. They follow rules simply out of self-interest (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376).
Level 2 - Conventional
The second level in Kohlberg’s model, Conventional morality, is generally reached between ages 10 and 13, though some individuals never move beyond this level. This level includes Stage 3 and Stage 4.
Stage 3 is concerned with “maintaining mutual relations, approval of others, and the golden rule.” In this stage, children evaluate acts according to the motives behind them and can take circumstances into account. Children in this stage want to help others, can judge the intentions of others, and can develop their own ideas regarding morality.
Stage 4 refers to “social concern and conscience.” At this stage, individuals are concerned with respecting authority, maintaining social order, and doing their duty within society. In this stage, an act is considered wrong if it harms others or violates a rule or law (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376).
Level 3 – Post-Conventional
The final level, Post-Conventional morality, is reached in early adolescence or young adulthood, though some individuals never reach this level. This level is comprised of Stage 5 and Stage 6.
Stage 5 is the stage concerned with “morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law.” In this stage, individuals value the will of the majority and the well-being of society. Though individuals at this stage can recognize that there are times when human need and the law are conflicted, they believe that it is better if people simply follow the law.
In Stage 6, individuals are more concerned with the “morality of universal ethical principles.” In this stage, individuals do what they think is right, even if it is in conflict with the law. At this stage, people act according to their internalized standards of morality (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 376).
Because so few people attain Level 3, Kohlberg questioned the validity of this level, though he later proposed an additional seventh stage, which he described as the “cosmic” stage, in which individuals are able to consider the effect of their actions on the universe as a whole (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 377).
Impact of Kohlberg’s Theory
Kohlberg’s theory, which built on Piaget’s research, profoundly shifted the way in which we view moral development. Researchers now study how individuals base moral judgments on their understanding of the social world, rather than seeing morality as simply the attainment of “control over self-gratifying impulses” (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 377).
Kohlberg's research has been criticized by other researchers, most notably by Carol Gilligan, who noted that Kohlberg focused exclusively on male children in his studies of moral reasoning. Gilligan concluded through a series of studies that males and females develop different standards of morality. She claims that boys have a “justice perspective,” whereas girls have a “care and responsibility perspective” when judging morality. Because of this, she criticizes Kohlberg’s model for focusing on the male “justice perspective” and treating male rule-based reasoning as morally superior (Macoinis 76). Further research has, however, found little support for Gilligan’s claims of a male bias in Kohlberg’s model (Papalia, Olds, and Feldman 378). Another problem with Kohlberg’s research is that he focused primarily on the development of children in American, and it is still unclear as to whether or not his model applies to people in other societies (Macoinis 76).
Lawrence Kohlberg was an important figure is sociology and psychology. Though his research has been criticized, Kohlberg’s model on the moral development of children has become an important sociological and developmental theory. His research has profoundly shifted the way we look at moral development.
BOOKRAGS STAFF. "Lawrence Kohlberg". 2005. October 29 2009.
Macionis, John J. "Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age." Society: The Basics. 10th ed. Upper
Saddle River: Pearson Education International, 2009. 70-95. Print.
Papalia, Diane E, Sally Wendkos Olds, and Ruth Duskin Feldman. "Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence." Human Development. 11th ed. Boston: McGraw, 2009. 352-87. Print.
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