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The Guna: An Endangered People of the Caribbean Where Women Rule


JC Scull taught international business relations and strategies at universities in Panama and China.


What This Article Will Show

The name Guna, which is alternatively written as Kuna or Cuna, refers to a native people that have been living in Panama and northern Colombia for hundreds of years. In Kuna, a Chibchan language from Panama, they call themselves Dule or Tule, which means "people." Conversely, they call their language "Dulegaya", literally meaning "people-mouth."

They represent a colorful and interesting culture that adds mystique and wonder to the areas they inhabit. This article will discuss their charm as well as the challenges they face.

The article is divided into the following sections:

  • The Guna
  • A Matriarchal Society
  • The Gender Fluid Omeggid
  • Their Economy, Health and Albinism
  • Threatened by the Environment and Other Factors
  • Drowning in Waste
  • What is the Future of the Guna?

I hope you enjoy reading it.

The Guna

They walk down the streets of Panama City selling their molas and other indigenous apparel. The women wear colorful patterned wrapped skirts called saburet; bright yellow or red headscarf they call musue; arm and leg beads they call uini or chakira; also their olasu or gold nose ring and earrings; and their mola blouse or dulemor. Every piece of garment or body adornment displays their personality and individuality. Sometimes these apparels are representative of a tradition such as in the case of the uini, which women are expected to put on the day of their puberty ceremony and continue to wear for the rest of their lives.

In an archipelago known as San Blas, which comprises of some 300 islands off the coast of Panama, reside the majority of these indigenous people known as the Guna. Their history goes back perhaps two millennia, although no one knows for sure. What we do know, is that the Guna migrated from South America to their current location sometime in the 15th century.

San Blas, also known as the Guna Yala comarca (region), a politically autonomous reservation, is where the majority of the Guna people live by occupying 49 of the islands. However, there are two other comarcas; Kuna de Madugandí and Kuna de Wargandí. These are forest communities off the Chucunaque River and the Bayano Lake respectively. There are also a few small villages in the northern part of Colombia near the border, as well as a few communities of Guna living in Panama City and Colon.

Totalling less than 80,000, they migrated to the area that is today Panama from what is now Colombia during the invasion by the Spanish conquistadors in the early 1500s. Skirmishes with the Spanish soldiers and other indigenous groups pushed them to the areas they now occupy.

Today, the majority of the Guna live in the San Blas Islands and enjoy living in what any visitor would call a Caribbean paradise. Calm blue turquoise waters, adorned with hundred of white sandy islands with clusters of palm trees lush with green coconuts. The residents of the other two comarcas, enjoy uncomplicated, free and self-determined lives just as the San Blas residents, but along the banks of the area’s main river and lake.

The flag of the Guna community.

The flag of the Guna community.

A Matriarchal Society

Exemplifying their outlook of life, is the flag adopted by the Guna National Congress in 1940 which contains a black, left-facing swastika representing the four directions and the creation of the world. But in addition to this worldly perspective is their approach to gender equality upholding a strict matriarchal structure; one of the few such societies in the world today.

Although each community is led by a male saila, who acts both as a political and religious leader in charge of memorizing songs relating to the history of the people, the women hold the defacto power over the communities. Women are the main food distributors, property owners and decision makers.

True to their matriarchal structure, the Guna are matrilocal which dictates that upon marriage, couples move into the brides family home. Additionally, they are matrileneal making hereditary succession to run along the mother's family line. This means all essential possessions such as land, animals and other valuables belong to the matriarch of the family, not the patriarch.

In Guna society, there is no hierarchy assigned to the value of work. While fishing, hunting or other manual forms of labor are considered work, so is cooking, raising children and the making of molas. In fact, in recent years with the increase in tourism and the popularity of the molas, women can earn substantially higher - up to $50 per mola - than men, who typically earn $20 per day fishing for lobsters or cleaning the bottom of boats for tourists.

The  Omeggid:  a distinct, additional third gender.

The Omeggid: a distinct, additional third gender.

The Gender Fluid Omeggid

In addition to the Guna's female empowerment, the society allows for gender fluidity to take place. Boys may choose to become Omeggid, or womanlike; a role by which they can act and work like other females in the community. In the Guna culture, these individuals are considered to be neither male nor female, but rather a third gender. Unlike the term 'transgender' which suggests a transition or even a combination between male and female, Omeggid, for the Guna refers to a unique and distinct gender that goes back to the mythology of how the Guna were created.

Perhaps one of the reasons for society's acceptance of the idea of a non-binary gender and of the Omeggid in particular can be attributed to the influence powerful matriarchal figures in the Guna culture have on men. The women are the ones that advance the idea children should have sufficient self-determination to decide what is best for them. Especially as it applies to gender selection, as the general consensus is these tendencies start showing at an early age. Once manifested, boys are not prevented from being themselves.

In an interview with Egle Gerulaityte of BBC Travel on August of 2018, Panama City's transgender health educator and LGBTQ rights activist Nandin Solis Garcia originally from Guna Yala, described the ease with which she grew up as a gay, gender-fluid boy on the islands. The support she received from family, friends and community allowed her to grow up as a well adjusted person. Extolling the virtues of a non-binary tolerant society such as the Guna, she said even though transgender women are extremely rare, they would have no problems making the transition from female to male.

As per Solis Garcia, many Omeggid leave the comarca for Panama City, as they look for better education and career opportunities. The move works out well for some, but not for others. One serious issue they face, however, is the threat from HIV. Regarding this issue, she said:

“We have a big problem with HIV in the community. In Guna Yala, there is no sex education, and people simply don’t know about sexually transmitted diseases. As a result, many [men and] Omeggid people become infected with HIV in the cities, and then, unknowingly, bring it back to the Guna islands when they return home."

In spite of the issues they face, whether at any of the comarcas or in Panama City, the Omeggid are ubiquitous and thriving. Many learn needle work from their mothers and other women in the community and are able to sell their handiwork to tourist as well as non-Guna residents of the country. Others work as tour guides or translators to the tourists. But always treated as equal members of the community at large and by their families.

"Deadly tropical sun for the albinos of Panama’s ethnic Kuna" Costa Rica Star News

"Deadly tropical sun for the albinos of Panama’s ethnic Kuna" Costa Rica Star News

Their Economy, Health and Albinism

Living as their ancestors did perhaps more than a thousand years ago, they lead an austere communal existence of acceptance and tolerance. Their wooden shacks covered with palm leaves and a fire place for cooking conspicuously contain hammocks as their only furniture.

Their economy is based on agriculture, fishing and the manufacturing of clothing, a few small retail stores, with a tradition of international trade as they have sold their products to tourists and merchants from all over the world. The sale of molas and other Guna art has become a large part of their economy. Mola vendors can be found all throughout Panama in large and small cities, selling their products to not just international tourists, but to local citizens as well.

Their diet consists of plantains, coconuts, fish, a few domestic animals and sometimes imported food. Their diet has often been credited for the long life span the Guna enjoy. Showing an average blood pressure of 110/70 and lower incidence of cancer than their Western counterparts, the life expectancy of the Guna is higher than non-Guna Panamanians.

Interestingly, the Guna have a high rate of albinism within their ranks. This has led to their sobriquet of "White Indians." In Guna mythology, sipu or albinos are considered a special race and hold a unique place in their society, as they are charged with defending the Moon against the dragon which tries to eat it during Lunar eclipses. Only they are allowed to go outside during the night of these celestial events to shoot the dragon down with their bows and arrows.

Island at risk of disappearing due to sea level rise.

Island at risk of disappearing due to sea level rise.

Threatened by the Environment and Other Factors

The same ocean that provided them with food, shelter from adversaries and above which their tranquil lives have allowed them to coexist with nature, is slowly taking away all it once gave them. As the Caribbean Sea rises, it is not difficult to see a future in which the islands of San Blas no longer exist. Hence, many members of the Guna Yala community are considering a life on the mainland. Were this to happen, the Guna culture as we know today, would cease to exist.

The destruction that climate change is bringing on the Guna Yala habitat goes beyond sea level rise. It is also the cause of the slow dissolution of the bountiful coral reefs surrounding the islands, which for hundreds of years have provided this community with the means to subsist. Consequently, the Guna Yala numbers continue to decline as young people move to the cities of Panama in search of better education, job opportunities and a more secure future.

The Gunas' unsophisticated lives are heavily dependent on their environment. They rely on a growing tourist industry, fishing, handicrafts and the trade of coconuts with Panama. Their housing is simple, made of sour cane - a native plant to Latin America - with roofs made of palm leafs. Typically sitting on stilts in order to avoid being washed away by surging water, the houses are fragile and at the mercy of any inclement climactic shift. Any rational thinking dictates the obvious conclusion: the tropical paradise that has so far sheltered them will not be around much longer.

The old disposal way of throwing trash into the ocean is still used today. One problem: The trash comes back.

The old disposal way of throwing trash into the ocean is still used today. One problem: The trash comes back.

Drowning in Waste

No different from the rest of the world, the Guna suffer from crowded spaces and waste problems. Today, of the forty-nine communities in Guna Yala, the vast majority live in islands ranging in population from hundreds to several thousand. Prior to the 1940s, when island communities were smaller, processed foods and manufactured goods were not as readily available as today, the Guna were able to keep their villages clean by disposing human waste, unconsumed food and glass items into the ocean.

Additionally, making the disposal process easy was the usage of organic materials for storage, cooking and serving food. Empty coconut shells acted as storage vessels; palm leafs were used for serving, even cooking foods; some woods would be carved into utensils.

Today, increases in modern trappings have drastically changed the calculus. Plastic items of all sort, metal cans, left over apparel fabric and what ever else modern society has brought into their households must be disposed. Island residents with little means to recycle, no viable space to create landfills and no plumbing or sewage systems, must rely on the ocean as their only destination for disposal.

Unfortunately, the ocean gives back what it receives, and waste washes back onto the narrow shores surrounding the islands.

Contemporary traditional Cuna houses in the Guna Yala built on stilts over shallow coastal marshes

Contemporary traditional Cuna houses in the Guna Yala built on stilts over shallow coastal marshes

What is the Future of the Guna?

While many are content with their lives in the comarcas where they live, many decide to seek better fortunes in other Panamanian cities, especially the capital - Panama City. Because of this, the overall population of the reservations and most of all Guna Yala is dwindling.

Although they achieved independence from Panama in 1925, following a revolt and were able to develop their own system of governance that resolves problems and makes decisions through a process of consensus, their future in Guna Yala, where the majority of the population lives, is highly in doubt. Rising sea levels, represents the most severe existential long term threat they face.

On an immediate basis, however, they desperately need facilities such as sewage, a viable trash disposal system and potable water. More schools with higher grades than the sixth grade, which is their current limit, need development. Proposals have been made to include grades up to the ninth grade. Of course, more teachers are needed.

Various nongovernmental organizations (NGO) such as Displacement Solutions and Fundacion Uaguitupu are involved in providing health and dental care, solutions to their waste disposal problems, overcrowded conditions in some of the islands and possible depopulation should sea levels begin to erode land area of their habitat.

While improving their economy in order to solve fundamental problems of poverty and infrastructure can help, the Guna face other substantially weighty decisions they must make, as the Guna Yala might not be a viable homestead for future generations.

A Mola Vendor in Panama City


A Beautiful Mola

A Mola

A Mola



JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on June 24, 2020:

Thank you Anupam.

Anupam Mitu from MUMBAI on June 24, 2020:

Really? It feels good to know that there is such a culture.

Though in most of the cultures women are considered as deities and expected that they should always do all the sort of sacrifices.

To be honest JC, I am not a feminist and never judge a person based on gender as I have seen every sort of character of both the genders.

Nice and informative article. Thank you

JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on May 16, 2020:

Thank you Angel. Well...I got one of those. I bought it in Panama City a few years ago.

Angel Guzman from Joliet, Illinois on May 16, 2020:

Great article. I would love to buy a mola.

JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on January 30, 2020:

I hope you do. You will enjoy it.

Anya Ali from Rabwah, Pakistan on January 29, 2020:

Thank you! I always enjoy learning about the Caribbean. I hope to visit it sometime soon.

JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on January 12, 2020:

Thank you MG.

MG Singh emge from Singapore on January 12, 2020:

This an excellent post. It was an education as ì had never heard of such a place and that too in the Caribbean. Thanks for the info.

JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on January 11, 2020:

Thank you for your kind comment!!! And true...we should learn from them.

RoadMonkey on January 11, 2020:

A very interesting article. I had never previously heard of these people. What a pity their island paradises are disappearing. I think we could learn a lot from these people.

JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on November 11, 2019:


Thank you for your comments. I am glad you enjoyed reading it.

Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on November 11, 2019:

A unique hub on an interesting title. Informative and with colorful photos. Everything about these people are different and from a different part of the world. A culture I had no idea of and you chose to share in detail.

JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on November 10, 2019:

Hello John,

Yes, I agree with you. Thanks for your comments.

John Hansen from Gondwana Land on November 09, 2019:

A very interesting article, JC. I had not heard of the Guna and I enjoyed reading of the matriarchal society and culture. it is a shame climate change is causing the seas to rise and threaten their home and the other waste disposal and overpopulation problems they face. Thank you for sharing.

JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on November 09, 2019:

Thank you Iqra! I am glad you enjoyed the article.

Iqra from Pakistan on November 09, 2019:

i have never heard of these people and their culture thanks for sharing an interesting piece of information...

well written...


JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on November 09, 2019:

Hello Mary,

Thank you for commenting. Panama is a very interesting country and the San Blas islands are stunning. Hope you can go one of these days.

Mary Norton from Ontario, Canada on November 09, 2019:

Thank you for this information. I have not heard of the Gunas so it was fascinating to read about them and their culture. We planned to go to Panama this year but we just could not fit it in. Maybe, next year.

JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on November 09, 2019:

Thank you MG Singh. Agree.

Thank you Leslie. Yes, indeed.

Thank you Lorna!!

Lorna Lamon on November 09, 2019:

Such an interesting culture with sensible and fair traditions. I truly hope they will be able to continue practicing their way of life and their lives are not disrupted due to climate change. Excellent article JC.

Leslie McCowen from Cape Cod, USA on November 09, 2019:

How interesting. People who truly see others as equals....! And, the old Gaelic word for “people” (tribe) was Tuatha. Very similar to Tule.

Beautiful artistry....

Beautiful people. I hope “civilization” doesn’t ruin them!

MG Singh emge from Singapore on November 09, 2019:

Very informative. I hope the tribe does not become extinct in due course of time

JC Scull (author) from Gainesville, Florida on November 08, 2019:

Hi Poppy. Thank you.

Poppy from Enoshima, Japan on November 08, 2019:

What an interesting article. I didn't know anything about these people before I came across this information. Thank you for sharing it.

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