Catherine Giordano is a writer and public speaker who often speaks out on political matters.
Throughout history, humans have devised many forms of government. Monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy. Fascism and communism. And more. The following is a brief explanation of these various types, plus a few others thrown in for good measure.
The word "monarch" comes from the Greek language: The Greek word monos, which means “one” is paired with the Greek word árkhō which means “to rule.”
In a monarchy, there is one supreme leader who often rules by “divine right.” Monarchy -- whether king, emperor or some other title--is one of the oldest forms of government, going back to prehistoric times when a chief was the tribal leader. The position of monarch is hereditary, usually passing from father to son. (Occasionally, if there were no sons, a daughter could become the ruling queen.)
Until the nineteenth century, an autocratic monarchy was the most common form of government—the sovereign had absolute power.
The modern monarchy is quite different from earlier ones. In some countries, the monarchy is only symbolic as in a crowned republic.
The most common form of modern monarchy is a constitutional monarchy, where the monarch retains only restricted power. The degree of power the monarch retains varies from country to country
- In some countries, the real authority resides in a constitution and in an elected body of representatives of the people. The monarch may reign, but not rule.
- In other countries, the constitutional part remains in theory, but the ruler has close to absolute power.
Today a person who rules with the power of an absolute monarch is often called a dictator.
Queen Elizabeth of England
The word oligarchy comes from the Greek word olígos which means “few.”
Oligarchy is government by the few for the few. Aristocracy and plutocracy are forms of oligarchy.
The term comes from the Greek word aristos which means “superior” and kratos which means “rule.”
This form of government is based upon the belief that the aristocrats--the wealthy nobility who inherit titled positions such as duke, earl, baron, etc.--are the most fit to rule. It was the favored form of government in Europe (working together with monarchy) until most of those countries became constitutional monarchies during the eighteenth century.
Great Britain, although it is a constitutional monarchy, retains some aristocracy due to the House of Lords. Traditionally, some of the members of the House of Lords were hereditary peers (members of the nobility), some came from the Church of England (archbishops and bishops), and some came from the judiciary. However, today the House of Lords has very limited powers, and it has been steadily becoming democratized with more and more members chosen via elections. There are currently proposals to make the House of Lords totally elected.
Today the term aristocracy is usually used as a pejorative. It refers to a country being governed primarily by rich people for the benefit of rich people.
The term plutocracy comes from the Greek word ploutos which means “wealth.”
Plutocracy is very similar to autocracy. It is government by a small group of the wealthiest citizens.
Plutocrats differ from aristocrats in that they need not come from noble or wealthy families. Nonetheless, they are the country’s mega-rich, and their wealth gives them power--power which they use to increase their own wealth.
A country does not designate itself a “plutocracy” in the same way it might designate itself a monarchy. The term is used as a pejorative when the moneyed class is effectively ruling the country no matter what the official form of government is.
Heads of Government
The term also comes from Greek: Kakistos means “worst.” A kakistocracy is a government by the worst people in the country.
The term was first used in 1829 by the English author Thomas Love Peacock. It was meant to be the opposite of aristocracy. (Presumably, Peacock thought aristocracy was the best form of government.)
Kleptocracy is another pejorative term meaning a government of thieves. This word also comes from Greek: Klepto means “to steal.” This term, like kakistocracy, is a pejorative and not a name a country would bestow upon itself.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a particular religion (more correctly an individual or group of individuals who claim to speak for the religion’s deity) rules. The word theocracy comes from the Greek word theos which means “god.”
A theocracy can be a monarchy or an oligarchy or even a democracy (as the case in Israel). The laws of the country reflect the laws of the religion. People may be forced to observe the religious rituals.
Religion may be more or less supreme. In a monarchy or oligarchy, religious laws will be more prominent; in a democracy like Israel, the religious demands may be fewer and there will be more tolerance for non-observance.
The dictionary defines fascism as “a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.”
In a fascist regime, a strong, authoritarian leader gains power and then uses the police force and army to maintain “law and order.” Sadly, the dictator often begins his political career and gains power because he is admired by the people who expect him to make things better for them.
The prime examples of fascism are Italy under Mussolini and Germany under Hitler in the years after WW I until the end of WW II. Other countries such as Spain, Japan, and Argentina have also had fascist regimes.
Today, too many people use the term fascist primarily as an insult to describe anyone whose political views they do not like—they apparently do not understand the actual meaning of the word.
Communism (from Latin communis which means “universal”) is the nominal system of government in Russia. (In actuality, Russia is a fascist-like dictatorship.)
Communism is the philosophical belief in a socioeconomic order based on common ownership of the means of production and the abolishment of social classes. In its pure form it is idealistic. No working class and capitalist class—everyone will give according to his ability and take according to his need.
It works great for a family unit and maybe even for small hunting-and-gathering tribes. It falls apart when a leader tries to impose it upon a whole nation. Human nature being what it is, people will cheat to maximize the benefits for themselves. The oligarchs in Russia are immensely wealthy.
The Hammer and Sickle
Capitalism is not, strictly speaking, a form of government—it is a system of commerce—but it is included here to contrast with communism.
Capitalism is a better system than communism and is the one employed by most nations. Each person works to maximize his own benefit and in the process everyone benefits. However, there is no country which practices unfettered capitalism.
Human nature being what it is, greed distorts the system. The workers, because they have less power, get exploited. There must be regulations to keep some kind of balance between capitalists and labor.
The word is derived from the Greek word demos which means “the common people.” It has flaws, but it may be the best form of government humans can devise.
A line attributed to Winston Churchill sums it up: “Democracy is the worst form of government except for all the others.”
The United States was founded as a democracy. (Technically, the United States is a "democratic republic"—a government in which the citizens elect representatives who rule for the people. Strict democracy works only in small groups; it is unwieldy to have the entire population vote on every single thing.)
Democracy is supposed to be a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people,” as Abraham Lincoln famously said in his Gettysburg Address. The problem with a democracy is that it is hard to meet those ideals.
A demagogue can sway the people to vote against their own interests by exploiting prejudice and ignorance to whip up the passions of the masses and to shut down reasoned deliberation. Benjamin Franklin warned against demagogues when he was asked what form of government the United States has. He replied, “A republic if you can keep it.”
Democracy Requires Voting
What Do You Think
Questions & Answers
Question: What type of government do the following countries have: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Zimbabwe, China, Poland, Chile, and India?
Answer: This question is literally all over the map--Near East, Far East, Africa, Europe. North America. South America.
Pakistan: Federal Parliamentary Government
Saudi Arabia: Absolute Monarchy; the king is head of state and head of the government
Mexico: Federal Presidential Representative Democratic Republic
Zimbabwe: Presidential Republic
China: Ruled by the Communist Party; governed by democratic centralism, but power is concentrated in the Paramount Leader
Poland: Democratic; the Prime Minister is head of the government, and the President is head of state
Chile: Representative Democratic Republic; the President is both head of government and head of state
India: Parliamentary Democratic Republic; the Prime Minister runs the government, and the President is head of state; the executive branch of government is held responsible to the Parliament
Question: How can we form a more perfect government in which we meet the needs of the people, while focusing on building people into the perfect beings we can? Simultaneously controlling population, leveling wealth, revising roles of identities in society (things like gender, race, orientation, ethnic background, religion, etc.), and removing social constructs; would any of these work?
Answer: How can we make our government perfect and our people perfect? The short answer is, we can't. What we can do is try to make things better. Better happens in small increments.
We can make the population better by starting with ourselves. We each need to be what we want to see in the world. If you want bigotry of all forms to end, don't be a bigot and call it when you see it in others. We can teach our children to be good kind human beings by being good role models for them.
We can make government better by participating in democracy. In the U.S., we are lucky to have a democratic form of government, but it does us no good if we don't use it. Become an active citizen. Make sure you are well-informed on the issues and the candidates for public office. Then vote your values.
We won't get to perfection, but maybe we can have a better country.
Question: What are the various forms of the constitutional government (Federal, Confederate and Unitary)?
Answer: Federal: Power is shared by central government and states (e.g., U.S).
Unitary: Central government controls various weaker states (e.g., U.K).
Confederate: A loose organization of states (e.g., The Confederate States of America).
© 2017 Catherine Giordano
I welcome your comments.
Gbande Haruna on June 27, 2020:
I have not seen autocracy
mark a clark on October 17, 2019:
you should stick to the facts and stop editorializing. this is not the 1950s or 60s, although you may wish it to be. also, while you're at it learn the difference between economic systems and political systems and stop demonizing one based on the other.
person on April 11, 2019:
you should add autocracy
Catherine Giordano (author) from Orlando Florida on September 28, 2017:
njoroge kimani: Trumpocracy is a form of plutocracy where a few powerful people control everything.
Catherine Giordano (author) from Orlando Florida on September 28, 2017:
Stephen Scullion: England today is part of the United Kingdom, but we still commonly refer to England as a country and Queen Elizabeth is still known as the Queen of England.
njoroge kimani on September 27, 2017:
I think the new form of government is Trumpocracy, whereby business interests and Forbians (those dominant in the Forbes List),determine the politics and social order of the day. For instance they have tried to throw out Obamacare health bill, because being poor to afford a medical bill, to them is sinful!
Stephen Scullion on September 26, 2017:
There hasn't been a Queen of England since Elizabeth I (the Scotsman James who came after her was also King of Scotland and thus so was his queen, Anne of Denmark) and no sovereign nation called England since 1707.
Catherine Giordano (author) from Orlando Florida on September 07, 2017:
Mike: Don't leave out oligarchy. Unfortunately it is too easy for countries to drift into these kinds of states. We have to vigorously hold our elected leaders to account.
Mike on September 06, 2017:
I believe the USA is a Plutocracy / Kleptocracy. We are ruled by the wealthy & they steal from the working class.
Gary DeVaney on September 01, 2017:
Mario Alvarez on August 05, 2017:
I did not vote for the current rabid pit bull dog, that my country currently has as the most destructive and offensive president.
Outersphere on July 16, 2017:
Under Communism the following note would be appropriate. "There is not now nor has there ever been a Communist Nation during the history of the planet. All so called Communist Nations that have existed are/were actually Right Wing Fascist Nations with a façade of Communist mumbo-jumbo.
Catherine Giordano (author) from Orlando Florida on July 15, 2017:
Roya: I am glad you found the article helpful.
Roya on July 14, 2017:
Thanks a lot this following is helping me a lot
Catherine Giordano (author) from Orlando Florida on June 18, 2017:
James Bridges: Thank you for your comment and for pointing me to the book your professor wrote. There certainly are a lot of "isms."
James Bridges on June 16, 2017:
My first course in Government at the U of Texas (class of 1960) was taught by Dr Taborsky, formerly the personal secretary of Pres Benes of Czechoslovakia until the communist took over. I received an excellent foundation in understanding the "Isms". There is a book by that title that explained in detail the various beliefs in human organization.
Catherine Giordano (author) from Orlando Florida on May 04, 2017:
Lawrence Hebb: Thanks for letting me know you enjoyed this essay. As you observed, some of the forms of government, like kleptocracy and kakistocracy, are more satire than an actual form of government.
Lawrence Hebb on May 03, 2017:
A very interesting hub, some of the forms I found somewhat amusing.
Catherine Giordano (author) from Orlando Florida on April 10, 2017:
Thank you Ms. Dora. I started off just wanting to understand what fascism actually was and one thing led to another. I'm glad you liked it.
Dora Weithers from The Caribbean on April 10, 2017:
Thanks for the lesson in Forms of Government. Such articles help to keep us sharp, or at least introduce to the facts. Useful!
Catherine Giordano (author) from Orlando Florida on April 09, 2017:
FlourishAnyway: I too feel that the United States, and the world (because the U.S. is such a major world power) is in grave danger.
Trump has alienated our allies, and our enemies are testing him. All except Russia, of course, who is using him. Fascism we all believed, was defeated in WW II. But like the monster in a horror movie, it won't stay dead.
FlourishAnyway from USA on April 08, 2017:
In college I took an honors seminar on Fascist governments throughout history and because of that I can see the danger in Trump and his politics. I'm so afraid for us.
Catherine Giordano (author) from Orlando Florida on April 06, 2017:
Larry Rankin: I'm pleased to know that you found it interesting. I found it very interesting to write.
Larry Rankin from Oklahoma on April 06, 2017: