The ADHD Child and the Montessori Classroom

A Montessori Classroom offers a stimulating, hands-on learning experience
A Montessori Classroom offers a stimulating, hands-on learning experience | Source

Imagine being a student in a classroom full of flashing lights distracting you from focusing on a task or a learning environment, where every spoken voice is amplified in your head and you can’t hear yourself think. These descriptions are designed to help you imagine what living with ADHD is like. Because of the challenges of educating a child with ADHD, parents may at some point consider Montessori education. Montessori education uses an individualized approach where students work at their own pace, with hands on materials, in an atmosphere of acceptance and respect for others, which at first may seem to meet the needs of a child with ADHD. But while on the surface a Montessori Education may seem like a perfect fit for a child with ADHD, taking a deeper look, it becomes apparent that this in fact may not be the case.

It is believed that children with ADHD experience the world in a more intense way. What may appear as ceiling lights to most people might appear as colorful flashing lights to a child with ADHD. For a child with ADHD, sounds can seem amplified such that they can’t hear themselves think. Therefore, a less stimulating and more structured environment will offer less distraction and a better opportunity to focus for a child with ADHD.

Now let us consider the Montessori learning environment. Montessori education was founded on the belief that children are naturally curious and innately driven to learn. This type of learning, which begins with curiosity, is an ideal method of education for many children. Curiosity is the ingredient in learning that brings out passion and lifts intelligence to its greatest heights. Some of the greatest inventions in human history began with simple curiosity; this is part of what Montessori education seeks to tap into. This method of learning exists in near opposition to a typical classroom where the teacher dictates what is being taught at any given time. This traditional method does not tap into curiosity but rather group structure, as well as a child’s natural inclination to please the parent and teacher; this is why grades become the primary focus in traditional education.

Self direction and individualized learning are two hallmarks of Montessori Education
Self direction and individualized learning are two hallmarks of Montessori Education | Source

It might seem logical that a child with ADHD would thrive in a Montessori classroom since they can move from task to task and work at a rapid pace which corresponds to their natural rhythm. They would be learning with the passion of a curious mind and possibly excel. Many parents are attracted to this method and have great hopes that their child will not only soar but will also be accepted for their differences. The Montessori philosophy not only taps into the child’s curiosity for learning but it also teaches tolerance and appreciation for differences between cultures and individuals. Acceptance and respect are modeled and practiced on a daily basis. In theory the ADHD child would be accepted and allowed to thrive given their learning style and philosophy of acceptance.

But this is not how it plays out, what actually happens is that these children tend to move around aimlessly becoming distracted as a result of having so many schoolwork options to choose from. They might start one activity and then fail to complete it before moving on to the next. Also, because other students are independently moving around the classroom they serve as visual and sound distractions. What results, is a student who needs an inordinate amount of correction and redirection by the teacher. Not only does this place undue stress on the teacher, it forces the child to stand out as "different" even in this otherwise accepting environment. Some accommodations can be made, such as having the child work alone in less active and quieter section of the classroom or even in extreme cases, an aide can be assigned to stay beside the child for portions of the day. In reality though, the Montessori classroom is typically not a good fit for any but the mildest cases of ADHD.

The Montessori Education Method relies heavily on a child's ability to work independently
The Montessori Education Method relies heavily on a child's ability to work independently | Source

For children to maintain motivation and succeed, individualized planning must take a multifaceted view of ADHD. –Mark Bertin Author of ‘The Family ADHD Solution'

A secondary issue plaguing children with ADHD is that, according to Dr. William Barbaresi of Harvard, studies suggest that nearly 40% of children with ADHD have deficits in reading, math and writing. Montessori schools are most often not equipped to provide an ADHD student with the volume of specialized assistance they need in these subject areas. The Montessori education method relies on students being primarily independent learners while students with ADHD need more guidance than the Montessori classroom can realistically offer. While some Montessori schools offer specialized tutoring, it is most often insufficient in relation to what the child truly needs.

The Montessori Educational Method, while successful for many students might not be ideal for a student with ADHD
The Montessori Educational Method, while successful for many students might not be ideal for a student with ADHD | Source

A better option is to look to a public school that can offer not only an evaluation and diagnosis of a child’s educational needs, but create an Individualized Education Plan or IEP, for the child with ADHD. With a plan laid out, the child will work with specialized teachers either one on one, in small groups or within the classroom itself. Because children with ADHD benefit from working in smaller groups, this method can reap good results as well as offering the structure that keeps the student on task.

While Montessori Education on the surface appears to be a good fit, a deeper look reveals that public school is in fact better equipped at meeting the needs of a child with ADHD.

A Peek Inside a Montessori Classroom

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© 2013 Tracy Lynn Conway

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Comments 8 comments

Zoya 19 months ago

extremely awesome article, while i am struggling with some of my ADHD childs, i completely agreed with the bottom line. that being honest and tell the parents that montessori in not even fit for an ADHD chil.

Elizabeth 17 months ago

This might be true if the classroom doesn't have an AMI trained Montessori guide, and therefore isn't really Montessori. In a true Montessori classroom, a child learns focus. In my opinion, that's a much better alternative than amphetamines.

Jessica 6 months ago

A cookie cutter plan for any child especially a neurotic diverse child... Is not a good idea. My 2nd grader HATES school. We have an IEP and a full vote of trained people and we are still failing miserably. If I can get my sons love of school back... I'll go to the moon If I have too.

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grand old lady 3 months ago from Philippines

This is very good way for a reader to understand the Montessori system. I think it originated as a teaching method that was created to teach the child in the book, The Wild Boy of Aveyron?

Marine 2 months ago

Central to the Montessori method of teaching is the understanding that, for children, learning requires physical movement. A child's mind is not yet fully rational and abstracted from her body, and she learns through action and moving in the world. As Maria Montessori writes about physical activity, "Everybody admits that a child must be constantly on the move. This need for movement, which is irresistible in childhood, apparently diminishes with the development of inhibiting forces at the time when these, by entering into a harmony with the motor impulses, create the means for subjecting them to the will." This emphasis on allowing movement and offering sensory-based tasks as methods for learning is ideally suited to the child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Also implicit in the Montessori method is that individualized instruction that involves lots of movement may prevent the symptoms of ADHD from plaguing a child throughout her life. Maria Montessori seems to imply in this quotation and in other writings that if a child is allowed to learn through individualized attention and movement, she will internalize and develop the "inhibiting forces" that are the basis of discipline and concentration. Many authors have characterized ADHD as a failure to inhibit oneself. This line of reasoning leads to the radical and troubling possibility that the high rates of ADHD symptoms could be caused in part by educational methods that do not allow the full expression of the need for physical activity. If children are prohibited from meeting their need for movement, they may not enter into "harmony with the motor impulses"-- which Montessori argues is the very means for "subjecting them to the will" and learning how to inhibit themselves.

courtney 5 weeks ago

The author made some great points about the Montessori method, but rash generalizations about children with ADHD. Kids with ADHD can excel academically and be really smart, they just need some movement in their lives. They need to work at their pace. It might take some prompting on the part of the teacher, but they can accomplish their work.

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Tracy Lynn Conway 4 weeks ago from Virginia, USA Author

Courtney, I thank you for your comment. I am not clear as to what "rash generalizations" you are referring to regarding this article. I also don't see where the article states or implies that ADHD children cannot excel or "be really smart" as you state. In fact, children with ADHD often excel not only academically but in many other areas of life as well.

This article simply refers to the classroom that might best suit a child with ADHD. It is important to keep in mind that ADHD falls on a spectrum. If the child has very mild ADHD and works well within the Montessori classroom environment then this article would prove irrelevant. If the child needs "some prompting" as you say, then this article may be of only limited use. However, many teachers, psychologists and parents involved with students who have been diagnosed with middle to severe ADHD find that the Montessori classroom does not work after trying it with multiple modifications. This article addresses this situation.

It may even be possible that some of the children that you are referring to, who only require “some prompting” don’t even qualify as having ADHD; this is because ADHD is very often over diagnosed. Here is a quote from a recent NPR podcast on the topic of ADHD “About 15 percent of children in the U.S. receive a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD. That is about three times the rate most experts agree is appropriate.” The podcast goes on to mention that as ADHD was…” originally conceived, it was supposed to be for severe hyperactivity, for severe impulsivity and severe inattention.”

If you are interested in the podcast from NPR, the title is "The Story Behind The Rise Of ADHD In The United States."

Liv 4 weeks ago

Add Your Comment.. Tracy, you mentioned that for some students with ADHD this environment was still not suitable even after multiple modifications. Would you mind sharing what modifications were used by the teachers/aides? I'm a Special Education teacher (Master's Degree in Adaptive Special Education), and I find that modifications and accommodations vary significantly in terms of effectiveness depending on the individual. So I'm curious what was done... I found this article to be a good perspective to consider. What is your background education for the ADHD child? Do you have any academic sources to cite to defend the claims made in the article? Please share. I would love to look more in to this.

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    Tracy Lynn Conway512 Followers
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    Tracy has been working in the field of education for many years specializing in both Waldorf and Montessori methodology.

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