A Comparison of Psychodynamic and Humanistic Therapy
This content was written for Psych 101 Circa 2002 - I know what your researching...
Psychology is the study of the mind. There are a few different ways to study the mind and all of them have their own significant contributions to the field. The psychodynamic view and the humanistic view are both unique in that they are almost complete polar opposites within the field of psychology. Both have made significant contributions and have been a platform for different views, though they differ in their approaches completely. Both views must be explored and combined to form a common ground in order to keep advancing the study and treatment of the mind.
The goals of psychodynamic and humanistic therapists are very different.
The psychodynamic view was developed by Sigmund Freud. He believed that behavior was deeply influenced by unconscious thoughts, impulses, and desires, especially concerning sex and aggression. His goal was to resolve the internal conflicts that lead to emotional suffering. Freud said that "patients could only expect to change their hysterical misery into common unhappiness." The humanistic therapist would take a very different look at this.
The goals of the humanistic therapist differ from Freud's psychodynamic view in that they seek to understand how people perceive themselves and experience the world. It is concerned with understanding subjective human needs. Humanists believe that conscious thoughts and feelings shape behavior. They believe in accountability and self-actuality, and that everyone can reach self-actuality by moving through Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This differs to the Freudian school of psychodynamics because he did not believe that all of his patients could be happy.
Optimism Versus Pessimism
Humanists and psychodynamicists not only differ in their goals, but also in their views on personality as well. The psychodynamic view is more negative and pessimistic, whereas the humanistic view is that mostly all people are good.
Psychodynamics believes that behavior is determined, while the humanist believes that behavior is free choice and free will. In psychodynamics, motives are rooted in sex and aggression while humanists' motives are tilted towards the pursuit of self-actualization. Psychodynamics denotes three elements of the personality: Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id seeks pleasure, the Ego is the thinker and planner, and the Superego is the voice of reason. Humanists are more simplistic, believing in a unified self and that "people just are who they are."
Views on Human Development
Psychodynamics puts forth a very different view on child development from humanism.
The Freudian and psychodynamic view of human development is based on psychosexual stages as follows:
- Oral (age 0-1) focuses on sucking and survival
- Anal (ages 1-3) focuses on potty training
- Phallic (ages 3-6) focuses on adult traits such as vanity and pride
- Genital, which starts with the onset of puberty.
The humanistic view is very different from Freud's view of development and describes an ongoing development of self-image in which experiences shape self-image in a positive or negative way.
Differing Therapeutic Techniques
The approach to therapy differs greatly between psychodynamic and humanistic therapy.
- The therapist's role in psychodynamic therapy is authoritative, and they tend to determine what will be talked about during a session.
- In humanistic therapy, the therapist takes an objective role and listens to what the patient has to say. It is more non-directed and the patient can decide what will be discussed during the session.
- It is said in humanistic therapy, the therapist provides opportunities for change, but it is up to the patient to actively solve his or her own problems.
- The psychodynamic approach deals with unconscious thoughts and conflicts, usually stemming from repressed memories or sexual energy.
- The humanist therapist believes in conscious acts and that humans make their own decisions, not unconscious drives. They encouraging responsibility for their actions by focusing on bringing emotions into the present and dealing with them.
Do Psychodynamic and Humanistic Therapies Have Anything in Common?
A lot of research has been done on these two very different approaches. However, there have been no new views that have combined humanism with psychodynamics to utilize the best of both. Science supports the idea that the conscious cannot function without the unconscious. By combining the humanistic and psychodynamic view to focus on the conscious and unconscious as equally responsible parts for the cause of psychological disorders, we could further research about the brain and its behavior.
There is no right or wrong when it comes to different approaches to psychology. The main differences between the psychodynamic view and humanistic view are the goals, development, causes, and treatments; and in each area, both views have made significant contributions. By combining the two views into one harmonious holistic view, a healthier approach to treating the mind and psychological disorders could be formed. The new view would take all parts of the mind and body, conscious and unconscious, into consideration, leading to a stronger diagnosis and treatment in the end.
What Brought You To This Site Today?
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Psychodynamic Therapy vs Humanistic Therapy
What Approach Do You Side With?
Psychodynamics- I Prefer Freud's Approach
Joy: Thank you very much for this detailed information now am ready to go and write my counseling exam
Luke Tomlinson: Freud is an absolute lad
Sk Farid: Thanks
anonymous: They both work and they both have their weaknesses. I like to understand what causes things, beliefs, emotions and behaviors but I also accept that sometimes there is no explanation, only here and now. On balance, I find the Psychodynamic approach more appealing because it gives my logical brain succor but I don't pretend everything can be turned into an equation. I just think, on the whole, I want to understand how and why and what I can't know, for now, I will simply accept.
MervynGoh: i can say that psychology is not only studying of our brain but we must also learn how to control it and with that, we can make the utmost potential out of it. We can master our mind and design our destiny. Thanks for sharing too.
Humanism- I Prefer the Holistic Approach
Pirakhas: Humanistik is totally diffrent with pscchodynamik because humanistik belive that human are good and if they any problem it must be envoirement or moviing maslow needs.
anonymous: i believe human have a freewill to do what we like.
kwj: I guess a holistic approach would include Freuds ideas too
DMVAgent: I prefer humanism over psychodynamics. I personally believe that some of Freud's view are too fringy. However, if I do psychotherapy I use a "salad" of techniques and perspective based on what fits the client. :)
MattKay: I definitely favor an eclectic approach to psychology but if I had to choose only one I would prefer Humanism based on what I know about each. Psychodynamics have merit but Freud's interpretation of the center of the human psyche is a bit eccentric for my tastes.
Lorelei Cohen: Humanistic
Mandy: I prefer the holistic approach to treatment. A person should be treated as a whole and guided to lead a healthy lifestyle in order to improve their quality of life.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
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© 2010 Mandy