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A Comparison of Psychodynamic and Humanistic Therapy

Updated on August 23, 2017

Psychology is the study of the mind. There are a few different ways to study the mind and all of them have their own significant contributions to the field. The psychodynamic view and the humanistic view are both unique in that they are almost complete polar opposites within the field of psychology. Both have made significant contributions and have been a platform for different views, though they differ in their approaches completely. Both views must be explored and combined to form a common ground in order to keep advancing the study and treatment of the mind.

Differing Goals

The goals of psychodynamic and humanistic therapists are very different.

The psychodynamic view was developed by Sigmund Freud. He believed that behavior was deeply influenced by unconscious thoughts, impulses, and desires, especially concerning sex and aggression. His goal was to resolve the internal conflicts that lead to emotional suffering. Freud said that "patients could only expect to change their hysterical misery into common unhappiness." The humanistic therapist would take a very different look at this.

The goals of the humanistic therapist differ from Freud's psychodynamic view in that they seek to understand how people perceive themselves and experience the world. It is concerned with understanding subjective human needs. Humanists believe that conscious thoughts and feelings shape behavior. They believe in accountability and self-actuality, and that everyone can reach self-actuality by moving through Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This differs to the Freudian school of psychodynamics because he did not believe that all of his patients could be happy.

Optimism Versus Pessimism

Humanists and psychodynamicists not only differ in their goals, but also in their views on personality as well. The psychodynamic view is more negative and pessimistic, whereas the humanistic view is that mostly all people are good.

Psychodynamics believes that behavior is determined, while the humanist believes that behavior is free choice and free will. In psychodynamics, motives are rooted in sex and aggression while humanists' motives are tilted towards the pursuit of self-actualization. Psychodynamics denotes three elements of the personality: Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id seeks pleasure, the Ego is the thinker and planner, and the Superego is the voice of reason. Humanists are more simplistic, believing in a unified self and that "people just are who they are."

Views on Human Development

Psychodynamics puts forth a very different view on child development from humanism.

The Freudian and psychodynamic view of human development is based on psychosexual stages as follows:

  • Oral (age 0-1) focuses on sucking and survival
  • Anal (ages 1-3) focuses on potty training
  • Phallic (ages 3-6) focuses on adult traits such as vanity and pride
  • Genital, which starts with the onset of puberty.

The humanistic view is very different from Freud's view of development and describes an ongoing development of self-image in which experiences shape self-image in a positive or negative way.

Differing Therapeutic Techniques

The approach to therapy differs greatly between psychodynamic and humanistic therapy.

  • The therapist's role in psychodynamic therapy is authoritative, and they tend to determine what will be talked about during a session.
  • In humanistic therapy, the therapist takes an objective role and listens to what the patient has to say. It is more non-directed and the patient can decide what will be discussed during the session.
  • It is said in humanistic therapy, the therapist provides opportunities for change, but it is up to the patient to actively solve his or her own problems.
  • The psychodynamic approach deals with unconscious thoughts and conflicts, usually stemming from repressed memories or sexual energy.
  • The humanist therapist believes in conscious acts and that humans make their own decisions, not unconscious drives. They encouraging responsibility for their actions by focusing on bringing emotions into the present and dealing with them.

Do Psychodynamic and Humanistic Therapies Have Anything in Common?

A lot of research has been done on these two very different approaches. However, there have been no new views that have combined humanism with psychodynamics to utilize the best of both. Science supports the idea that the conscious cannot function without the unconscious. By combining the humanistic and psychodynamic view to focus on the conscious and unconscious as equally responsible parts for the cause of psychological disorders, we could further research about the brain and its behavior.

There is no right or wrong when it comes to different approaches to psychology. The main differences between the psychodynamic view and humanistic view are the goals, development, causes, and treatments; and in each area, both views have made significant contributions. By combining the two views into one harmonious holistic view, a healthier approach to treating the mind and psychological disorders could be formed. The new view would take all parts of the mind and body, conscious and unconscious, into consideration, leading to a stronger diagnosis and treatment in the end.

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    • profile image

      fofo 2 months ago

      very good and clear explaning

    • profile image

      mrandersong 3 years ago

      It depends on the person. We all have different approaches to life and one approach might work for one person and not the other. I personally believe in Holistic theory because it works for me. The human mind is a very complicated place so to say one works better than the other is just arrogant.

    • kwj profile image

      kwj 4 years ago

      Thought provoking I will read more now.

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      anonymous 5 years ago

      This is a gross misrepresentation of psychodynamic therapy

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      It is very worthwhile reading this because it is succinct, clear and thought provoking.

    • profile image

      Varelli 6 years ago

      What an intriguing subject. Great lens, thumbs up!

    • profile image

      moonlitta 6 years ago

      That is helpful and well explained...Squid Angel blessed too:)

    • Lady Lorelei profile image

      Lorelei Cohen 6 years ago from Canada

      You have done an absolutely amazing job on this lens. Thank you for putting so much effort into this. It shows.