Osteoblasts and osteoclasts control the production and disintegration of bone and the amount of calcium released from the bones into the bloodstream.
Draco lizards are sometimes known as flying dragons. They have a skin fold on each side of their body that extends to form a wing-like structure and enables them to glide through the air.
Pacific white-sided dolphins are intelligent and very social animals. This article describes the lives of the wild dolphins and of some rescued animals in captivity.
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is becoming a very serious problem. Phage therapy—treatment with bacteriophages or viruses that attack bacteria—might be a solution.
When someone experiences a heart attack, cells in their heart die. Scientists have found two ways to replace the lost cells in rodents. The techniques may one day work in us.
Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the circle of Willis are important parts of the brain. They are named after the famous scientists who discovered them.
COVID-19 is considered a pandemic as of March 2020, and though it has affected the world and cost so many lives, it is not as deadly as the ones on this list...so how does COVID-19 compare to the deadliest pandemics in history? Read on and find out..
Lichens are interesting organisms that are important in their environment and useful for humans. Some produce chemicals that are potentially dangerous for us, however.
North America is home to six species of wildcats. Learn more about the wildcats of North America with pictures and videos.
Many people struggle to tell these two reptiles apart, but it isn't that difficult when you know what to look for. What is the difference between alligators and crocodiles? Well, there are essentially 8 main ways to tell them apart...
This guide to laboratory signs and their meanings has a detailed description to each sign and symbol, with photos. A must read for anyone working in a laboratory with hazard signs...
Learn the main parts of the circulatory system and how each part works. This article includes topics about the systemic circulation of blood flow, blood composition, blood flow pressure, heartbeat, and the lymphatic system.
Why does time only go forward? I discuss a theory I call "Time Gravity" that creates a force in only one direction.
Snakehead fish are invasive species in North America. They are fierce predators and can breathe in air. They may be a serious threat to native wildlife.
Tomatoes are nutritious and have an interesting history, but they often lack flavor compared to ones in the past. A new discovery and other methods should provide tastier tomatoes.
Exploring the phenomenon of people thinking animals are "sad" in zoos because of the expression on their faces. Can you read an animal's mind by looking at it?
Learn the different hormones produced by the endocrine glands of our body. This article includes the list of the different hormones and how they function in our body.
Bacteria in the genus Yersinia have major effects on our lives. One species causes bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Others cause foodborne illness. One may eventually help to treat cancer.
Scientists are trying to bring extinct animals back to life by a process called cloning. The result would be de-extinction. The idea is exciting but controversial.
For some duckweed is a menace, for others it's a Godsend. Here in Brazil, we have built duckweed ponds and are encouraging it to grow to use as an animal feed . This is just one of its many uses.
African civets have some unusual features and interesting behavior. Unfortunately, they are kept in captivity on civet farms so that their musk can be collected.
The killer whales that visit the Salish Sea in summer are in trouble. The group is endangered. One reason is lack of salmon to eat, but there may be others.
Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium that is a common cause of foodborne illness. It might also cause some cases of multiple sclerosis.
The Tasmanian devil is an endangered species whose population is decreasing. The main reason for the decrease is devil facial tumor disease. Immunotherapy may one day be helpful.
The hedge bindweed produces large and beautiful flowers. It twines around other plants and sometimes interferes with their growth. It's invasive in parts of North America, including British Columbia.
Puss and saddleback caterpillars are attractive insects. Unfortunately, they are stinging caterpillars. In some people, the sting can cause serious problems..
Lobsters are interesting animals to observe and study in a natural setting. They are popular food items, but the way in which we kill them is controversial.
The Ethiopian wolf lives in Africa at high elevations. It's the most endangered member of the dog family, or the Canidae. The animal faces some serious threats.
Ballistics is a branch of mechanics which deals with the motion of projectiles launched into the air or space. Solving these type of problems involves using Newton's equations of motion
Inky cap mushrooms such as shaggy manes become a black, inky liquid in order to disperse their spores. Some contain coprine, which increases the unpleasant effects of alcohol intake.
Spiders are fascinating animals that help us by removing harmful insects from the environment. Their silk is very strong and is potentially useful for humans.
Blood type is an important factor to consider in transfusions in order to avoid incompatibility reactions. Scientists have created potentially safe type O red blood cells from other kinds.
Narwhals are strange and fascinating Arctic whales. The males—and sometimes the females—have a very long tooth that grows through their lip, forming a tusk.
This is the fourth page of a series of guides to the night sky for beginners. Here, I look at the most prominent objects other than our Moon and the stars, which can be easily seen in the night sky.
Parkinson's disease involves the death of brain cells that produce dopamine. Stem cell technology may provide a more effective treatment than current methods.
The rainbow eucalyptus is an unusual tree with a beautiful, multicoloured trunk. The trunk's colours change as the tree sheds strips of bark, creating living art.
Interstitial fluid bathes cells, providing nutrients and removing wastes. The interstitium is the space containing the fluid. Some scientists believe that fluid-filled spaces in the body are connected, forming an organ.
Octopuses have fascinating abilities. Some have fins that help them move. Others demonstrate intelligence. The genome of one species is very unusual.
Many crocuses bloom in the early spring and are a lovely sight. One type makes saffron. The toxic autumn crocus makes colchicine, which can act as a medicine.
This guide to spring-flying insects will help you identify the butterflies, bees, and other bugs that you see in your garden, yard, and even in your home.
Marmots live in mountainous areas of British Columbia. They are social and very vocal animals that often form colonies. One species—the Vancouver Island Marmot—is critically endangered.
Students have an excellent chance of doing well on a physics exam if they work efficiently throughout the physics course and follow some tips for writing exams.
Jackfruit trees produce huge fruits. Cacao seeds are used to make cocoa, but the trees are in trouble. Jackfruit seed powder may be a good substitute for cocoa.
A mycorrhiza is a beneficial association between a fungus and plant roots. Mycorrhizal fungi often form a communication network between trees. Some produce truffles.
There are many endangered species, including the Siberian Tiger, elephants, leatherback sea turtles, snow leopards,
Proteins in the body have essential jobs. They enable us to move, transport materials and signals, control chemical reactions, stop bleeding, and fight infections.
Hair color is primarily genetic, and red hair is caused by mutations in the MC1R gene. The gene for red hair also causes an increased sensitivity to sunlight and a reduced sensitivity to anesthesia. Contrary to internet rumors, redheads are not going extinct! Famous redheads include Queen Elizabeth I and Malcolm X.
The giant hogweed causes burns and blisters. Grapefruit juice interferes with many medicines. The chemicals that cause these effects are called furanocoumarins.
How many squares of all different sizes are there on a chessboard? Instead of counting them up, we can calculate the answer with a formula.
Shoebill storks, or shoebills, have a huge and very impressive bill. The animal's unusual features make it a unique bird. Its population is classified as vulnerable.
Saliva is made by salivary glands and has important functions. The glands may sometimes develop a stone or an infection. In Sjogren's syndrome, insufficient saliva is made.
The pancreas makes a digestive enzyme called trypsin, which digests protein in the small intestine. Trypsin is released in an inactive form but sometimes becomes active within the pancreas. This activation may cause pancreatitis.
Exciting disciplines that combine biology and math include biostatistics, epidemiology, bioinformatics, mathematical biology, and population ecology. They offer interesting careers.
The resins that some trees secrete when they're wounded can be useful for humans. Some are used as perfumes or medicines. Others have preserved ancient life forms.
The gharial is a critically-endangered relative of the crocodile. It lives in and next to rivers in India and Nepal. The animal has some unusual and interesting features.
Rapamycin increases lifespan in mice, apparently by inhibiting a protein called mTOR. It may do the same in dogs and possibly in humans. It's currently being tested in pet dogs.
Pitcher plants produce cups that trap and digest prey. The digestive enzymes of one species can break down gluten and may help people with celiac disease.
Sardines and herring are nutritious foods. The behaviour of the living fish is interesting to study. They live in groups and communicate with their companions.
The Scottish wildcat is a beautiful animal and a powerful hunter. Unfortunately, it’s critically endangered due to hybridization with domestic cats.
Acanthamoeba is a microscopic, single-celled organism that can infect the cornea of the eye. It causes a disorder called Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is most common in contact lens users.
Ice is a magical material. Seriously, it is the underpinning of many basic functions on Earth. But where are the extremes that defy our conventional thoughts?
Oregon grape is an attractive plant with edible berries. The plant contains berberine, which may have health benefits. Further research is needed to prove this.
Stages in the Life Cycle of Stars - From protostars to white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes and supernovae. The stages in stellar evolution are described.
Not every GameObject is going to stick around forever. Discover how to both produce and demolish those extraneous sprites here.
Michael Faraday, the son of an 18th Century blacksmith, became one of the greatest scientists of his age. One of his discoveries transformed the world and changed the way we live forever.
Acorn worms have an amazing ability to regenerate body parts. We have most of the worm's genes used in regeneration. Scientists hope to enable us to make new body parts.
Dandelions have culinary benefits and also produce a latex that can be used to make rubber. This is important, since the supply of natural rubber is decreasing.
The concept of emptiness in physics is enormous. There is mostly physical nothingness in the entire universe. Follow along with me as I explain this.
The swell shark and the chain catshark produce beautiful patterns of light in a process called biofluorescence. The light emission may have important functions.
Daffodils are beautiful and interesting flowers. They have some useful features but are also toxic. They are often used by cancer societies as a symbol of hope.
The bunya pine produces huge and often very heavy cones. Its large seeds are both edible and tasty. The tree has a strange appearance and some unusual features.
Irises are beautiful flowers that have a wide variety of colours. Some are used to make orris root, which has a lovely scent but can cause an allergic response.
Formic acid is found in the sprayed venom of some ants and the secretions of some stinging nettles. The acid is dangerous at high concentrations but has important uses.
The large or Malayan flying fox is one of the world's largest bats and has a wingspan of up to six feet. Its population is classified as Near Threatened by the IUCN.
The Mariana Trench is the deepest place in the ocean and contains some fascinating animals. NOAA has made some exciting discoveries about life in the trench.
A look at Bertrand's Paradox, where a seemingly simple probability question yields some very differing results.
Tree kangaroos are unusual marsupials that move with ease through the trees and on the ground. The Lumholtz's tree kangaroo is the smallest animal in the group.
Mudskippers are unusual fish that may spend more time on land than in water. They use their pectoral fins as legs and breathe through their skin as well as their gills.
The dragon blood tree of Socotra Island has an unusual appearance. It secretes a red resin known as dragon's blood when its bark is injured. The resin is used in many ways.
Cinnabar is a beautiful but toxic red mineral made of mercury (ll) sulfide. It’s used as a source of mercury and to make an artist's pigment called vermilion.
Horsehair worms are long and slender animals that writhe and form shapes resembling knots with their body. They are parasites that control the behaviour of their host at one point in their life cycle.
Different Types of Stars in the Universe - Physical characteristics and images of the many different kinds of stars, from red giants to white dwarfs.
Pygmy seahorses are tiny animals that are often less than an inch in length. Some have amazing features that disguise them and protect them from discovery.
Paneth cells are found in the glands of the small intestine and play an important role in keeping the intestinal lining healthy. Crohn's disease has been linked to problems in the cells.
Dark matter and dark energy are still huge mysteries in astrophysics. Alternate theories exist to help explain them.
Serendipity is a happy and unexpected event that seems to occur by chance. It's often called a “lucky accident”. Serendipitous discoveries are important in science.
The Himalayan blackberry is a beautiful plant in spring and summer. It produces delicious blackberries, but it's an invasive species and grows aggressively.
Water has some properties that can make it a good refrigerant. It also possesses some undesirable properties that makes its application as a refrigerant very challenging and inefficient to implement.
With COVID-19 being a global pandemic, this article addresses five possible misconceptions folks may have about this outbreak, its potential, and ways to remain safe.
Space exploration is dangerous business. Despite hard training and dedication, these ten astronauts perished before making it into outer space.
Have you have considered the power potential of the human body? What about the energy stored in a raindrop? In this article I discuss five strange methods that could one day become an integral way that civilization generates electricity.
The common raven is an intelligent and interesting bird that plays an important role in folklore. The bird is found in many countries and habitats.
Some chemicals found in fungi are used as medicines when formulated correctly. Examples include penicillin, lovastatin, and cyclosporine. Lentinan and eritadenine may be beneficial as well.
Bumble bees have surprisingly capable brains. They can play a simple version of soccer and pull a string to get a reward. They may even experience optimism.
Bleach has potent antimicrobial properties and is also able to remove stains from fabrics. It has many uses, but it's potentially dangerous.
The mucus that covers fish has several functions, including protection from multiple dangers and serving as food for young fish. The substance may also be useful for us.
The Malayan tapir is an unusual animal with an extensible and mobile proboscis, or mini-trunk. Despite its size and bulk, this endangered animal can move fast.