Linda Crampton is a writer and former teacher with a first-class honors degree in biology. She writes about the scientific basis of disease.
What Are Blow Flies?
Blow flies are interesting and often colourful insects that are common in some areas. Many species are famous for their habit of feeding on dead bodies and decaying or injured animal tissue. The name "blow fly" (or blowfly) comes from the phrase "fly-blown meat". This is a very old term that refers to meat containing fly eggs.
Maggots are the worm-like larvae of certain flies, including blow flies. The maggots of some blow fly species may be surprisingly helpful to humans when they’re prepared carefully and used in a medical setting. When they're placed on a wound that isn't healing by a doctor, the maggots may feed on dead and dying tissue and remove it. The process is known as debridement. When the larvae are detached from the wound, they leave healthy tissue behind. The healthy tissue then repairs the wound.
Adult Blow Flies
Blow flies belong to the family of flies known as the Calliphoridae. Their body is frequently colourful and often has a metallic sheen. Blue bottles, green bottles, screwworms, and cluster flies are all blow flies.
Blue bottles have a deep blue colour and green bottles are green, as their names suggest. Both insects are noisy fliers and produce a loud buzzing sound as they travel. The species of screwworms that most commonly affect human lives are green in colour and have black stripes. Screwworms get their name from the action of their larvae, which burrow into the flesh of living or dead animals.
Unlike the blow flies described above, cluster flies have a dull instead of a shiny body. I think they're still attractive insects, though. They have a dark grey thorax with yellow hairs and a checkerboard pattern on their abdomen.
External Appearance of the Insects
Like other insects, blow flies have a tough exoskeleton over the outer surface of their body. The exoskeleton protects the fly and provides an attachment site for the muscles inside the body.
The body consists of three sections—the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. The large, compound eyes on the head are very noticeable. The head also bears two antennae. The fly has three pairs of legs and one pair of wings, all attached to the thorax. As in other members of the phylum Arthropoda, the legs are jointed.
The ancestors of blow flies had two pairs of wings. In the modern blow fly, the hind wings have been reduced to a pair of stalked structures known as halteres. Each haltere has a knob at its tip. Halteres vibrate during flight and act as stabilizers.
The antennae of a blow fly are sensitive to smell, taste, and touch. Other parts of the body can also detect these stimuli. For example, the mouth and the bottom sections of the legs (the tarsi) have taste receptors.
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The antennae are also sensitive to vibrations. They contain an organ known as the Johnston's organ. This structure can detect sound vibrations and air currents. In addition, it's sensitive to deflection due to gravity.
The compound eyes contain many lenses. The insect's brain combines the information from each lens to make a single image. The image is less detailed than the one that we would see, but the blow fly's eye is much better at detecting movement.
Respiratory and Circulatory System of Flies
Blow flies don't have lungs. Instead, they have a network of tubes called the tracheal system. The tubes transport oxygen and carbon dioxide through the fly's body. Gas exchange with the atmosphere takes place through a series of small openings on the sides of the body. These openings are called spiracles.
Blow flies do have a heart that pumps blood, although it has a very different structure from our heart. A fly's heart consists of a series of expanded chambers in a blood vessel.
The insect's circulatory system is classified as an open system instead of a closed one. In an open system, the blood travels through the body cavity for much of its journey around the body instead of travelling inside blood vessels. The cavity that it travels through is called the hemocoel. Insect "blood" is technically known as hemolymph. It doesn't contain red blood cells or hemoglobin as our blood does and is either colourless or a pale yellow or pale green colour.
Nervous, Digestive, and Excretory Systems
Blow flies have a brain, although it's relatively simple compared to the brain in more advanced animals. It's sometimes referred to as the cerebral ganglion or the supraesophageal ganglion.
An insect neuron or nerve cell has a cell body, which contains the nucleus, and an extension called an axon. The cell bodies of a group of neurons are found in the cerebral ganglion and the axons extend along the body to form nerves. The central nervous system of an insect contains a chain of ganglia.
Digestion occurs in the alimentary canal, which runs from the mouth to the anus. It's made of a foregut (also called the stomatodeum or the stomodeum), a midgut or mesenteron, and a hindgut or proctodeum. As in us, the insect's digestive system breaks down food with enzymes and absorbs nutrients. Undigested food is released from the anus as a fecal pellet.
Malpighian tubules remove metabolic wastes from the insect's body. Kidneys do this job in humans. The tubules are connected to the pyloric valve at the end of the midgut where it joins the hindgut. They extend into the hemolymph and remove nitrogenous waste substances from the fluid. They then convert the substances to uric acid, which enters the hind gut and is excreted in the fecal pellet.
Eggs and Larvae
Adult blow flies feed on carrion (dead and decaying animal flesh). They release digestive enzymes into the food and then absorb it. The insects also drink plant nectar.
A female blow fly deposits her eggs on the bodies of dead animals, animal feces, garbage, or even wounds on living animals, especially if the wounds are bloody. The eggs may also be laid on uninjured but damp areas of an animal's body, such as regions where hair is soaked with feces or urine.
The female lays around 150 to 200 white or yellow eggs, which look like grains of rice. The eggs hatch quickly—sometimes in less than a day—and release white, wriggling larvae (maggots) that resemble worms. The larvae form a group known as a "maggot mass", which is shown in the video below. When the maggots find food, they grab hold of it with a hook-like structure and secrete digestive enzymes into the food. The liquefied food is then drunk.
A blow fly has six stages in its life cycle—the egg, three larval stages, the pupa, and the adult. The time at which each stage appears depends on the environmental temperature, but in general the process is as follows.
- The egg hatches in about 24 hours.
- The first two larval stages each exist for about 24 hours before they molt (lose their old exoskeleton to reveal a new one underneath) and change into a larger larva.
- The third larval stage exists for about five days and then becomes a pupa.
- The pupa exists for about a week.
- The adult emerges from the pupa at the end of the week.
The pupa is a sac-like structure covered by a thick, brown skin. The early pupa moves away from the food source to a hidden place—usually in the soil—where it completes its development. Inside the pupa, the blow fly larva changes into an adult.
Blow flies are sometimes useful in forensic science. The length of time needed for each life stage at specific temperatures is known. If investigators find animal or human remains containing the insects, they may be able to estimate the time of death. This estimation is based on the stage of the insect's life cycle that is discovered and the recent environmental temperatures in the area where the remains were found.
Facts About Screwworms
The screwworm is an especially annoying and potentially dangerous example of a blow fly. The larva can cause serious injuries to animals and even kill them. Adult secondary screwworm flies—the type that is most likely to be seen in North America—are green with three longitudinal black stripes on the back of their thorax. Like other blow flies, they have a shiny appearance. Also like their relatives, their larvae are legless and worm-like.
Screwworm larvae are important in veterinary and human medicine because they cause myiasis, which is the infestation of a living animal. The larvae of the secondary screwworm, or Cochliomyia macellaria, feed only on dead tissue of their host. The larvae of the primary screwworm, or Cochliomyia hominivorax, feed on living tissue of the host, however.
A screwworm infection begins when a female fly lies her eggs in a surface wound on an animal. Examples of these wounds include minor cuts, insect bites, and the naval of a youngster that has just been born. The eggs hatch into larvae, which feed on the animal's tissues.
Cochliomyia hominivorax can infect humans. Its species name—hominivorax—is Latin for "man-eating". At the moment, this species isn't generally found in the United States, but it's sometimes discovered in Florida. It usually attacks other animals, but it does feed on humans at times.
Maggot Debridement Therapy for Humans
Maggot Debridement Therapy, or MDT, is an old form of wound treatment that has made a modern comeback. It uses specific types of blow fly larvae that can be helpful for humans. The discovery of antibiotics caused maggot therapy to fall into disfavour, but now that many antibiotics are losing their effectiveness some doctors are taking another look at the treatment.
Dead tissue in a wound can be removed surgically. The use of maggots is cheaper, however. Maggot therapy removes only the damaged tissue and none of the healthy tissue, unlike surgical debridement. The feeding process isn't painful for the patient because the maggots don't eat living tissue.
The maggots secrete digestive enzymes into the wound. The enzymes break down and liquefy injured cells and bacteria. The insects then feed on the liquid. Maggots are placed in the wound as tiny creatures and enlarge very quickly. The secretions of the maggots are thought to be antibacterial and to actually stimulate wound healing, though these ideas are still being investigated.
Using Maggots to Heal Wounds
Only a few species of blow flies are used for wound debridement. The maggots are produced in medical laboratories. They are shipped in a disease-free condition and in sterilized containers. The insects are generally corralled in a cage of some type when they are placed in a wound. The cages are made of wire mesh, gauze, or another material, which restricts the movement of the maggots but allows them to breathe and feed.
Maggots are generally used in cases where wounds have refused to heal for a long time and where amputation of a body part will likely be needed if a successful treatment isn't found soon. Examples of these types of wounds include certain ulcers that develop as a result of diabetes and some wounds that follow surgery.
Scientists at North Carolina State University have created genetically modified maggots that may be more helpful than unmodified ones. The researchers used maggots of the green bottle fly (Lucilia sericata). The insects were genetically modified to produce and secrete a chemical called human platelet derived growth factor-BB, or PDGF-BB. This substance helps wounds to heal by stimulating the growth and survival of cells. The technique may improve the effectiveness of maggot therapy.
A Maggot Therapy Poll
How Successful Is the Therapy?
They have been glowing reports of the success of maggot therapy, but unfortunately some of these have come from a laboratory that sells medical maggots. That doesn't mean that the claims are false, but scientists would like to see results from other sources as well.
There are some positive results from medical sources unconnected to laboratories. One investigation found that 17 of 23 diabetic patients with serious wounds experienced either an improvement in their condition or a cure for the injury after receiving maggot therapy. Another survey found that maggots debrided significantly more of a wound during the first week of treatment than a conventional treatment did. At the end of two weeks there was no significant difference between the two types of treatment, however. The researchers concluded that since the maggots worked more quickly during the first week they should be used during this time. A different treatment should be used during the second week.
It's wonderful that maggot therapy has helped to heal some people's wounds. If the treatment is recommended for a particular patient, it would be a good idea for the person to ask their doctor lots of questions about the procedure so that they understand it completely. It will be interesting to see what else researchers discover about the action of maggots in a therapeutic setting.
- Blow Fly facts from the Missouri Department of Conservation
- Common green bottle fly life cycle, forensic importance, and medical use from the University of Florida
- Secondary screwworm information from the University of Florida
- Insect digestive and excretory systems (plus other insect information) from North Carolina State University
- Maggot debridement therapy in the treatment of complex diabetic wounds. from the Hawaii Medical Journal and the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
- Maggot therapy for wound debridement from the Journal of the American Medical Association
- Maggot therapy might be useful in a war zone from The Guardian newspaper
- Modified maggots for wound healing from the North Carolina State University
- Information about the therapy from ABC News in Australia
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.
Questions & Answers
Question: What enzymes does a green blow fly secrete?
Answer: An enzyme is a protein that acts as a biological catalyst. It speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction in a living organism, enabling the reaction to occur fast enough to support life. Since a large number of chemical reactions occur in a green blow fly’s body (and in the body of any living thing), the insect produces many enzymes.
Blowfly maggots used in medicine secrete digestive enzymes into wounds, which causes debridement. The identity of these enzymes is still being studied. Researchers have discovered that they include various enzymes that digest proteins and peptides (proteinases, proteases, and peptidases). They also include deoxyribonuclease, which digests DNA.
© 2012 Linda Crampton
Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 23, 2016:
Thanks, Jwp. It is nice to discover natural treatments that are effective!
Jwp on July 23, 2016:
Great article! Seems that the "natural remedy" may again be a better treatment for some wounds. Glad to see modern medicine recognizing the natural cure!
Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on December 03, 2012:
Thank you very much, Deb. Treating wounds with maggots sounds strange, but it often helps. It's great that doctors have an additional method to help wounds heal.
Deb Hirt from Stillwater, OK on December 03, 2012:
This was a fascinating article. I wasn't aware of maggot debridement, but am familiar with leach treatment. Great job!
Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on December 02, 2012:
Thank you very much for the comment and the vote, Prasetio! I appreciate your visit.
prasetio30 from malang-indonesia on December 02, 2012:
Very interesting hub, Alicia. I always found something new every time I visited your hub. Thanks for share with us. Voted up!
Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on November 29, 2012:
Thank you so much for the lovely comment and for sharing your experience, Seeker7!! It's very interesting to read about your observations of maggot therapy and its success.
Helen Murphy Howell from Fife, Scotland on November 29, 2012:
What a fascinating hub this is! I had heard about blowflies from the TV but I didn't know half of the information you've given here - awesome!! I have to say that I loathe maggots! But you can't help but admire the way they clean up some pretty grotty wounds. Being a former nurse, I've seen these working on infected ulcers and even a diabetic patient had her ulcer cured due to the maggots!
Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on November 29, 2012:
Thank you very much, drbj!! It is amazing to think that maggots can treat wounds, and it's wonderful if they prevent an amputation. This is an old and natural treatment that may be very effective!
drbj and sherry from south Florida on November 29, 2012:
All of your hubs are fascinating, Alicia, but for me this one takes the medal as most amazing. I knew that maggots were used for debridement years ago but had no idea they might be considered a current therapy. Absolutely astounding. Thanks for this newsflash. Very well done, m'dear.