4 Types of Plants (Kingdom Plantae)

Updated on May 12, 2020
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Ray is a Licensed Civil Engineer and specializes in Structural Engineering. He loves to write anything about education.

Types of Plants: What Are the 4 Types of Plants?
Types of Plants: What Are the 4 Types of Plants? | Source

Plants are classified mainly based on vascular tissue and reproductive tissues. Plants that lack true roots, stems, and leaves due to the absence of vascular tissues are placed under Phylum Bryophyta. Plants that have vascular tissues for the transport of food and water are commonly known as tracheophytes.

In the two-kingdom classification scheme, ferns and seed plants are grouped in Phylum Tracheophyta. Tracheophyta comes from the Greek word tracheis which means windpipe and phyton which means plants. The name pertains to xylem tracheids. There are about 212 000 species of vascular plants. In the five-kingdom scheme of classification, the major groups of tracheophytes - the ferns, cycads, conifers (pines) and flowering plants are elevated to phylum level as follows:

1. Phylum Filicinophyta (Ferns)
2. Phylum Cycadophyta (Cycads)
3. Phylum Coniferophyta (Pines)
4. Phylum Angiospermophyta (Flowering Plants)

These plants are similar in their vascular tissues, chlorophyll, and their bodies are differentiated into true roots, stems, and leaves.

Diagram for the different types of plants
Diagram for the different types of plants | Source

1. Bryophytes (Phylum Bryophyta)

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Bryophytes are types of plants. Trametes versicolor (turkey tail) and bryophytes between Weißenburggegend and Hofstadtgegend in Frankenfels.Bryophytes are types of plants.  Bryophytes on decaying wood in Whatcom County, Washington, USA.Bryophytes are types of plants. Bryophytes at three between Weißenburggegend and Hofstadtgegend in Frankenfels.Bryophytes are types of plants. Splachnum Sphaericum (Bryophytes)Bryophytes are types of plants. Bryophytes, lichen and algae tend to grow as extremophiles or irruptively in 7th Brigade Park, Chermside.Bryophytes are types of plants. A growth of various bryophytes (here liverworts and leafy mosses).Bryophytes are types of plants. Common bryophytes found in Indonesia.
Bryophytes are types of plants. Trametes versicolor (turkey tail) and bryophytes between Weißenburggegend and Hofstadtgegend in Frankenfels.
Bryophytes are types of plants. Trametes versicolor (turkey tail) and bryophytes between Weißenburggegend and Hofstadtgegend in Frankenfels. | Source
Bryophytes are types of plants.  Bryophytes on decaying wood in Whatcom County, Washington, USA.
Bryophytes are types of plants. Bryophytes on decaying wood in Whatcom County, Washington, USA. | Source
Bryophytes are types of plants. Bryophytes at three between Weißenburggegend and Hofstadtgegend in Frankenfels.
Bryophytes are types of plants. Bryophytes at three between Weißenburggegend and Hofstadtgegend in Frankenfels. | Source
Bryophytes are types of plants. Splachnum Sphaericum (Bryophytes)
Bryophytes are types of plants. Splachnum Sphaericum (Bryophytes) | Source
Bryophytes are types of plants. Bryophytes, lichen and algae tend to grow as extremophiles or irruptively in 7th Brigade Park, Chermside.
Bryophytes are types of plants. Bryophytes, lichen and algae tend to grow as extremophiles or irruptively in 7th Brigade Park, Chermside. | Source
Bryophytes are types of plants. A growth of various bryophytes (here liverworts and leafy mosses).
Bryophytes are types of plants. A growth of various bryophytes (here liverworts and leafy mosses). | Source
Bryophytes are types of plants. Common bryophytes found in Indonesia.
Bryophytes are types of plants. Common bryophytes found in Indonesia. | Source

Phylum Bryophyta is a type of plant that includes a group of widely distributed chlorophyll-bearing plants, which are hardly noticed by people because of their small size. The name of the phylum comes from the Greek words bryon, which means moss, and phyton, which means plants. There are about 24,000 species of bryophytes. The following plants are representatives of the three classes of bryophytes - moss, liverwort, and hornwort. Among these three, the most familiar to people is the moss. The moss is erect, while the liverwort and hornwort are flat and creeping.

Characteristics of Bryophytes

1. Bryophytes lack structures that are specialized for conducting water and dissolved food. Higher plants, such as flowering plants, contain structures that are specialized for conducting water and dissolved food. In those plants, water and dissolved minerals travel from the roots to the leaves through very fine tubes called xylem tracheids. At the same time, dissolved food travels from the leaves to the rest of the plant body through phloem cells. Xylem and phloem are collectively called vascular tissue. In bryophytes, water and dissolved substances move simply through diffusion from cell to cell.

2. Bryophytes are small plants. Most bryophytes have shorter stems, and those with long stems are rarely longer than 8 centimeters. Unlike algae and fungi, bryophytes have structures that look like stems, leaves, and roots. For instance, the common moss plant has a stemlike structure that consists of one layer of cells and a thick midrib. It has a tuft of rootlike rhizoids that anchors to the soil, tree trunks, stone walls or rocks. The stemlike structures in bryophytes rarely rise higher than 10 centimeters above the ground.

Importance of Bryophytes

  • Bryophytes play an important role in the biosphere.
  • Bryophytes are producers so they provide food for a number of herbivorous birds and other animals.
  • Bryophytes carpet the soil thus prevent soil erosion.
  • Bryophytes contribute to soil formation. They often grow with lichens on rock surfaces, causing the outer portion of the rock to slowly crumble.
  • Bryophytes increase the water-holding capacity of the soil and the amount of organic matter in the soil.
  • Sphagnum, a type of bryophyte, is used as packing material for breakable or fragile objects such as figurines and dinnerware.
  • Sphagnum holds water and prevents plants from drying during transport. It is used as packing material for transporting plants and plant parts.

2. Ferns (Phylum Filicinophyta)

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Ferns are types of plants. Beech (Fagus sylvatica), ostrich ferns (Matteuccia struthiopteris) and wood horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum) in Gullmarsskogen nature reserve, Lysekil Municipality, Sweden.Ferns are types of plants. Ferns near Cann River, Victoria, Australia Ferns are types of plants. Ferns on rainforest tour- National Botanical GardensFerns are types of plants. Ferns in Nunniong, Australia Ferns are types of plants. Ferns in Nunniong, AustraliaFerns are types of plants. Ferns in Nunniong, Australia Ferns are types of plants. Bracken Ferns on Kaien Island, British Columbia, CanadaFerns are types of plants. Sword ferns in the temperate rainforest of Kaien Island
Ferns are types of plants. Beech (Fagus sylvatica), ostrich ferns (Matteuccia struthiopteris) and wood horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum) in Gullmarsskogen nature reserve, Lysekil Municipality, Sweden.
Ferns are types of plants. Beech (Fagus sylvatica), ostrich ferns (Matteuccia struthiopteris) and wood horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum) in Gullmarsskogen nature reserve, Lysekil Municipality, Sweden. | Source
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns near Cann River, Victoria, Australia
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns near Cann River, Victoria, Australia | Source
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns on rainforest tour- National Botanical Gardens
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns on rainforest tour- National Botanical Gardens | Source
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns in Nunniong, Australia
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns in Nunniong, Australia | Source
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns in Nunniong, Australia
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns in Nunniong, Australia | Source
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns in Nunniong, Australia
Ferns are types of plants. Ferns in Nunniong, Australia | Source
Ferns are types of plants. Bracken Ferns on Kaien Island, British Columbia, Canada
Ferns are types of plants. Bracken Ferns on Kaien Island, British Columbia, Canada | Source
Ferns are types of plants. Sword ferns in the temperate rainforest of Kaien Island
Ferns are types of plants. Sword ferns in the temperate rainforest of Kaien Island | Source

Under an earlier system of plant classification, ferns are placed under Phylum Pteridophyta. The name comes from the Greek words pteron, which means feather, and phyton, which means plants. It pertains to the appearance of the leaves of the bird's nest fern. Under a more recent system of plant classification, the ferns are placed under Phylum Filicinophyta. The name of the phylum comes from the Latin word filic, which means fern. There are about 9000 species of ferns all over the world. Some of the examples of ferns are provided in the pictures above.

Characteristics of Ferns

1. Ferns are shade-loving plants. Some of them are relatively large, but they are generally short since, in most of them, the leaves are practically anchored directly to the soil or tree trunk.

2. Ferns are similar to seed-bearing plants. Although they are similar to seed-bearing plants, their reproductive structures are spores rather than seeds. Ferns are similar to bryophytes in this respect.

Importance of Ferns

  • Ferns belong to the first trophic level of various food chains in the biosphere.
  • Ferns are used for ornamental purposes.
  • Some ferns are edible. The young fern leaves called fronds are eaten as a salad or cooked, especially with coconut milk and shrimp or charbroiled fish.
  • Some ferns are used for binding. Some ferns are used for decorative purposes since their stems are pliable, strong, black, smooth, and glossy.
  • Ferns are used in making native headwears and ladies' handbags.

3. Gymnosperms

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Gymnosperms are types of plants. Japanese Red Pine (Tanyosho Pine - Conifer)Gymnosperms are types of plants. Conifer forest, Sierra National Forest, near Downieville, CaliforniaGymnosperms are types of plants.Gymnosperms are types of plants. Giant redwood tree 'Sherman' in the Sequoia National Park, California, USA Gymnosperms are types of plants. October Giant Redwood NeuershausenGymnosperm seed fossil at the Desert Gymnosperms are types of plants. Museum. Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
Gymnosperms are types of plants. Japanese Red Pine (Tanyosho Pine - Conifer)
Gymnosperms are types of plants. Japanese Red Pine (Tanyosho Pine - Conifer) | Source
Gymnosperms are types of plants. Conifer forest, Sierra National Forest, near Downieville, California
Gymnosperms are types of plants. Conifer forest, Sierra National Forest, near Downieville, California | Source
Gymnosperms are types of plants.
Gymnosperms are types of plants. | Source
Gymnosperms are types of plants. Giant redwood tree 'Sherman' in the Sequoia National Park, California, USA
Gymnosperms are types of plants. Giant redwood tree 'Sherman' in the Sequoia National Park, California, USA | Source
Gymnosperms are types of plants. October Giant Redwood Neuershausen
Gymnosperms are types of plants. October Giant Redwood Neuershausen | Source
Gymnosperm seed fossil at the Desert Gymnosperms are types of plants. Museum. Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
Gymnosperm seed fossil at the Desert Gymnosperms are types of plants. Museum. Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. | Source

Gymnosperms include two phyla of plants represented by the plants - Phylum Cycadophyta and Phylum Coniferophyta. Gymnosperms are plants that consist of about 700 species of woody plants with seeds that are not enclosed by fruits. Seeds that are not borne inside a fruit are said to be "naked." The name of the type of plant comes from the Greek words gymnos, which means naked, and sperma, which means seed. Gymnosperms are consists of 500 species and rank among the most economically important plants.

Characteristics of Gymnosperms

  1. Conifers generally prefer low temperatures. Conifers are abundant in temperate regions and warmer countries with high elevations.
  2. The naked seed of gymnosperms is usually found on the surface of cone scales.
  3. Giant Redwoods is the tallest tree representative of the gymnosperms, which rise to more than 100 meters above the ground.

Importance of Gymnosperms

  • Gymnosperms are significant as timber trees, food and medicinal plants, ornamental plants and as sources of essential oils and other products.
  • Gymnosperms are important in erosion control.
  • Gymnosperms are important in the protection of watersheds.
  • Gymnosperms are important in the enhancement of the aesthetic value of natural communities.
  • Gymnosperms are of great biological importance because of their diversity of form and structure.
  • Gymnosperms are a well-documented fossil record.

4. Angiosperms

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Angiosperms are types of plants. Echium wildpretii  Angiosperms are types of plants. Agave filiferaAngiosperms are types of plants. Flowers of a cherry tree (Prunus avium subsp. duracina) at Sasbach, Germany.Angiosperms are types of plants. Cup of Gold Vine; Museo Agrícola el Patio, Tiagua, Municipio de Teguise, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, SpainAngiosperms are types of plants. Calathea Warscewiczii - WilhelmaAngiosperms are types of plants. Fruit; Jardín de Cactus, Guatiza, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, SpainAngiosperms are types of plants. Cacao, flower; Stutensee-Staffort, Germany
Angiosperms are types of plants. Echium wildpretii
Angiosperms are types of plants. Echium wildpretii | Source
Angiosperms are types of plants. Agave filifera
Angiosperms are types of plants. Agave filifera | Source
Angiosperms are types of plants. Flowers of a cherry tree (Prunus avium subsp. duracina) at Sasbach, Germany.
Angiosperms are types of plants. Flowers of a cherry tree (Prunus avium subsp. duracina) at Sasbach, Germany. | Source
Angiosperms are types of plants. Cup of Gold Vine; Museo Agrícola el Patio, Tiagua, Municipio de Teguise, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain
Angiosperms are types of plants. Cup of Gold Vine; Museo Agrícola el Patio, Tiagua, Municipio de Teguise, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain | Source
Angiosperms are types of plants. Calathea Warscewiczii - Wilhelma
Angiosperms are types of plants. Calathea Warscewiczii - Wilhelma | Source
Angiosperms are types of plants. Fruit; Jardín de Cactus, Guatiza, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain
Angiosperms are types of plants. Fruit; Jardín de Cactus, Guatiza, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain | Source
Angiosperms are types of plants. Cacao, flower; Stutensee-Staffort, Germany
Angiosperms are types of plants. Cacao, flower; Stutensee-Staffort, Germany | Source

Angiosperms are the type of plants with which we are most familiar. Angiosperms are also called flowering plants, and they belong to Phylum Angiospermophyta. Angiosperms comprise the largest group of plants in terms of the number of species. There are about 200,000 species of these plants with seeds that are enclosed in a fruit. The name of the phylum comes from the Greek words angeion, which means a small container, sperma, which means seed, and phyton, which means plant.

Phylum Angiospermophyta is divided into two classes according to the number of cotyledons in their seeds. Angiosperms with two cotyledons such as beans and peanuts are placed under Class Dicotyleonidae or dicots. Those with only one cotyledon such as corn and rice are placed under Class Monocotyledonidae or monocots.

Comparison of Dicots and Monocots
Dicot
Monocot
Root System
Tap root system
Fibrous root system
Stem
Circular arrangement of vascular tissues
Scattered vascular bundle arrangement
Leaf Venation
Netted or reticulate veins
Parallel veins
Floral Parts
Multiples of 4 or 5
Multiples of 3
Comparison of Dicots and Monocots

Characteristics of Angiosperms

  1. Angiosperms have well developed vascular tissues that make them well adapted to terrestrial habitats. Angiosperms possess not only tracheids for water transport but xylem vessels as well.
  2. The reproductive organs of Angiosperms are usually protected within a whorl of highly modified and/or attractively colored leaves in an intricate structure called a flower.
  3. Seeds of angiosperms are enclosed in a fruit.
  4. The growth of angiosperms is affected by the type of environment. Although flowering plants have well developed vascular tissues for adapting to terrestrial habitats, extremely dry places may affect their growth and reproduction. In the desert where rainfall is scant, and in Arctic tundra where water has frozen in the cold, plants grow very slowly.

Importance of Angiosperms

  • Angiosperms can grow as big as trees and provide animals with both food and shelter.
  • Angiosperms serve as a home for monkeys and other large mammals, as well as birds, reptiles, and arthropods.
  • Angiosperms serve as a home for insects and spiders.
  • Angiosperms keep the carbon dioxide level of our atmosphere down to 0.03%.
  • Angiosperms provide the living world with a sufficient supply of oxygen.
  • Angiosperms are sources of food, timber, medicine, fiber, and other useful products such as dyes, oil, gums, and spices.

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This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Questions & Answers

    © 2020 Ray

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      • JR Cuevas profile imageAUTHOR

        Ray 

        3 months ago from Philippines

        Thank you Sir Eric. Yes,please do come back!

      • Ericdierker profile image

        Eric Dierker 

        3 months ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A.

        Very interesting. I may come back but just to long to read without setting aside time. Well written also.

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