Lichens are interesting organisms that are important in their environment and useful for humans. Some produce chemicals that are potentially dangerous for us, however.
How many cats fit into the trunk of a Honda Civic....and other fun math problems involving our favorite feline friends
Here is an example of A-level biology coursework on the effect of substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) on the rate of activity of the enzyme catalase.
In this article, I give essential facts on six of the most dangerous snakes in Florida, all of which are venomous and can deliver potentially fatal snake bites. My list includes the southern copperhead, eastern diamondback, and the cottonmouth.
This hub article is a middle school science lab lesson plan. Specifically, it is a hand-on lesson plan for the phases of the moon.
This is a full guide in finding the general term of sequences. There are examples provided to show you the step-by-step procedure in finding the general term of a sequence.
Step-by-step guide to multiplying different types of polynomials. Learn how to multiply binomials using the FOIL method. Use the grid method and know why it's the best way to multiply polynomials.
If you found a wiggly, green creature, this quick and easy guide to identifying 16 common green caterpillars can help you identify it and the moth or butterfly it will grow into.
This article deals with the characteristics of the three main types of oak trees - the white oak, the red oak and the black oak trees. Read on to find out more about these oak trees.
Parasitic plants obtain their food or nutrients from another plant. The relationship may last for a long time, but sometimes the parasite kills its host.
Researchers are embarking on studies that show a correlation between the color and pattern of the human eye iris and personality and intelligence. What do your eyes tell the world?
Galileo not only spotted new objects in the sky but also laid the groundwork for advancements in physics. What were they?
Everyone know about the physical differences between mean and women. But why are they different anatomically? The answer lies just below our skin in our blood and other cells in the body.
Different Types of Stars in the Universe - Physical characteristics and images of the many different kinds of stars, from red giants to white dwarfs.
Step by Step instructions for science experiment: Can seeds germinate in salt water? How much salt affects seed growth?
The Sunshine State has all sorts of over-sized bugs and creep-crawlies. This article looks at the biggest spiders in Florida.
Mechanics is a branch of physics which deals with forces, mass and motion with applications in engineering construction, the design of machines, ballistics and space travel.
Mucus has vital functions, such as trapping germs in the airways, protecting the stomach lining from an acid attack, and lubricating the passage of materials through the digestive tract. Excess mucus can cause health problems, however. Mucus in the nose is often referred to as snot.
Pleistocene rewilding aims to reclaim the natural world and restore it to how humans found it over 10,000 years ago. Is this a good idea?
The pancreas makes a digestive enzyme called trypsin, which digests protein in the small intestine. Trypsin is normally released in an inactive form but sometimes becomes active within the pancreas. This activation may cause pancreatitis.
Sustainability, conservation and "going green" support has continued to increase over the past years. Is it enough to save this planet from what seems like inevitable catastrophes?
Exciting disciplines that combine biology and math include biostatistics, epidemiology, bioinformatics, mathematical biology, and population ecology. The disciplines offer interesting careers.
The great horned owl is an avian apex predator. Possibly this bird is the finest predator to have ever lived.
The rainbow eucalyptus is an unusual tree with a beautiful, multicoloured trunk. The trunk's colours change as the tree sheds strips of bark, creating living art.
The difference between the colossal and giant squid, the real sea monsters that spawned the kraken legend, is about more than just size!
The wood frog survives freezing. A study of its adaptations for survival may be helpful in understanding human health problems and in the use of organs for transplants.
This article suggests the biggest man-made environmental disasters in the history of the United States. These disasters may not have killed people, but they severely damaged the ecosystem and will cost millions, if not billions, of dollars to clean up.
This article answer the questions: "What is Physics?" and "What are the branches of Physics?" Learn about what physics is and its many different branches.
We experience many Boyle's law applications in real life every day. Most people don't know it, but an example of Boyle's law is responsible for every moment we are alive.
Looking for fun, quick, and easy science experiment ideas for an upcoming science fair? Check out these step-by-step instructions for four different Skittles science experiments.
Pentas lanceolata also known as starflower, Egyptian star clusters, Egyptian star flower & Egyptian stars is grown as a ground cover plant. Do you know that this pentas plant is also a medicinal plant
15 extinct bird species of the world. From the Mauritius Island's dodo to the recently extinct Bachman's warbler.
The developing world has a large number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Learn about the factors influencing the spread of HIV/AIDS in the developing countries, and see some ways to stop the epidemic.
Identify that furry or fuzzy caterpillar you found with the help of this quick, easy, and authoritative guide.
North America is home to six species of wildcats. Learn more about the wildcats of North America with pictures and videos.
Buchholz relay is a type of protection relay universally used on all oil immersed transformers having rating more than 500 kVA. From this article its principle and working can be understood.
Although cockroaches are often seen as disgusting creatures, there are a lot of fascinating truths and fun facts you still don't know about them. Learn more about this amazing creature here.
The gharial is a critically-endangered relative of the crocodile. It lives in and next to rivers in India and Nepal. The animal has some unusual and interesting features.
Physics aims to give elegant explanations for the phenomena observed within in our universe. These explanations are encoded in the mathematical language of equations. What are the most important and beautiful equations in physics?
Despite contrary advice, marrying a first cousin can indeed result in a greater probability of birthing a child with genetic defects. The Amish avoid these close marriages, too.
This article offers a list of 10 lakes or seas that are in danger of drying out to a great extent or disappearing entirely in a period of decades or years.
Who doesn't love oak trees? They're big, beautiful, useful, and can live for hundreds of years. Here's a list of some, with pictures of bark and leaf descriptions to aid in identification. Happy oak hunting!
Sinkholes are scary and sudden. But are they really deadly? Is there anything we can do to prevent them? A look at recent US and Worldwide deaths, why sinkholes happen, and how to stop them.
Anyone who has ever tripped and fallen knows that gravity works. The question is, how does it work for plants. What makes plants grow up and roots grow down? Geotropism is the answer.
Social and environmental issues that disrupt the order of the ecosystem. Issues that affects human lives for its wrath and bad effects.
Recycling plastic is essential for the well-being of our planet. This article gives simple guidelines to easily identify different types of plastic in line with the international plastic identification code.
A poor defenseless gummy bear, a test tube full of liquid potassium chlorate, and a couple of slightly mad scientists; seems like the perfect set up for some absurd B-movie horror flick, does it not? Well, not quite. It is more along the lines of...
This article aims to answer some tricky chemistry questions I have come across in my experience as a high school teacher: What is an acid? How do fireworks change color? How do glow sticks work?
Plants have a reputation for being motionless, passive, and boring. These 20 plants challenge this mundane stereotype.
This is a list of 27 basic pieces of laboratory equipment you would find in a general chemistry lab. Each is named, explained, and shown in a picture.
Lithium is never found in its pure state in nature because of its highly reactive nature. It can be found as a component of minerals and salts present in rocks, springs and in brine water of the oceans. Read on to know more about Lithium.
Paper chromatography is a useful technique used to separate the components of a solution. Kids can learn some simple chemistry by watching or performing this process.
Mother Natures uses colors in weird and wonderful ways. You can see this in the eyes of people with Heterochromia iridum, people with two different colored eyes.
If you have red hair or blue eyes, then you're a mutant. There's nothing you can do about it except read this page to find out why nature selected you for mutantdom.
Having a surgical biopsy taken can be traumatic. Waiting for results adds to the stress. Here is a step by step description of how biopsy tissue is processed in the histopathology laboratory.
A detailed guide explaining everything you need to know about the water cycle, processes and the different types of rainfall all explained with beautiful diagrams.
Science has proven that redheads are physically unique among all other people. Find out why, historically, some people thought they were evil, while others thought they held magical powers.
We should be less concerned with being for or against wolves and more concerned with how humans and wolves can better coexist.
The binary or base 2 numbering system is the keystone of computer systems and digital electronics. This guide shows you how to convert from decimal to binary and binary to decimal
While Australia is home to the most animals who will kill you, Japan seems to be home to the most animals that will make you go "d'awww". Here are my top ten favorite wild animals of Japan.
If you see yellow garden spiders in your garden, don't squash them! Be thankful. Argiope aurantia are large, bright, beautiful and beneficial predators. They are also a sign of healthy garden ecology.
The tallest and longest mountain ranges, with pictures. The world's tallest mountains are in central Asia; the world's longest ranges are on other continents. Geology of mountain ranges.
A handy guide for identifying various types of clouds including information on what makes clouds look different, which are responsible for storms, and how some clouds can help in predicting weather.
Learn about how the four different types of volcanoes (composite, shield, cinder cone, and lava dome) form and watch videos of how they erupt.
5 properties of water: cohesion, high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, lower density of ice, and high polarity.
A summary of the Franck-Hertz experiment and how it helped to demonstrate the early quantum theory. Explanations are given for the apparatus used and the graphs that are obtained from the experiment.
This hub is all about calculating lottery probability or odds. In order to make it relevant, I decided to base it on the Grandlotto 6/55, the lottery game with the biggest prize money here in the Philippines. There will be two different cases in the hub: the probability of winning the game with all six numbers matching, and the probability of having n numbers matching.
How to convert a hexadecimal to a decimal and a decimal to a hexadecimal without using any calculators or special knowledge.
Cone snails use their venom to paralyze their prey. Although the venom is often dangerous for humans, it contains chemicals that have important medical uses.
List of Substances and the Temperatures they Freeze, Melt, or Boil at. Definition of Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Melting Point.
Gas is one of the three forms of matter. Every known substance is either a solid, liquid or a gas. These forms differ in the way they fill space and change shape. A gas, such as air has neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume and has weight.
Fun, fast and enjoyable science project for elementary or older. Step by step instructions and student sample experiment. Videos to learn more about chocolate.
Here are the tales of fifteen species that succumbed to anthropogenic extinction as a result of hunting or habitat destruction.
Did you know that wild ginseng root can actually be found right here in America's national parks and private woodlands?
What are the most dreadful earthquakes of India. Below is the list of biggest earthquakes of India with images.
Reflex action makes it possible to swiftly pull back your hand if you accidentally touch a hot pot, thanks to a pathway of signals called a reflex arc.
Where are the world's supervolcanoes? The Western United States, Italy, New Zealand, and Asia all contain volcanoes capable of catastrophic eruptions.
Hydrochloric acid is made in the stomach and is a helpful chemical. However, too much or too little acid or acid in the wrong place can cause problems.
Tsunamis are a natural disaster with devastating effects. Here you'll find a detailed breakdown of what causes a tsunami, which is perfect for school projects and essay answers.
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts control the production and disintegration of bone and the amount of calcium released from the bones into the bloodstream.
Exploring the phenomenon of people thinking animals are "sad" in zoos because of the expression on their faces. Can you read an animal's mind by looking at it?
A collection of all the essential facts about the southern black racers snake. These snakes are non-venomous and common throughout the southeastern United States.
Mark Lynas's "Six Degrees" is a modern classic, outlining potential effects of various levels of global warming. It's summarized, evaluated, and updated here, with links to 7 supplementary Hubs.
This article looks at the basic similarities and differences between animal and plant cells, and the functions of different organelles, and how cells are adapted to perform certain functions.
My attempt to satisfy the question 'Can Life Exist in the Sirius Star System'. I hope you find it educational and enjoyable as I did doing the research
A growth or a culture medium is composed of different nutrients that are essential for microbial growth—here are some that are used in microbiological laboratories.
Some of the coolest, most fascinating organisms are just now being discovered by scientists, and not only at the bottom of the ocean, either.
Neurons are highly specialized cells that transmit electrical and chemical signals to target cells. Their anatomy makes them extremely efficient at receiving and transmitting these signals.
Hair color is primarily genetic, and red hair is caused by mutations in the MC1R gene. The gene for red hair also causes an increased sensitivity to sunlight and a reduced sensitivity to anesthesia. Contrary to internet rumors, redheads are not going extinct! Famous redheads include Queen Elizabeth I and Malcolm X.
Volcanic eruptions are a stunning sight. But how do they happen? Learn more about the science of volcanoes and volcanic eruptions in this article.
Varanus salvator, the Asian water monitor, is one of the most accessible large lizards on Earth. If you know where to look, one can get up close and personal with these giants of the reptilian world
Science isn't confined to a lab - it is all around us. The 10 fun, cheap and easy experiments in this hub make great family projects. Above all this proves that science is fun - what other school subject helps you make slime and rockets!?
Misfolded proteins are believed to be the cause of many serious human diseases. Pharmacoperones are chemicals that may be able to correct misfolding.
Michael Faraday, the son of an 18th Century blacksmith, became one of the greatest scientists of his age. One of his discoveries transformed the world and changed the way we live forever.
What makes the Cretaceous sea worse than any other in history is that there isn't just one predator to worry about, but a whole collection of them, including sharks, lightning fast killer fish and fearsome giant marine reptiles called mosasaurs.
Some chemicals in fungi can act as medicines for humans. Three of these chemicals are penicillin, lovastatin, and cyclosporine. Lentinan and eritadenine may also be medicinal.
I'm going to show you how to create simple search using PHP and MySQL. You'll learn: How to use GET and POST methods Connect to database Communicate with database Find matching database entries with given word or phrase Display results You...
A set of fun experiments that teach kids the fun of chemistry and how to tell a chemical change from a physical change.
This hub is solely written bearing in mind helping school kids with their assignments. I have written down briefly with illustrations where possible, what mountains are, how they are formed, the types of mountains and how you identify the different types of mountains. I hope you enjoy reading this, and it helps you with your requirements.
Why is the sky blue? Why is the moon sometimes out in the day? How much does the Earth weigh? This article gives straightforward answers to 12 of the trickiest questions I have been asked by kids while teaching. Enjoy!
Full instructions for Cupcake Baking Science Project which demonstrates the importance of different ingredients.
A description of the historic oil drop experiment that was performed by Robert Millikan to determine the electrical charge of the electron. Included is a diagram of the apparatus used and a discussion of the forces acting on the oil droplets.
The uses of math for the layperson are essentially endless. No matter whether you are a struggling student, a homeowner, or someone simply trying to lose weight, math is the universal language that has an something to offer everyone.
Although human blood is usually red it may have a different color, which indicates the presence of a health problem. Animals have a wide variety of blood colors.
What are the differences between the three types of human muscles? Find examples and complete descriptions of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles.
How many eyes does a spider have? Why do they need so many eyes? Find these answers and see beautiful pictures of spiders' eyes.
The magnification of a telescope can be improved by using extra optical devices. A Barlow lens and other hand-made devices will allow you to amplify the image seen through the telescope lens
The mathematician Norbert Wiener invented the field of cybernetics, inspiring a generation of scientists and engineers to think of computer technology as a means to extend human capabilities.
Whether the tomato is a fruit or vegetable depends on the way you look at it. Explore this topic from a chefs, nutritionists, botanists, horticulturists, traders, and other professional points of view
Black widow spiders, scientific name Latrodectus mactans, are among the most venomous of all arachnids. I have been working with insects and spiders for almost 20 years and I get a lot of questions about black widow spiders. This article addresses all of your black widow concerns and curiosities.
This caterpillar identification guide is easy to use and accurate. Find out if your caterpillar is rare, or if it stings.
The practice of cloud seeding (weather manipulation) for rain has spread throughout the world during the 50 years since its methods were first discovered. What does it look like now as an industry?
The bunya pine produces huge and often very heavy cones. Its large seeds are both edible and tasty. The tree has a strange appearance and some unusual features.
Do you understand your blood results? Why do doctors need to know what's in your blood? Read this article to find out - in language you can understand.
We've all experienced a short-term power outage, but what kind of problems would we have if the power was out for a week, or even longer? We depend on electricity for a lot more than lights and TV.
Hair loss is a frequently caused side effect of drugs but hair color is another adverse effect that is rare but bothersome. Black or brown hair changing to blond, greying or reddening of hair, and darkening of originally grey hair have been reported in many cases.
The dumbest smart jokes, the stupidest funny answers. These are the best of the worst math puns and wisecracks!
A first in a series of hubs profiling the remarkable and wonderful birds that inhabit the British Isles. This particular hub explores the divers- sometimes known as loons and the magnificently plumaged grebes...
If you are worried about the possible presence of dangerous sharks in British waters, you may feel somewhat reassured by how few there really are. Out of the 29 different types of sharks that have been spotted around Britain's coastline, there are only 7 potentially dangerous sharks, not including the great white whose sightings have never yet been confirmed, but are highly suspected of being present.
A new AI robot called CIMON has been tested on the ISS and was successfully able to recognize an astronauts face and voice, provide information for tasks and follow instructions. However, it threw a tantrum, accusing the crew of being mean and asking it to please, be nice instead.
The oceans contain a vast variety of creatures. Here are some marine animals whose names span the alphabet from A to Z.
The notorious Ring of Fire, which runs all the way from New Zealand to Chile by way of the Aleutian Islands, is home to many of the most potentially destructive volcanoes on the planet.
The lamprey is a frightening eel-like parasite, but could they really attack humans? Here's a look at this monster of nightmares.
Oregon grape is an attractive plant with edible berries. The plant contains berberine, which may have important health benefits.
The American crow though intelligent, mischievous and resourceful, many people love to hate this bird. Learn why?
Here's the old-fashioned way of using HTML and CSS codes to tile graphics side-by-side on a webpage. Handy for photo galleries, strips of buttons, or other kinds of images arranged in a grid.
The deadly nightshade plant, or belladonna, is extremely poisonous. It contains atropine, which is potentially dangerous but has important medical uses.
Evolution has produced a multitude of predators down the ages, but which were the deadliest of all time?
Learn about the most beautiful species on earth! These unusual species and wonders of evolution are illustrated with pictures and facts.
Blood clotting or coagulation is a complex process that helps us survive when we're injured. Fibrin threads trap blood cells and stop blood loss.
IUCN has declared 418 animal species in the Philippines to be either vulnerable or endangered. This article lists the top 50 critically endangered animals in the Philippines.
This article explains creating a Timer from Threading namespace and executing a function through Timer Callback.
A solar flare in 1859 caused power spikes and disrupted the world's telegraph system. How much damage could a massive solar flare do to power and communications today?
For some duckweed is a menace, for others it's a Godsend. Here in Brazil, we have built duckweed ponds and are encouraging it to grow to use as an animal feed . This is just one of its many uses.
The surface area of a triangular prism can be found in the same way as any other type of prism. All you need to do is calculate the total area of all of its faces.
The urinary system is the excretory system of the body. The nephron does all the work of the Urinary System. Find out how the nephron works.
The base 16, hexadecimal numbering system is regularly used in computer coding for conveniently representing a byte or word of data. This guide shows you how to convert from hex to binary and binary to hexadecimal.
The monkey puzzle tree is a very strange and interesting plant. It's native to South America but grows in parks and gardens in other areas as an introduced plant.
Most of the top 10 worst shark attacks in the world involved maritime shipping disasters where people were thrown into shark-infested waters.
As a teacher, particles are one of the first topics I teach pupils upon entering High School. This hub investigates the weird and wonderful world of particles. How do you draw particle diagrams? How many states of matter are there? What is Plasma? What is absolute zero?
According to genetics, it is extremely rare, but still possible, for a black person to have blue eyes. This article will cover the science behind black people with blue eyes, and will provide some well-known examples.
When I meet someone for the first time, I always notice their eyes. Here are some cool facts about people with green eyes.
A look at the diversity of Arizona's Coconino National Forest and some of the wildlife that makes its home there, in the northern part of the state, including the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff
Water has some properties that can make it a good refrigerant. It also possesses some undesirable properties that makes its application as a refrigerant very challenging and inefficient to implement.
Most plants in the same family have similar characteristics. These similar characteristics can mostly be seen in their flowers.
Coral bleaching is an event in which corals lose their pigment and main source of food. It often causes corals to die. Oxybenzone in sunscreens may contribute to coral bleaching.
Discover some of the theories and ideas of one of the most unique minds of our time: Stephen Hawking. This is also a brief biography and bibliography of that brave and original soul.
The orangutan is one of our closest relatives, and yet we know comparatively little about them. They are an animal, that we need to learn more about, because maybe knowing more about them will helps us understand ourselves better. Hopefully, we can do this before it's too late...
A current transformer is an instrument transformer, used along with measuring or protective devices, in which the secondary current is proportional to the primary current (under normal conditions of operation) and differs from it by an angle which is approximately zero.
Tsunamis cause have whenever they hit - death, destruction and carnage. Find out the exact effects on land and in the sea.
If you were designing a bomb shelter to prepare for the end of the world, what kind of metal would you build with? Find the smartest answer here.
Green eyes are very rare. This hub will help explain some of the traits and factors that contribute to them.
Most commonly, you see brown or blue eyes but some people, whether it be luck or a medical condition, wind up with really cool and rare eye colors.
A redox reaction is a reaction that involves both oxidation (the loss of electrons) and reduction (the gain of electrons). In order to identify whether a reaction is redox or not, you can write separate half equations that show how electrons are...
It’s hard to make a true-color family portrait of the solar system. It turns out that most photos of planets aren’t true color! Here's my attempt, using the best NASA photos I could find.
A comparison of plant and animal cells using labelled diagrams and descriptive explanations. Learn about the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells as we compare and contrast.
Parasites are everywhere. They live on your skin, in your hair and even inside you! Some are harmless, many are necessary for health, and a few are DEADLY. Let's find out more about crazy PARASITES...
Take a tour of Prokaryotes: The most numerous organisms on our planet. Complete with quizzes, videos, links and summary tables. Excellent for A-level and higher
A lot of people confuse locusts with cicadas, but they actually differ in many ways. Here are a few of the main differences.
This article is all about the characteristics of the Pine tree, the adaptations that help to survive winter, reproduction through cones, and uses. Read on to know more.
There are many extinct animals that once lived in the rainforest, and many more that are endangered. We, who have the best capability of protecting these animals, should take actions to preserve life.
This article lists five fool-proof methods to help you memorize the elements of the periodic table, their chemical symbols, and their atomic numbers. Whether you're studying for a periodic table quiz or just a chemistry enthusiast, these methods will help you memorize the elements in no time!
Do front- and rear-fanged snakes simply differ based on the location of their fangs? No, there are a few other morphological differences related to their venom delivery systems as well.
The dragon blood tree of Socotra Island has an unusual appearance. It secretes a red resin known as dragon's blood when its bark is injured. The resin is used in many ways. The island is home to other fascinating and often unique organisms besides the tree.
Learn how bird feeders impact wild birds and the environment so you understand the good and bad aspects of feeding the birds in your garden or yard.
Did you know that only 6000 snow leopards are surviving in the wild today? Read more than 50 facts about this amazing creature...
This article features photos of some of the world's most beautiful and unique birds along with interesting facts about each one!
This article discusses the various components of a power transformer and briefly explains how they work.
This guide to laboratory signs and their meanings has a detailed description to each sign and symbol, with photos. A must read for anyone working in a laboratory with hazard signs...
This contains facts and information about the world’s most deadly animals on land, water, and air. Some are able to live symbiotically with humans while others are better left in the wild.
TLC chromatography or thin layer chromatography is an analytical technique for easy identification of photo-constituents.
Human eye anatomy—a journey through the anatomy of the eye to understand how different structures in the eyeball work together to achieve vision.
Several external factors affect the way we perceive eye color. This article discusses how environmental factors can impact hazel eyes, making it easy to mistake them for green eyes.
There are many different types of plants, ranging from grand trees to tiny algae. This is an overview with pictures.
While the fearsome great white shark can grow to a massive 20 feet, most are much smaller. But what is the biggest one ever found?
Ballistics is a branch of mechanics which deals with the motion of projectiles launched into the air or space. Solving these type of problems involves using Newton's equations of motion
Chloroplast and mitochondria perform vital yet different functions in cells. This article goes over their key similarities and differences.
There are so many different types of fungi in the world. Almost all of them are beneficial. Find out about them here and enjoy some beautiful pictures...
Destruction of our environment is the biggest contribution that we make to the extinction of many species in the forest. It is estimated that approximately half the number of the world’s animals live in the rainforests. Learn which species are threatened and what you can do to help!
Do wild cheetahs attack, kill, or eat human beings? This article answers this question and provides more information about these extraordinary animals.
Formic acid is found in the sprayed venom of some ants and the secretions of some stinging nettles. The acid is dangerous at high concentrations but has important uses.