Some sunscreens contain tiny nanoparticles that may be detrimental to health. English ivy produces nanoparticles that may make a safer sunscreen.
Take a closer look at microscopy! Learn the differences between an electron and light microscope, know your resolution from your magnificaiton and learn how to correctly use a microscope.
A quick way to divide by 0.5 or ½ is to double the number (or multiply number by 2). The reason for this is because two halves go into a whole.
Bees play a very important role in pollinating flowers, but the insects are disappearing. Pesticides may be at least partly responsible for this disappearance.
Roses are beautiful and often fragrant flowers that have inspired gardeners for many years. They produce a useful oil and tasty fruits called rose hips. The flowers have many symbolic meanings.
The vapourer moth is the opposite of the ugly duckling: beautiful caterpillars turn into the ugliest female moths you'll ever meet. The males are quite pretty, though.
Man has always been fascinated by the sky. Yet space exploration in earnest did not begin until the 20th century. A recap of man's remarkable achievements in search of new frontiers.
The Columbian ground squirrel is an interesting animal that is very entertaining to watch. A large population can be found in Manning Park, British Columbia.
Speed can be measured in many different ways and the instruments used to measure speed vary with the job.
Chemical weathering is one of the forces that shapes our landscapes. Man-made structures are affected, too, Find out how...
The standard model of particle physics describes the underlying building blocks that make up our universe. Here is a beginners overview of its components and what it leaves unexplained.
Elements interact with each other constantly in the natural world. There are only a few elite ones who are noble enough to remain to themselves. But in general every element interacts with at least another, giving rise to a variety of structures,...
According to current physics, equal amounts of matter and antimatter should have been created during the Big Bang, but yet it was not. No one knows for sure why, but many theories exist to explain it.
Biting Midges are notoriously difficult to eradicate, but there are steps you can take to minimize their impact.
Our world is filled a multitude of geologic hazards that can cause extensive property damage and even loss of human life. Mass wasting is one of those hazards that can be avoided or mitigated if you are prepared. Learn about the different types of mass wasting and what causes them.
Zombie ants are controlled by a fungus. Draculas eat the blood of their larvae. Some ants herd caterpillars or aphids and "milk" them. Leafcutter ants grow fungus to eat.
Epithelial tissue is a really important tissue in our bodies. Epithelial tissue lines all our body surfaces both inside and out and it also forms glands.
There are three main types of nuclear radiation. What causes this radiation to be produced? What are the dangers and uses of nuclear radiation?
This Hub shows how to analyze data obtained from a statistical survey. The methods prescribed in this Hub are basic, yet effective.
In this article, we are going to see the usage of C-Sharp ThreadPool. We will also see an example which demonstrates creating threads through ThreadPool.
There are reasons why we may never find intelligent life elsewhere in the Universe even though it may exist. Here’s why.
The magnification of a telescope can be improved by using extra optical devices. A Barlow lens and other hand-made devices will allow you to amplify the image seen through the telescope lens
Though no one knows for sure where the water on Earth came from, many look to comets for answers. But are we looking in the right place?
Electrolysis is the process in which a chemical reaction is started with electricity (Andersen). This is usually done with liquids and especially with ions dissolved in water. Electrolysis is used widely in today's industry and is a part of the...
A look at the difference between the Northern Lights and the Southern Lights. Plus what makes the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis so spectacular.
Fruit flies are those little insects that travel in swarms and hover around fruit, and you may have seen them in grocery stores. They don't just congregate in unkept stores—I have seen them in some high-end markets.
Once on the brink of extinction, the Eurasian lynx numbers have increased but they still remain critically endangered in certain areas.
In this article, we will explore creating a simple thread in C-Sharp Console Application. We will also see the use of Thread Join() method.
This article suggest 20 important facts about Antarctica, emphasizing its vulnerability to increased tourism, pollution and climate change.
Dark matter and dark energy are still huge mysteries in astrophysics. Alternate theories exist to help explain them.
Svalbard reindeer live on an archipelago near mainland Norway. They are the smallest subspecies of reindeer. Research indicates that they are shrinking in size.
This is only theory and not based on applied physics. I discuss this for the sake of expanding scientific thought on the subject of time.
Like the chicken or the egg debate, this has two sides that are determined they are right. Here is the evidence we have, and no easy answers are to be found.
The human muscular system is an organ system composed of skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles. Learn about them and what the most-used muscle in the body is.
Overuse of our groundwater resources has resulted in an ever prevalent problem of Earth fissures. As a property owner or potential buyer of land, there are several things you need to know about these large cracks in the ground in order for you to make an informed decision.
Ensign Wasps are small black insects that look a bit like spiders with wings. They do not sting but are useful because they kill cockroaches.
Wikimedia Commons A black widow is one of those creepy, crawly pests that you want to pretend does not exist. You have heard all about their reclusive nature, their poisonous bite and the potentially deadly venom from a multitude of sources--but you...
Though Pluto is no longer a planet, few know about the deep-space objects that were found which sparked that change.
This article offers a list of 10 lakes or seas that are in danger of drying out to a great extent or disappearing entirely in a period of decades or years.
The Malayan tapir is an unusual animal with an extensible and mobile proboscis, or mini-trunk. Despite its size and bulk, this endangered animal can move fast.
The Tasmanian devil is an endangered animal whose population is decreasing. The main reason for the decrease is devil facial tumor disease. Immunotherapy may one day be used to treat the condition.
Learn more about the Drake Equation, a tool used to predict the number of intelligent alien civilizations in our Milky Way Galaxy.
Lobsters are interesting animals to observe and study in a natural setting. They are popular food items, but the way in which we kill them is controversial.
Giardia is an interesting parasite that causes an unpleasant intestinal disorder called giardiasis. Understanding the parasite's features and behaviour may lead to better treatments for the disorder.
Part two is finally here! This one has lots of pretty moths, beautiful butterflies, blue birds and the occasional crane thrown in too. Read on to discover even more pretty creatures...
A genealogy timeline can help you organise your family history and open up new lines of enquiry. Learn how to create a genealogy timeline to uncover more of your family history.
A magnet is an object that has a magnetic field strong enough to influence other materials. The molecules in a magnet are aligned to all face one way, which gives the magnet its magnetic field. Sometimes the molecules can align permanently, making a...
Real Green solutions come from deep thinking about the causes of problems we created over centuries. Natural crises have deep roots in human actions.
In this article, we'll look at the derivation of Albert Einsteins famous equation E = MC2 show how you can come up with it using simple algebra and Pythagorean's Theorem.
Sardines and herring are nutritious foods. The behaviour of the living fish is interesting to study, however. They live in groups and communicate with their companions.
Well before the rigors of science took hold in the world, people have come up with some creative ideas for our solar system. Let us explore a few of those now.
The Carolina Wren is an iconic bird of North Carolina backyards. The small birds make one of the biggest sounds in the birding world.
Ringworm is a dermatophyte, meaning a fungus that feeds on keratin: skin, hair, nails, etc. More specifically, ringworm feeds on the outer layer of skin and hair follicles and this causes the hair to become brittle and break....
Learn about the different species of alligators including the only two known living species that exist today: The American Alligator and the Chinese Alligator.
1. Gorillas are 98.67% human: This one speaks for itself – humans and gorillas share a strikingly similar genetic code. 2. Gorillas maintain families: A gorilla family averages ten members and contains a number of females, children and usually...
The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases surrounding the surface of the Earth. The gases composing the atmosphere are distributed in a layer of approximately 150 km (93 miles).
Japanese volcanoes are as beautiful as they are deadly. Here are 7 famous Japanese volcanoes that have inspired fear and love throughout the centuries.
There is a rising demand for developing websites for all kinds of business. This hub discusses about web development, developer, programming languages and CMS, which is gaining a lot of attention.
Has there been enough research on this subject to make fact-based determinations or are we once again being led by unsupported claims and incomplete science?
This is an example of a proposal for addressing a clinical issue. The topic is the use of wearable devices for reducing fall risks in geriatric patients.
Cicadas come out once every 13 or 17 years. I have learned a lot about Cicadas through my children and just being in an area that has tons of Cicadas.
An illustrated guide to some of the best-smelling flowers in the Hawaiian Islands. Includes colorful pictures and resource links.
Dinosaurs get all the glory. Their appeal often overshadows other species that existed with them. Non-dinosaur fossils reveal rare glimpses into reptiles, birds and mammals when T. Rex ruled.
Many people believe snakes are slippery, sneaky creatures that will strike when you least expect them and, well, those folks are right. But snakes can also have an unusual grace and exotic allure.
The year 1905 is referred to as Albert Einstein's annus mirabilis (miracle year). Over the course of a year Einstein published four groundbreaking papers in physics. In doing this he announced his genius to the world and began his career as one of the world's most respected scientists.
Scores of people tinker in basements and garages trying to make the next big thing; sadly a lot of the effort only produces strange inventions that nobody needs.
It may read like science fiction, but these fascinating examples of insect behavior come from the dedicated study by the late Thomas Eisner, the Father of Chemical Ecology.
Green, huge caterpillars in Arizona gardens have many enemies not the least of whom are the gardeners. If these hornworm caterpillars survive and pupate, they become moths with hummingbird skills.
Link between neurodegenerative diseases and cancer is being studied since more than a decade. Many factors are known common in pathways resulting in these diseases.
Mark Lynas's "Six Degrees" is a modern classic, outlining potential effects of various levels of global warming. It's summarized, evaluated, and updated here, with links to 7 supplementary Hubs.
Which company or agency will do the most to cure neuromuscular diseases, war injuries, and diabetes in the 2010s?
Free physics problems help online with solutions on average velocity and average speed that walk you through each problem.
Prions are misfolded proteins that form inside the body or enter the body from the outside. They alter other proteins and cause serious diseases, including CJD.
X-rays are a great tool for science, and so are lasers. So combine them and what do you got? Some awesome physics.
Fibronectin attaches cells to the extracellular matrix and controls their behavior. It also helps to stop bleeding and is used in a fetal fibronectin test.
Percentile refers to the position of a piece of data in a distribution, while percent refers to rate per 100.
The Summer Triangle is the name given to an area of the night sky that contains several features of interest for the amateur astronomer.
The Copperhead is a dangerous pit viper found throughout the Southern United States. It is the smallest and least deadly of pit viper snakes, and should be avoided, but not killed for no reason.
What is life? What separates moss, trees, animals, bacteria and archaea from rocks, mountains and clouds? We explore the common features of all living things. These processes can be remembered by the mneumonic: Mrs. Gren
People worry that deadly viruses like Ebola could turn into airborne forms that could cause a worldwide epidemic. But there are reasons to think it is unlikely.
Honey bees are an amazing insect that is gaining support because of their importance in agriculture and producing food. Here are five interesting facts that most people don't know.
Blue Jays are not only clever mimics, but highly intelligent birds that love day old bread. They have the reputation for being bully birds, and rightly so. But I don't think there's a prettier sight in the middle of winter than blue jays and cardinals in the snow!
The precision and accuracy of two-pan balances reached maximum efficiency when the Scottich Chemist Joseph Black (1728-1799) introduced a 'knife edge' as the fulcrum to an already ancient design.
A neutrino is a unique type of subatomic particle that is more mysterious than the other more well known particles. How were they discovered and what are their possible uses in the future?
Dr. Edwin A. Menninger introduced the flowering tree, the Tabebuia, to Stuart, Florida. Through his efforts, these trees have been planted along the streets. Every spring we are reminded of this man.
For hours I've searched for the ancient, semi-precious stone that fascinates my soul. I have been told there is nothing special about the agates found on the rock banks of Mississippi, but I disagree.
We used variable in our C program to store value but one variable can store only single piece information (an integer can hold only one integer value) and to store similar type of values we had to declare many variables. To overcome this problem we used array which can hold numbers of similar data type. But array too have some limitations, like in our real world application we deal with set of dissimilar data types and single array cannot store dissimilar data.
Naked mole-rats have a strange appearance and some very unusual features. Studying the rodents might help researchers to understand and treat human health problems.
A mycorrhiza is a beneficial association between a fungus and plant roots. Mycorrhizal fungi often form a communication network between trees. Some produce truffles.
Involving many principles of science, this particular paradox follows a consequence of black hole mechanics and has far-reaching implications, no matter what the solution is.
Al-Biruni a pioneering Muslim scientist figured out a truly remarkable and ingenious method to calculate the radius of the earth (and subsequently its circumference etc.). This was very simple yet accurate requiring just four measurements in all to...
Learn how you can accomplish the various methods of interconnecting batteries, to make them suitable for your DC powered loads.
What snakes live in Indiana? Are any of them venomous and/or dangerous? There are nearly 40 different species and subspecies of snakes that can be found in the Hoosier state. Although three out of the four front-fanged venomous snakes are endangered (Timber Rattlesnake, Cottonmouth, Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake) and hard to find, the Copperhead is not. Although many Hoosier snakes are rear-fanged venomous, their venoms don't pose a significant threat to people.
The common raven is an intelligent and interesting bird that plays an important role in folklore. The bird is found in many countries and habitats.
Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase is an enzyme that stops telomeres from shortening. Both may play a role in the aging process and in cancer development.
Galileo not only spotted new objects in the sky but also laid the groundwork for advancements in physics. What were they?
Lapidary jokes, fossicking jokes, prospecting jokes, rockhound jokes, geology jokes and many more funny jokes, puns and short tales for lapidarians, rockhounds and jewellery enthusiasts.
A detailed article on neutral litmus paper, acids and bases, testing for acid rain, and how to make acids or bases neutral.
Lung compliance is the ability of the lungs to expand. Elastance measures the work that has to be exerted by the muscles of inspiration to expand the lungs. Factors affecting these are discussed here.
Have you ever stopped and wondered why all the large and dangerous animals seem to live in Africa? Or why we seem to harbour an incurable fascination with monsters? The answers to these questions could well lie in our past, where our remote ancestors lived alongside Africa's real monsters...
The matter around you is composed of atoms but if we delve deeper we can find subatomic parts made of quarks and gluons. But they don't work according to our current understanding of physics.
Gamma Ray Spectroscopy - An introductory review of germanium gamma ray detectors, and the spectroscopic methods used in the measurement of x-ray escape peaks, annihilation photons, peak summing, energy resolution, and total and photopeak efficiency.
The grid method is a great fool proof method to help you with multiplication. As long as you follow these simple steps and have good knowledge of place value and your timetables this is a great method
Pitcher plants produce cups that trap and digest prey. The digestive enzymes of one species can break down gluten and may help people with celiac disease.
This is a basic guide to what you can see on the surface on the Moon - there is as much that can be seen on the Moon with a pair of binoculars, than in the whole of the rest of the sky put together.
A simple, step by step guide about how to find the Pearson's correlation coefficient, r, and how to calculate the coefficient of determination on your TI-89 calculator.
Indigo Buntings are common from southern Canada to Florida and westward to almost California. Their beauty is uncommon. Read below for more information.
A brief overview of the Everglades National Park and a look at some of the common, and not so common, bird species found there.
Many people accept Go Green at face value. Let's get some perspective on 150 years of conservation, preservation, ecology & green action & learn.
This article looks at how mankind can terraform the moon and make it habitable. We'll talk about the current conditions, what needs to change, and how we might go about doing so. Comments welcome!
Cape Buffalo are known as Black Death and feared and sought after by hunters. Can you tame a Buffalo? Read about my own encounter and learn more about these majectic beasts.
A time of turmoil in the solar system, much evidence is found for its lasting impact. Here we examine that and see what conclusions we can reach.
You are walking down the road when, "eek!" you fall into a huge pool of quicksand. There is nobody near enough to hear your cries for help. How will you escape? Can you really drown in quicksand? How can your practice escaping from quicksand from the safety of your own home? This recipe for Cornstarch Quicksand is very similar to the real thing, it is easy to make, and it even lets you walk on water.
Have you ever wondering how large the largest birds are? Listed in this article are 5 of the largest birds of prey in Canada, and they are large!
Several U.S. universities operate outdoor sites where human bodies are left to decompose naturally to aid forensic investigators.
Long before either Abel Tasman or Captain Cook ever set eyes on Australia. The ancestors of today's Aborigines made a tricky sea voyage to an astonishing world full of weird and mighty beasts. This was a world crawling with monstrous marsupials, giant reptiles and huge flightless birds.
Many slugs play a helpful role in their environment, although some are pests. Researchers are hoping to create useful items based on slug slime and movement.
The State of New York has a beautiful array of mushrooms and other fungi growing among the oak, maple, and beech forests. This photo gallery of orange and yellow mushrooms was taken in Frewsburg, a town in the "Southern Tier" of Western New York. Many of these mushrooms can be found in the wider Great Lakes geographical area.
A basic discussion on the null hypothesis, z-scores, and probability. This article includes examples of the null hypothesis, one-tailed, and two-tailed tests. A coin is tossed and comes up tails ten times: is this just random chance, or is an unfair coin being used? Learn when to reject the null hypothesis: if the probability (P) is less than the chosen significance level, the null must be rejected.
Already a complicated subject, black holes get even weirder when viewed through the lens of string theory. Read on for some odd possibilities for what black holes really are.
Create beautiful custom control radio buttons and checkboxes for your iOS (iPhone, iPad) applications. Follow this simple tutorial to create radio buttons and checkboxes that fit the style of your app and requires very little code.
In this hub I will show you how to find the area of circle giving your answer in terms of Pi (π). First of all you need to remember the formula for calculating the area of a circle: A = πr² A stands for area, π stands for Pi and r is...
Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium that can have big effects on humans. It's a common cause of foodborne illness and may cause multiple sclerosis.
Chocolate is a snack beloved by millions. But what exactly is in the sweet treat? How long has it been around for? Is it really an aphrodisiac and antidepressant? And why on earth is it so addictive?
Few people are aware of how black widow spiders contributed to the World War II effort, but they had a significant impact. In fact, a LIFE magazine article published on August 30thof 1943 credited each of several government employed arachnids with spinning between 100 and 180 feet of thread a week.This thread was then used to make cross hairs in the gunsights of U.S. Army instruments of war.
Black holes are engines of destruction unlike anything we are familiar with. One of their specialties is a tidal disruption event, and here we will delve into the mechanics of it.
Researchers have found evidence linking the insulin resistance that develops in type 2 diabetes with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. The details need to be clarified, however.
Lilia A. Abron is the first black woman in the U.S., and the third woman at the University of Iowa, to receive a doctoral degree in the field of chemical engineering.
Some sharks produce beautiful patterns of light in a process called biofluorescence. The light emission may have important functions.
What is a snake? Which snake is the most venomous or the longest? How can I identify venomous snakes in the US? These frequently asked questions (faqs) about snakes (and many more) are answered here.
The complete guide to British birds continues with a look at the various species of dabbling ducks that inhabit the British Isles. A dabbling duck is basically a surface feeding duck.
Exploring the incorrect theories of lift and describing what really happens to an aeroplane wing in the air...
The main property of a trapezium (as known in Great Britain) or trapezoid (as known in the United States) is that it is a 4 side shape with exactly one pair of parallel sides. Depending on how the trapezium is drawn determines how many lines of...
Titanoboa may be the world's largest snake of all time. Let's see if this monstrous beast could still exist in places such as the South American rainforest.
The extinction of the dinosaurs marked the end of one era, but heralded the beginning of another. It only took the Earth a few million years to recover from the after effects of the asteroid impact, but it was a changed world. This hub profiles one small corner of that world, in a time called the Eocene...
Asian and African golden cats are beautiful animals whose populations are near threatened. The cats are in trouble because of human activity in their habitat.
There are now many invasive insect species in Britain, and they can have a big impact on the environment. So let's have a look at what damage they cause and how they are affecting native species
When someone experiences a heart attack, cells in their heart die. Scientists have found two ways to replace the lost cells in rodents. The techniques may one day work in us.
Photos and fun information about some of the coolest moons in our solar system besides our own Moon.
A microscope is a gateway to a fascinating and normally invisible world. A home microscope is entertaining and educational for children and for adults, too.
Finding the age of the Universe is like completing a puzzle without knowing the big picture. We have many clues, but sometimes pieces can be misleading...
The top 5 scariest and deadliest bugs on this earth. A list compiled from many sources to deliver to you a nightmare-inducing read that will surely have you quaking in your boots.
Large and fascinating birds, American black vultures live in the southern USA and are common in Central and South America.
Among all the birds there is none to rival the peregrine falcon in its powers of flight and its devastating speed. Even when stationary on a high perch, it seems to embody the essence of freedom.
Speed, distance and time can be calculated using a magic triangle. D (the distance) goes in the top of the triangle, S (speed) goes in the bottom left of the triangle and T (time) goes in the bottom right of the triangle. If you want to calculate...
Ecosystem is composed of biotic factors of a community of living organism interacting with one another which we can see in food chains/webs.
This is part one of a two part article on Pressure Ulcers (also known as "bed sores"). It covers the cause and stages of the condition. Warning: Imagery may be disturbing.
Mole and worm lizards are very unusual reptiles. They have elongated bodies that resemble those of earthworms and have one pair of legs or none at all.
Located in Northern Ontario, Algonquin Park is home to over 2000 black bears. We'll learn about black bears facts, habitat and bust some myths surrounding the black bear.
Most people confuse bees, wasps, and hornets, but there are several significant differences between the three. This article was written to educate you about those differences.
Wondering if a warp drive is possible? This article looks at a few of the possibilities for faster than light travel. We'll investigate the Alcubierre drive and the Krasnikov tube, among others.
The science of artificial intelligence has embraced the art of writing and reporting with the founding of Narrative Science, a company that is pioneering the science of automatic writing. This article explains how it will have a dramatic impact on journalism as we know it.
What do you know about invasive spiders, scorpions and slugs? Introduced species cause big problems in the UK, so find out how the arrived and the effects they have on native species and ecosystems
Bumble bees have surprisingly capable brains. They can play a simple version of soccer and pull a string to get a reward. They may even experience optimism.
Many songbirds are known for their colours and sweet melodies. Listen to the songs of beautiful songbirds and learn how these melodies function in courtship and registering territorial presence.
One of the most important theories in physics is Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity. The theory of special relativity (and its equations) explained how space and time are actually intrinsically linked to each other, instead of being two separate concepts.
Instead of irregularities in Earth's orbit, temperature changes are now caused by changes in atmospheric greenhouse gasses released by human activity, primarily the burning of fossil fuels.
The animals of the sea are playful and beautiful in their own special way. Learn about these remarkable aquatic animals - some of the largest in the world - manatees and dugongs.
The unexplored bottom of the ocean floor is home to a plethora of weird and creepy sea creatures who never see the sun. In this Hub I list ten of them, and explain exactly what makes them so creepy.
A comparison of the early growth of beans (dicot) versus corn (monocot). Tim Downey As you undoubtedly know, flowering plants are frequently separated into two different classes: the dicots and monocots. Apart from some superficial differences, such...
To calculate the 3 point moving averages form a list of numbers, follow these steps: 1. Add up the first 3 numbers in the list and divide your answer by 3. Write this answer down as this is your first 3 point moving average. 2. Add up the next 3...
Different snakes may contain different types of venom compounds, with small-scale shifts in venom composition possible within an individual snake due to age, diet, environment/captivity, and season.
Having trouble with naming chemical compounds? Perhaps you're taking a General Chemistry class in college. I take you through naming step-by-step with discussion and examples!
This article will take a close look at the differences between open and closed motor skills, while also providing photographic examples of what each of these skills looks like.
Arriving at work shortly after sunrise on a recent spring morning my wife noticed a beautiful white flower on one of the cacti in the gardens on the grounds where she works. Unlike many other species of cacti, such as the majestic saguaro or the...
This article summarizes the threat that asteroids and comets pose to the Earth. A short history of some of the greatest asteroid impacts on Earth is also provided.
The common chameleon is the only species of chameleon that lives in Europe and it can be found in Portugal and Spain. It lives in the Algarve area of Portugal but is threatened by habitat loss.
The history of life series moves on to the period where not only complex lifeforms evolved, but came to take over the world. But they didn't have everything their own way, the Paleozoic era bore witness to natural disasters that make our problems seem minute...
Not necessarily the first place to go looking for one of these features, to be fair. But that is okay, for the mechanics of this one are truly noteworthy.
Do you usually wonder what the sun is made of? Well, read about the parts of the sun and their importance. See also the features & components of the solar, including gases and other elements.