A Tropical Pitcher Plant and Enzymes for Gluten Digestion

Updated on May 7, 2019
AliciaC profile image

Linda Crampton is a writer and teacher with an honors degree in biology. She loves to study nature and write about living things.

Pitchers of Nepenthes ampullaria in Malaysia
Pitchers of Nepenthes ampullaria in Malaysia | Source

A Pitcher Plant and Gluten Digestion in Humans

Pitcher plants are carnivorous organisms that trap and digest prey. They bear cup or tube-like containers made from modified leaves. These containers, or pitchers, contain digestive fluid. Animals and other organic material that fall into a pitcher are broken down and their components used by the plant.

There are many different types of pitcher plants. A tropical species named Nepenthes ampullaria may have an important benefit for humans. Researchers have discovered that enzymes made by the plant can digest gluten, a protein complex present in certain grains.

In people with celiac disease, the presence of gluten in the small intestine triggers an immune system response that damages the intestinal lining. This can lead to some very serious symptoms. The plant enzymes may be able to digest gluten in the acidic conditions of a patient's stomach, preventing the protein from entering and damaging the small intestine.

The ground pitchers at the top of the photo are joined to the main part of the plant (shown at the bottom of the photo) by underground rhizomes.
The ground pitchers at the top of the photo are joined to the main part of the plant (shown at the bottom of the photo) by underground rhizomes. | Source

Why Are Pitcher Plants Carnivorous?

Pitcher plants are interesting and intriguing organisms. They're found in several families. The pitchers of different species may look different and have different features, but they all serve the same function.

Like other plants, pitcher plants carry out photosynthesis to produce food and also absorb nutrients from the soil. The soil in which they grow is poor in nitrogen, however. This element is needed to make DNA, RNA (which is necessary in order for DNA to perform its job), and proteins. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, contains the genes of an organism.

Pitcher plants solve the problem of insufficient nitrogen by trapping and digesting animals. Other nutrients in the animals are also used. The animals that are caught are generally insects, although sometimes larger animals fall into the pitchers and are digested.

Some pitcher plants digest feces that's dropped into the pitchers by rodents. The animals feed on nectar produced at the rim of the pitcher. The relationship is beneficial for both organisms, although occasionally an accident happens and a rodent falls into the pitcher.

Nepenthes rajah pitchers may be as tall as fourteen inches. The plant sometimes catches small rodents or amphibians. Its normal prey is insects.
Nepenthes rajah pitchers may be as tall as fourteen inches. The plant sometimes catches small rodents or amphibians. Its normal prey is insects. | Source

Pitfall Traps and Prey Digestion

The pitchers of carnivorous plants are also known as pitfall traps. They are deep containers in relation to the size of the intended prey. They often have a lid, or operculum, that reduces the dilution of the digestive liquid by rain water.

Pitchers generally have special features to attract prey. These include the presence of sweet nectar or of colours that are significant for insects. The traps have special precautions to prevent the escape of an animal once it falls into the liquid. The interior walls of the pitcher are usually slippery, for example. In addition, the digestive liquid that covers trapped insects makes it impossible for them to fly.

Pitcher plants produce an array of digestive enzymes. They are able to break down the entire body of an insect, including the chitin that forms the outer covering. Some of the enzymes may be useful for humans.

Nepenthes ampullaria and Other Species in a Plant Nursery

Nepenthes ampullaria can be bought in some plant nurseries and kept as a cultivated plant.

The Nepenthes ampullaria Plant

Nepenthes ampullaria is a climbing plant that grows on the forest floor in Borneo, Sumatra, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and New Guinea. The plant does trap and digest insects, but unlike many of its relatives it also feeds on leaf litter that falls into the pitchers. This means that it's both a carnivore and a detritivore (an organism that feeds on detritus, or small fragments of dead creatures).

The leaves of the plant are long, narrow, and pointed. The lower leaves are borne in a basal rosette while the upper ones are spread out along the vertical or climbing stems. The plant becomes woody as it matures.

Vertical stems of the plant bear small flowers arranged in a structure called a panicle, which is shown in the photo below. Each flower in the panicle is yellow-green in colour. The fruit is a capsule that changes from green to brown as it ripens.

Panicles and flowers of Nepenthes ampullaria
Panicles and flowers of Nepenthes ampullaria | Source


Nepenthes ampullaria produces both aerial pitchers and terrestrial ones. The pitchers are attractive and have a variety of colours. They are green, yellow-green, red, speckled red and green, or speckled red and yellow. They have a small operculum that is folded backwards.

Aerial pitchers are attached to a tendril that extends from the tip of a leaf's midrib. They are produced by the leaves in the basal rosette and by the lower leaves of the climbing stems. The plant also produces a cluster of pitchers that spread over the ground and are called terrestrial or basal pitchers, as shown in the second photo in this article. The terrestrial pitchers are produced by underground stems known as rhizomes. They give the impression that they are separate from the main plant, but they are connected to it.

The digestive fluid of Nepenthes is acidic, like the fluid in our stomach. In addition, it contains a large bacterial population. These bacteria may help to digest food, just like the bacteria in our intestine. The plant's similarity to our digestive tract is interesting and could be significant with respect to disease treatment.

Aerial pitchers
Aerial pitchers | Source

Species in the genus Nepenthes are sometimes known as monkey cups. The name arose from the idea that monkeys fed on the liquid in the pitchers.

What Is Celiac Disease?

Untreated celiac disease is a serious condition. The small intestine is the site of most of the food digestion in the body and of nutrient absorption. In some people, gluten activates the immune system inappropriately and causes inflammation of the intestinal lining. In addition, villi are damaged and flattened. The villi are tiny folds on the intestinal lining that absorb nutrients. When the villi are flattened, the ability to absorb nutrients from food is greatly reduced. Another problem is that people with untreated celiac disease have an increased risk of intestinal cancer.

There are many possible symptoms of celiac disease. Diarrhea and abdominal pain are frequent effects, but patients may have additional or different symptoms. Since nutrients are hindered in their passage through the intestinal lining and into the bloodstream, problems may appear in many areas of the body.

The treatment for the disease is to eliminate gluten from the diet. This generally allows the villi to regenerate and symptoms to disappear. As described below, however, it's a challenge to follow a truly gluten-free diet. This is one reason why the search for suitable digestive enzymes is important.

Celiac Disease Explained for Adults and Children

Gluten in Grains

Gluten is found in all forms of wheat, including kamult and spelt. It's also a popular food additive. It gives elasticity and binding power to baked goods and stops them from crumbling. Wheat gluten is actually a complex of two types of proteins—the gliadins and the glutenins. The gliadins are believed to be responsible for the problems in celiac disease. The word "gliadins" is sometimes used in the singular to refer to the entire group of chemicals.

Rye contains secalins, which are related to gliadins, and barley contains related hordeins. Both types of chemicals trigger intestinal damage in people with celiac disease. Rye and barley are generally said to be gluten-containing grains, even though the relevant chemicals are different from those in wheat.

Avenins in oats are also related to gliadins but are thought to be safe for people with celiac disease. Oats that are certified gluten-free (that is, not contaminated by wheat, rye, or barley) are available in some stores, especially health food markets. Someone with celiac disease should check with their doctor about the advisability of eating these oats, however, because there is some debate about the safety of the grain.

Wheat contains gluten, which is harmful for people with celiac disease.
Wheat contains gluten, which is harmful for people with celiac disease. | Source

Rice, corn, millet, buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa, sorghum, and teff contain no gluten and are suitable grains or grain substitutes for people with celiac disease.

A Gluten-Free Diet

Someone with celiac disease must eliminate all wheat, rye, and barley from their diet as well as any product containing added gluten. In addition, a patient must avoid items that have come into contact with unsuitable food, such as utensils and kitchen surfaces. Even being in a room with flour in the air can be dangerous if the flour contains gluten.

In reality, it's hard to reach a zero gluten level due to contamination of food at some point in its harvest and/or preparation. In North America, a food must contain less than 20 ppm (parts per million) of gluten in order to be labelled gluten-free.

It's important that someone with celiac disease does their best to eliminate gluten from their diet in order to reduce the chance of continual low-level inflammation in their intestine.

Corn contains no gluten.
Corn contains no gluten. | Source

Potential Problems With Following a Gluten-Free Diet

The gluten-free diet is sometimes difficult to follow, for a variety of reasons.

  • A person must be constantly vigilant about their diet and about food contamination.
  • Food contamination with gluten is impossible to detect visually.
  • Going to restaurants may be a risky pursuit because ingredients are often unknown.
  • Even when it's certain that food in a restaurant meal normally contains no gluten, it may have been contaminated in the kitchen.
  • Travelling requires careful planning because suitable food may be unavailable.
  • Wheat, rye, and barley (and oats) are nutritious foods. It's important to compensate for the missing nutrients when the grains are eliminated from the diet.
  • Gluten-free products are often more expensive than the equivalent ones containing gluten.
  • There is often a wider choice of healthy processed food that contains gluten than of healthy processed food without the substance.
  • The widest variety of gluten-free foods is found in health food markets, which are not as common as general markets.

Though it's certainly possible to follow a healthy diet while avoiding gluten, it's easier to do this when the substance doesn't need to be avoided. Enzymes that destroy gluten in the stomach before it reaches the small intestine and causes harm would be very useful. Pitcher plant enzymes might be able to perform this task.

Buckwheat or soba noodles aren't made from wheat and don't contain gluten, despite their name.
Buckwheat or soba noodles aren't made from wheat and don't contain gluten, despite their name. | Source

Pitcher Plant Enzymes for Gluten Breakdown

The research into digestion of gluten by pitcher plant enzymes was led by David Schriemer. He's a biochemist and associate professor at the Cumming School of Medicine. The school is part of the University of Calgary in Alberta.

Enzymes that break down gluten have already been discovered. According to Schriemer, however, a major problem is that an amount of enzyme almost as large as the amount of food is required in order to remove gluten. This treatment isn't practical for people with celiac disease.

The research team found that the combination of two enzymes made by Nepenthes ampullaria and by a hydrid form of Nepenthes can digest gliadin. The enzymes can be used in much smaller quantities than other ones. The pitcher plant chemicals are called nepenthesin and neprosin. The latter substance was discovered during the research.

The plant chemicals digested gluten in both lab equipment and animal stomachs. Very significantly, mice sensitive to the substance showed no intestinal inflammation when eating gluten-containing food and the enzyme combination.

Remarkably low doses enhance gliadin solubilization rates, and degrade gliadin slurries within the pH and temporal constraints of human gastric digestion. Potencies in excess of 1200:1 (substrate-to-enzyme) are achieved.

— University of Calgary Research Team

Pitcher Development in Nepenthes ampullaria

Further Research

The enzymes from pitcher plants sound very promising, but more research is needed. It's important to check that the chemicals cause no harm to humans and that they consistently digest all gluten before it reaches the intestine. The ratio of enzyme to ingested food is an important consideration. It's also important to check that the continual use of the chemicals prevents both inflammation and villi flattening.

The research explored the breakdown of gliadin in wheat. We need to know whether the related chemicals in rye and barley are also digested. Although wheat gliadin seems to be the major instigator of intestinal damage in celiac disease, rye and barley also play a role, at least according to our current understanding of the disease.

Availability of the Enzymes

David Schriemer has established a commercial company with the aim of bringing the plant enzymes to market. He says that this will be a multi-year project. Scientists need to fully understand the actions of the chemicals and to solve any problems before clinical trials take place in humans. The production of sufficient quantities of the enzymes for celiac disease patients is also an important problem to solve.

The use of nepenthesin and neprosin could eventually make food choices much easier for people with celiac disease. It would be interesting to know whether other enzymes from pitcher plants have benefits for us.


Information about tropical pitcher plants (genus Nepenthes) from the San Diego Zoo

Celiac disease information from the Mayo Clinic

Sources of gluten: A list from the Celiac Disease Foundation

Enzymes from a carnivorous plant can digest gluten: A news release from the University of Calgary with links to the original research reports

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

Questions & Answers

    © 2016 Linda Crampton


      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Yes, nature can certainly be wonderful! The natural world has so much to offer us if we treat it wisely. Thank you very much for the comment, Manatita.

      • profile image


        2 years ago

        Isn't mother nature wonderful! So many wonders to unfold! Actually you blended your biology well with the celiac problems and showed nicely how they related and gives hope to we sufferers of similar problems. Excellently presented as usual.

      • simplehappylife profile image


        2 years ago

        Oh, I agree :)

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        I appreciate your comment, simplehappylife. I hope that many more medicinal chemicals are found in plants. There could be some very helpful but as yet undiscovered substances in the plant kingdom.

      • simplehappylife profile image


        2 years ago

        Very interesting. I had no idea that Pitcher plants had medicinal purposes. I live in Alabama and they grow wild in certain parts here. I also didn't know much about gluten and celiac disease, thank you for such an informative article :)

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, Peggy. It will be wonderful if the pitcher plant proves to be useful. Thanks for the comment and the share!

      • profile image

        Peggy Woods 

        2 years ago

        That would be wonderful if they can mass market the plant enzymes in a safe manner to help people who are allergic to foods containing gluten. I always learn things by reading your articles Linda. Thanks for this educational one. Those pitcher plants are quite amazing! Will be sharing!

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you very much for the comment and all the shares, Audrey. I appreciate your visit a great deal.

      • profile image


        2 years ago

        What an amazing plant the Pitcher is! Thanks for introducing this to me. I also learned a great deal about celiac disease and the effects of gluten. I'll start shopping for gluten-free foods. Thanks so much Alicia. Pinning to my "Healthy Food" board and sharing with followers and twitter.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, aesta1. Thanks for the visit. Many people can eat gluten with no problem, but if you're gluten intolerant it is important to be careful with the diet.

      • aesta1 profile image

        Mary Norton 

        2 years ago from Ontario, Canada

        I am only beginning to understand many of the info you gave here. What I thought was healthy was not really. We need to make some changes to our diet once again.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you very much for the comment Manatita. I appreciate your visit and your comment a great deal, as always. Thanks for sharing your thoughts, too. I'm glad that we make money on our articles via the Ad program.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you very much for the comment, MsDora. I always appreciate your visits.

      • MsDora profile image

        Dora Weithers 

        3 years ago from The Caribbean

        Thanks for the good news about the pitcher plant gluten-digestion potential although we have to wait. You make me understand for the first time why people differ on whether oats are good or not good for the gluten intolerant (as I am). Thanks for this and all your other informative articles.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thanks, Mel. Carnivorous plants remind me of science fiction stories, too!

      • Mel Carriere profile image

        Mel Carriere 

        3 years ago from San Diego California

        Great work. As usual, I learned a ton about these kind of creepy but fascinating science fiction plants.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, Audrey. I hope it comes to fruition, too. I have great sympathy for the struggles faced by some people with celiac disease.

      • AudreyHowitt profile image

        Audrey Howitt 

        3 years ago from California

        This was fascinating! I hope this comes to fruition, as I know several people who suffer with this condition

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thanks, Devika. The research is promising. I hope the promise is fulfilled.

      • DDE profile image

        Devika Primić 

        3 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

        I admire your encouragement of this research so interesting and certainly is worth looking into.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thanks for the comment, Vellur. I hope the enzymes do prove to be helpful for people with celiac disease. The plant could be very useful.

      • Vellur profile image

        Nithya Venkat 

        3 years ago from Dubai

        An interesting and informative article, it is amazing how an enzyme secreted in the pitcher plant can help with treating the celiac condition in humans. Hope more research goes into this, and they come out with a cure. Great article, voted up.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, Blossom. Thank you very much for the comment and for sharing the interesting information. I'm glad you've found relief for your discomfort. I understand a little of what you've experienced because my sister has recently been put on the FODMAP diet, too. The eating plan has definitely helped her. I'm not following the plan, but I do limit wheat in my diet because it causes problems for me as well. I will probably eliminate wheat entirely soon. I always tell myself that I was silly to eat it when I experience the results!

      • BlossomSB profile image

        Bronwen Scott-Branagan 

        3 years ago from Victoria, Australia

        Oh, you have put so much research into collating this article! It is so interesting. For many years I reacted to wheat; as a child I loved the crunch of Weetbix, but always came out in big hives when I ate them. As a teen, people would remark on my bright pink cheeks when I was on my way home from school; I would thank them for the compliment, while saying to myself, 'I know why, it's because I have such a dreadful pain in my tummy.' At home, I'd complain to my mother and she'd tell me to have a sandwich of bread and butter with ginger powder, but it never seemed to do a thing. At last, now I'm in my 80s, a gastroenterologist has put me on the FODMAP diet, which includes gluten-free, and at long last I can enjoy a meal without pains in the tummy afterwards!

        I also enjoyed reading about the Pitcher Plants and watching the videos, as when we lived in PNG, they grew near the hot springs (which included bubbling mud and a geyser) on our island, and were fascinating to watch. I imagine our little Australian sundews are related, as they do the same kind of thing.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you, Larry. I always appreciate your visits.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, RTalloni. Like you, I suspect that plants may well have some wonderful but undiscovered medicinal benefits for us. My worry is that humans are destroying so much of nature that we may never discover some of these benefits.

      • Larry Rankin profile image

        Larry Rankin 

        3 years ago from Oklahoma

        Cool read as always:-)

      • profile image


        3 years ago

        Always interesting, thanks for highlighting these enzymes and their source. I'll understand something of what's meant the next time I hear of nepenthesin and neprosin thanks to your post, and I hope I'll hear of them again sooner than later. Because creation is so vast and intricate it has to be that we've only touched the surface of amazing connections of their benefits to our health.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, Blond Logic. Thank you for the comment. I think that the ways in which plants help human health are very interesting. I hope the new discovery about plant enzymes and gluten digestion is beneficial for people with celiac disease.

      • manatita44 profile image


        3 years ago from london

        Another amazing and well written Hub. Are you still working in this field? You should be making money for this. Find the pertinent site or magazine, if you have not already done so, my Sweet Alicia. Loving thoughts

      • Blond Logic profile image

        Mary Wickison 

        3 years ago from Brazil

        This is very interesting. Since moving to Brazil, I have become more interested in the close connection for beneficial plants to human health. My neighbors are a wealth of information about what to use for what ailment.

        My father in law had celiac disease and it affects so many aspect of ones life to keep the condition in check.

        Let's hope that the studies prove effective for human use.

        Well written and informative article.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you, Bill. I appreciate your visit and comment, as always.

      • billybuc profile image

        Bill Holland 

        3 years ago from Olympia, WA

        I always learn so much about things I never would have known if not for you. Thank you for the continued education.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thanks, AshutoshJoshio6. I'm hoping that the plant contributes more to humanity, too. It's a fascinating organism.

      • AshutoshJoshi06 profile image

        Ashutosh Joshi 

        3 years ago from New Delhi, India

        Great article, this plant truly is a masterpiece of evolution in plant kingdom. I think considering its survival instincts and complex dual metabolism there is much more that the plant would contribute towards in the near future

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, Martie. Thanks for the comment. Pitcher plants are certainly interesting! I hope their role in treating celiac disease becomes a reality very soon.

      • MartieCoetser profile image

        Martie Coetser 

        3 years ago from South Africa

        Wow, this is amazing. I am in awe. Thanks, Alicia, for explaining how pitcher plants function, and how it can be used by humans to control celiac diseases.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you, Flourish. I think it's wonderful when plants can help us with the treatment of disease. I hope we discover many more helpful chemicals in the plant kingdom.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, Penny. Yes, it does seem that gluten problems are increasing, or at least the awareness of the problems. I hope the studies are successful, too. The results could be very important.

      • FlourishAnyway profile image


        3 years ago from USA

        Wow, even without the information on celiac disease and the role this plant may play in helping, this was a fascinating article. I've never heard of this type of plant. How interesting that potential help exists in our natural world.

      • Penny Sebring profile image

        Penny Leigh Sebring 

        3 years ago from Fort Collins

        What an amazing connection! I hope the studies prove fruitful; gluten allergies are still on the rise.


      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)