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The Worst Indian Earthquakes
It was 26th January 2001, Republic Day in India. Students were going to school for celebrations. Those who thought republic day as just another holiday were snoring. Leaders all over the country were hoisting the tricolor flag.
As an on-going tradition people were distributing sweets among children. Some were holding flags, some busy attaching a small flag on their shirts. Some were chatting with their friends for planning and enjoying the rest of the day.
Suddenly, news struck that an earthquake has taken place in Gujarat.
As time passed by, the news come in: a massive earthquake with tremendous loss of life and property. Reportedly 30,000 people died and many others got injured. This is the real story of the Gujarat earthquake.
Fifteen years down the line, the situation has improved, but scars remain.
There are more deadly earthquakes that India has seen. Here is the list of ten worst earthquakes in India's history.
What are the most powerful earthquakes of India?
|Sr. No.||Place||Deaths||Date, Time, and Year||Magnitude||Epicenter|
08:50, December 26, 2004
West coast of Sumatra, Indonesia
08:50:38, October 8, 2005
Muzaffarabad, Pakistan-administered Kashmir
Bihar and Nepal
14 :13, January 15, 1934
South of Mount Everest
08:50:00, January 26, 2001
06:10, April 4, 1905
22:25, September 30, 1993
19:39, August 15, 1950
17 :11, June 12, 1897
Exact location not known
Unknown time, October 20, 1991
04:21, December 11, 1967
1. Indian Ocean Earthquake, 2004
Date - December 26, 2004
Time - 08:50
Deaths - > 283,106 (Includes deaths in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Maldives, and Somalia)
Magnitude - 9.1–9.3
Epicenter - West coast of Sumatra, Indonesia (3.316°N 95.854°E)
Extreme widespread destruction took place on the following day of Christmas. The calamity was so huge that even islands in the middle of the Indian Ocean disappeared or were in 3-5 meters deep in water.
The newspapers on the following day were full of gory pictures. Mind-numbing loss of human lives with property worth thousands of crores destroyed.
One more thing I remember that newspapers were only reporting about the Tsunami. From the first page till the last page it was only and only about the Tsunami. No Sports, no business news for the following several days.
Indian Ocean Tsunami: Aceh, Sumatra Islands After 10 Years
2. Kashmir Earthquake, 2005
Date - October 8, 2005
Time - 08:50:38
Deaths - 130,000
Magnitude - 7.6
Epicenter - Muzaffarabad, Pakistan-administered Kashmir (34.45°N 73.65°E)
While the death toll in India was less, the Pakistani side suffered a huge loss of life and property. The epicenter of the quake was in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan. Its severity could be understood by the fact that even neighboring countries like China, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan felt tremors.
The International community came forward in every possible way to help the victims. Relief material flowed in from every part of the world. The Indian Army helped in a big way by clearing the debris and distributing relief material and maintaining medical camps in Pakistan as well as in India.
3. Bihar Earthquake, 1934
Date - January 15, 1934
Time - 14 :13
Deaths - > 30,000
Magnitude - 8.7
Epicenter - South of Mount Everest (27.55°N 87.09°E)
Just as the recent one that took place in Pokhara in which both Nepal and India are affected like it was in 1934 though on a larger scale (8.7 magnitude) with widespread destruction.
As of recent reports the 2015 earthquake is of 7.9 magnitude with more than 1500 people dead in India and Nepal.
2015 Earthquake of Bihar - Nepal
4. Gujarat Earthquake, 2001
Date - January 26, 2001
Time - 08:50:00
Deaths - 20,000
Magnitude - 7.7
Epicenter - Kutch, Gujarat (23.419°N 70.232°E)
The opening paragraph sums up the effects of the Gujarat Earthquake. Normalcy could only be restored after six months of rigorous relief efforts from all sections of society. Help poured in from all over the world but the damage had already been done.
Some losing their life savings, some their lives.
5. Kangra Earthquake, 1905
Date - April 4, 1905
Time - 06:10
Deaths - > 20,000
Magnitude - 7.8
Epicenter - Himalayas (33.0°N 76.0°E)
Another one of the deadliest quakes that India faced took place in the Kangra region of Himachal Pradesh. More than 100,000 homes were destroyed and scores of animals, trees, and the natural vegetation of the region had were completed gutted.
This is the 2nd worst earthquake from the pre-independence era after the Nepal-Bihar earthquake of 1934.
6. Latur Earthquake, 1993
Date - September 30, 1993
Time - 22:25
Deaths - > 9,748
Magnitude - 6.4
Epicenter - Killari, Latur (18.1°N 76.5°E)
One of the most fatal natural disaster that Maharashtra has ever faced. Though the magnitude recorded was 6.4 but the destruction that it caused was massive.
The most affected areas were of Latur and Osmanabad. Invariably, this natural calamity brought attention towards this area and now Latur and adjoining areas as well-developed.
Watch the below news snippet from BBC where the anchor describes the plight causing entire villages to be flattened as people were sleeping.
7. Assam Earthquake, 1950
Date - August 15, 1950
Time - 19:39
Deaths - 1,526
Magnitude - 8.6
Epicenter - Rima, Tibet (28.5°N 96.5°E)
Another one which happened on a national day of India - on the Independence day. Many parts of Assam and Tibet were severely damaged to unknown proportions. However, Assam bear the most brunt of this quake than that of Tibet.
The aftereffects were a strong flooding situation which added to the already scary situation.
8. Assam Earthquake, 1897
Date - June 12, 1897
Time - 17 :11
Deaths - 1,500
Magnitude - 8.1
Epicenter - Exact location not known (26°N 91°E)
The north-eastern states of India fall under the zone 4 hazard seismic area. Zone 5 being the highest risk area and Zone 2 being the lowest. States like Assam, Arunachal Pradesh from the north-east, Kashmir, and Gujarat all fall in the Zone 5 and are the most prone to earthquakes.
This earthquake affected India, Tibet, and Burma.
9. Uttarkashi Earthquake, 1991
Date - October 20, 1991
Time - Unknown
Deaths - >1,000
Magnitude - 6.8
Epicenter - Garhwal, Uttarakhand (30.780°N 78.774°E)
Lakhs of people became homeless and nearly 42,000 homes and buildings were damaged. As much as 1300+ villages were destroyed. Many were injured and the official death toll stood at 768 but there were many more deaths than that.
The whole of Uttarkashi region was harshly affected which is now known as Uttarakhand.
10. Koynanagar Earthquake, 1967
Date - December 11, 1967
Time - 04:21
Magnitude - 6.5
Epicenter - Koyna (17.4°N 73.76°E)
Koynanagar is the most seismically active area in the country. Koynanagar has had a long history of earthquakes. As much as 20 known earthquakes have taken place at Koynanagar. The latest one being on 14th April 2014. It lies in the Zone 4 of the hazard zoning.
Of all them, the most severe one took place in 1967 with areas affecting to the tune of 25 kilometers with casualties of 180 and 1500 injured.
Earthquake Zones of India
According to a recent study conducted by National Institute of Disaster Management about 59 percent of the area in India is prone to earthquakes. India is divided into 4 seismic zones.
Zone 5 - Very High-Risk Area - 11 % of land area in India is considered as high risk. List of states that fall in this zone are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, Central Kashmir, Central Himalayas, Northern Bihar, Rann of Kutch, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Zone 4 - High Risk Zone - 18 % of land area - Some parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Delhi, Gujarat, Bihar, West Bengal, Koynanagar in Maharashtra, and the whole of Sikkim lie in this zone.
Zone 3 - Moderate Risk Zone - 30 % of land area - Some parts of Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and the whole of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, and Kerala fall in the risk zone.
Zone 2 - Low-risk Zone - 41 % of land area - See below the map to know areas covered in this zone.
Questions & Answers
Question: What was the depth of these earthquakes?
Answer: Depths are divided into three categories:
1) 300 - 700 KM - Deep
2) 70 - 300 KM - Intermediate
3) 0 - 70 KM - Shallow
Shallow earthquakes are the most dangerous, with the next being intermediate earthquakes, and then deep ones.
1) Indian Ocean Earthquake, 2004 - 30 km (19 mi)
2) Kashmir Earthquake, 2005 - 15 km (9.3 mi)
3) Bihar Earthquake, 1934 - 15 km (9.3 mi)
4) Gujarat Earthquake, 2001 - 16 km (10 mi)
5) Kangra Earthquake, 1905 - Unknown
6) Latur Earthquake, 1993 - 10 km (6.2 mi)
7) Assam Earthquake, 1950 - 15 km (9.3 mi)
8) Assam Earthquake, 1897 - Unknown
9) Uttarkashi Earthquake, 1991 - 11.6 km (7 mi)
10) Koynanagar Earthquake, 1967 - 15 km (9 mi)
Question: What are the most earthquake prone places in India?
Answer: Before diving further, below are the terms that will help in understanding this in a better way.
• Zones: India is divided into four seismic zones when it comes to the severity of earthquakes. These are Zone 5 to Zone 2. The Zone 5 lists places with the highest risk, whereas Zone 2 has areas with the lowest risk.
Zone 5: Very High Damage Risk
Zone 4: High Damage Risk
Zone 3: Moderate Damage Risk
Zone 2: Low Damage Risk
• Seismicity: This is defined as the number of times an area is vulnerable to earthquakes. The higher the seismicity level higher are the chances.
• Richter Magnitude Scale: These range from 1.0 to 9.0 and higher. Earthquakes with magnitude 4.9 and lower do not generally cause damage. The ones with Richter magnitude 5.0 to 5.9 are considered moderate in nature. Lastly, magnitudes of 6.0 to 9.0+ cause extreme destruction.
So, the places that are classified in zone 5 are the most prone to earthquakes.
2) Kashmir valley
4) Western and Central Himalayas
5) North and Central Bihar
6) Raxaul, Bihar
7) Rann of Kutch in Gujarat
8) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
10) Patan and Koynanagar in Maharashtra
11) All northeastern states (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura)
12) Sundarbans forest
14) Majha, North Punjab
15) Western Uttar Pradesh
16) Jalpaiguri and Malda division in Bengal
Reference: National Disaster Management Plan, “Annexure-II: Hazard Vulnerability Maps for India” retrieved from the web on 3rd April 2018.
Question: What are the least earthquake prone areas in India?
Answer: The places which fall in Zone 2 seismicity are least vulnerable or safest from hazards of earthquakes.
List of places in Zone 2.
• Ajmer, Kota, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur in Rajasthan
• Allahabad, Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh
• Aurangabad, Nagpur in Maharashtra
• Bangalore, Mysore, Chitradurga, Gulbarga in Karnataka
• Bhilai, Raipur in Chhattisgarh
• Bhopal, Sironj in Madhya Pradesh
• Kurnool, Nagarjunasagar, Hyderabad, Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh
• Madurai, Thanjavur, Tiruchirappalli in Tamil Nadu
• Jamshedpur, Jharkhand
• Rourkela, Orissa
Reference: National Disaster Management Plan, “Annexure-II: Hazard Vulnerability Maps for India” retrieved from the web on 4th April 2018
Best Current Affairs, "Seismic Zones in India" retrieved from the web on 4th April 2018
Question: Is Mumbai in an earthquake zone?
Answer: Mumbai falls in the zone 3 level which is a moderate damage risk zone. There have been instances where places marked under zone 3 have witnessed earthquakes of more than 6.0 in magnitude.
Historically, Mumbai has never seen an earthquake of more than 4.5 in magnitude. In simpler terms, one would only experience slight tremors, some disturbances but no major damages.
Mumbai is the most populous city in India, and massive construction has taken place to accommodate so many people. If there happens to be an earthquake in the range of 6.0 to 6.5, the consequences would be highly fatal.
A detailed study published by IIT Bombay in 1999 puts forth many astonishing facts:
A Postulated Earthquake Damage Scenario For Mumbai by Ravi Sinha and N. Adarsh, Department of Civil Engineering.
You can read this study via this link: http://home.iitk.ac.in/~vinaykg/Iset397.pdf
Question: Is Tamil Nadu at risk of an earthquake?
Answer: As per NIDM (National Institute of Disaster Management) Tamil Nadu falls in the moderate risk zone i.e zone 3. Some other states like Maharashtra and Bihar also fall in zone 3 which have seen some huge earthquakes in the past. These are natural calamities and one can take precautions but can't predict mother nature's response.
© 2011 Aarav
Y on May 26, 2020:
Akanksh kthagattu on October 13, 2019:
very good , my project was almost completed, almost not completed also
ARMAAN PREET SINGH on May 25, 2019:
Truly goos .Iget many information from it
yashasvi on May 20, 2019:
it was very helful and it is enough for my project...
KAREENA SAWANT on April 30, 2019:
VERY USEFUL KNOWLEDGE
T.B.Suryanarayana on April 04, 2019:
Information is most useful to knowing people.
mehreen on January 22, 2019:
can u please say can any earthquake occur in Hyderabad
Aarav (author) from Mumbai on September 29, 2018:
@Alli I have already answered this question in the q and a section above.
Alli on September 29, 2018:
What were the depths of earthquakes and loss/damages caused due to it plz tell sir
anil on July 27, 2018:
nice information its enough for my project
Bipasha halder on June 29, 2018:
Nice information but i think not satisfied for me i wanted more but it 's ok welldone
Manjot Aujla on June 18, 2018:
SACHIN tendulkar on April 05, 2018:
Anisha on January 04, 2018:
It's really helpful information for projects...thnx
KM on November 23, 2017:
ashish kumar on November 15, 2017:
I can see what problem they suffered
Shaily on October 04, 2017:
It is good but not in deep detail
ARNAB on August 26, 2017:
I CAN FEEL WHAT PAIN THEY SUFFERED .
Mia on September 05, 2016:
Very good informative text but can be given a little more information
hj on May 01, 2016:
Aarav (author) from Mumbai on February 19, 2016:
@Khalid Thanks for the comment, sorry to hear about the situation that you were in.
Be brave, healthy, and cheerful.
Khalid on February 18, 2016:
Kannan, your research is indeed thorough. After reading the full article, tears rolled down my eyes. Though the pain and suffering of the victims can not be shared or eradicated but as I have experienced the similar shocks after shocks during the Nepal Earthquake which affected many parts of Northern India. It's indeed terrible. Thank you for your blogs on interesting topics.
akanksha mangotra on June 21, 2015:
they should migrate up to the time of recoverment and we should give them food and shelter
nishi on May 20, 2015:
Good and giving nice information
Lilly on May 31, 2013:
and informative but still better could be done
Deep on July 08, 2012:
indrajeetnarainsingh on April 15, 2012:
It was good but there should be high level theme basedon research orientation work.