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Biology for Kids: Cells, Organisms, and the Diversity of Life

Updated on December 18, 2016
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Amanda is a retired educator with many years of experience teaching children of all ages and abilities in a wide range of contexts.

Life on Earth

Biology is the study of the evolution, diversity and functions of life on Earth.
Biology is the study of the evolution, diversity and functions of life on Earth. | Source

What is Biology?

Biology is the science of life. Biology is the study of living things.

We usually take it for granted that we can tell the difference between something that is alive and something that is not alive; between organic and inorganic things.

But scientists don't take anything for granted. We ask questions. We don't just want to guess. Scientists like to figure things out.

So, what is "life"? How does it "work"? What factors do living things have in common? What are their differences? These are all great questions that Biology, the science of the study of life, sets out to try to answer.

What is Biology?

What You'll Learn About Biology on This Page

By the time you've completed studying this page, you should be able to do the following things:

Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution and the Scientific Developments That Followed from It Explain All Biology

Since Darwin first explained his theory of evolution by natural selection in the nineteenth century, an overwhelming amount of evidence has been accumulated,  from palaeontology to genetics, to support it.
Since Darwin first explained his theory of evolution by natural selection in the nineteenth century, an overwhelming amount of evidence has been accumulated, from palaeontology to genetics, to support it. | Source
  • understand and describe the fundamental characteristics of living things
  • locate, describe and explain the functions of structures within the cell, such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplast and vacuole
  • describe the characteristics that both animal and plant cells have in common and the differences between these cell types
  • describe the characteristic features of plants, animals, fungi, protoctists, bacteria and viruses
  • understand the word pathogen and give a simple explanation of what it means

So that you can easily check your understanding, there's a fun quiz to do at the end. All the answers can be found on this page and you'll get your score straight-away.

Ready to get started? Great! First let's agree a definition of what we mean when we say that something is 'alive'.

The Characteristics of Living Things

One of the first things we notice when we stop to observe the differences between the things we understand to be alive and other things that aren't, is that living things do stuff.

Rocks, dirt, puddles of water, don't do much. But birds fly, rabbits run, trees grow, people watch TV. You get the idea.

So, most scientists agree that living things are defined by what they do. In order to be thought of as alive, a thing must do most of the following things:

  • Eat. All living things need to consume raw materials (food, sunlight, water) to get the energy and chemicals they require to function. Biologists call this nutrition.

Eating Is Fun and Sociable. It Is Also Essential for Life.

One of the things that defines living things, is that they require nutrition in order to gain the energy needed to do stuff. Have a nice lunch!
One of the things that defines living things, is that they require nutrition in order to gain the energy needed to do stuff. Have a nice lunch! | Source
  • Respire. Respiration is the process that breaks up big, carbon-rich molecules to release energy.

Sometimes, people get confused about the difference between breathing and respiration. Breathing is a mechanical action of the muscles and lungs, that sucks oxygen containing air into your body. Respiration is the chemical action within the cell that uses the oxygen to make energy.

Even Holding Your Breath Underwater, Respiration Continues to Happen!

Sometimes people confuse breathing and respiration. This diver is holding his breath. He has voluntarily stopped breathing. But his cells continue to respire to create the energy he needs to swim.
Sometimes people confuse breathing and respiration. This diver is holding his breath. He has voluntarily stopped breathing. But his cells continue to respire to create the energy he needs to swim. | Source
  • Poop. Well, more technically, they excrete. The processes of nutrition and respiration produce waste material that needs to be gotten rid of. That's excretion to a biologist. Poop to anyone else.

Animal Poop. All Living Things Excrete Waste Matter.

Food in one end and poop out the other. That's the way it works. Have you ever wondered what happens to all the poop that animals do? That's a good question for a biologist to ask!
Food in one end and poop out the other. That's the way it works. Have you ever wondered what happens to all the poop that animals do? That's a good question for a biologist to ask! | Source
  • Respond to stimuli. If you tickle a stone, it can't respond. Tickle me, and I'll scream! More seriously, however, the ability to respond to environmental stimuli - whether that's a group of monkeys taking to the trees when one of them sounds an alarm or a leaf turning towards the sun - is a hallmark of living things.

Responding to Stimuli Is Vital for Life...and Sport

When the pitcher pitches the ball, you sure better respond to the stimulus. If you don't, not only will you never make base but you could well end up in hospital with a mighty bump on your head!
When the pitcher pitches the ball, you sure better respond to the stimulus. If you don't, not only will you never make base but you could well end up in hospital with a mighty bump on your head! | Source
  • Move. Living things can move. Birds can fly, mammals can run, dig, jump and so on. Plants can bend, unfurl petals, or extend climbing tendrils. Stones just sit there unless something else moves them.

Sometimes Super Fast, Sometimes Almost Imperceptibly Slowly, but Living Things Are Always on the Move

Self-motivated movement is another of the key characteristics of life. This cheetah has evolved to reach speeds of up to 60 miles per hour in order to catch its prey.
Self-motivated movement is another of the key characteristics of life. This cheetah has evolved to reach speeds of up to 60 miles per hour in order to catch its prey. | Source
  • Internal control. So, living things can regulate the conditions within their bodies - to maintain an optimum temperature, for example, or fight off disease.

A Polar Bear and Her Cub Rest on the Arctic Ice. Internal Regulation Is Part of the Biology of Survival for Animals like These.

The ability to regulate, at least to some degree, the internal environment of its body, is one of the characteristics of a living thing.
The ability to regulate, at least to some degree, the internal environment of its body, is one of the characteristics of a living thing. | Source
  • Reproduce. Possibly the most important thing that only living things do, is reproduce. Some organisms do that by simply splitting in two, others have sex (I can hear you guys giggling at the back) and produce young. Rocks don't do that.

Ladybugs Mating. A Common Reproductive Strategy in the Animal Kingdom.

Sexual reproduction involves the transfer of spermatozoa from the male to the ovum of the female. Many living things reproduce without sex, by cellular division. But however they do it, the ability to reproduce is necessary to the definition of life.
Sexual reproduction involves the transfer of spermatozoa from the male to the ovum of the female. Many living things reproduce without sex, by cellular division. But however they do it, the ability to reproduce is necessary to the definition of life. | Source
  • Grow. You were once a drooling, gurgling little baby. Now, you're grown up some. Plant a seed, give it time, and it'll grow into a plant. Growth and development are the final factors that define living things.

The Metamorphosis of a Tadpole into a Frog Is Just One Example of the Life Cycle. Growth Is an Essential Characteristic of Life.

Growth is a key characteristic that defines a living thing. Seeds grow into plants, tadpoles into frogs, caterpillars into butterflies, babies into adults.
Growth is a key characteristic that defines a living thing. Seeds grow into plants, tadpoles into frogs, caterpillars into butterflies, babies into adults. | Source

It should be clear now that all these characteristics of life things are things that animals, plants and other living things do. They do them in order to stay alive and to reproduce.

One of the most extraordinary facts about living things is that, despite incredible diversity (think of the differences between an insect and an elephant) we are all built from the same basic building blocks.

These building blocks are called cells. But what is a cell? How do they work? Are there different kinds? Let's find out...

All Living Things Are Made of Cells. Cells Are the Building Blocks of Living Things.

From a single-celled Amoeba such as these - so small they can only be seen under a microscope - to an Elephant whose body is made of thousands of trillions of cells, the cell is the fundamental building block of living organisms.
From a single-celled Amoeba such as these - so small they can only be seen under a microscope - to an Elephant whose body is made of thousands of trillions of cells, the cell is the fundamental building block of living organisms. | Source

Cells, Organisms and Diversity

Cells are small. So small that, in most cases, you can't see them without a microscope. But with a microscope, you can.

Microscopes weren't invented until the seventeenth century, so before that we didn't know about cells. A guy called Robert Hooke, who was looking at things through an early microscope, was the first to recognise that all the living things he looked at seemed to be made up of tiny compartments joined together. He called them cells because he thought they looked like the little rooms monks live in (which are also called cells).

Cells Are so Small That They Can Only Be Seen under a Microscope.

A light microscope, such as this one in a modern laboratory, can be used to see individual cells in living organisms.
A light microscope, such as this one in a modern laboratory, can be used to see individual cells in living organisms. | Source

It wasn't until the nineteen-thirties and the invention of the electron microscope that we discovered that cells were really complicated inside, too, with loads of moving parts that made them work. Those parts inside a cell are called organelles and they are seriously, mind-bogglingly, small.

A Transmission Electron Microscope Enables Us to See the Components Within Cells.

A transmission electron microscope is a powerful instrument that beams electrons through the sample. It enables us to see the tiny components, organelles and other features at work within the cell.
A transmission electron microscope is a powerful instrument that beams electrons through the sample. It enables us to see the tiny components, organelles and other features at work within the cell. | Source

Thanks to all this microscopy (looking at things through microscopes) we now know that animal and plant cells are different and that there are many different kinds of cells that do different things and that the kind of cells a thing is made of determine what kind of thing it is.

And now you know why biologists all have squinty eyes and wear thick glasses. Except they don't. I'm just kidding. You can be a biologist and still have good eyesight. Really.

What is a Cell? Take a Tour Inside One to Find Out!

Animal Cells

As we are animals, let's start with taking a look at animal cells.

Animal cells - the cells that you are made of - have many components. For now, we'll just concentrate on a few of these. These are the ones that are most important for the life and function of the cell.

We'll look at the nucleus, the cyctoplasm, the cell membrane and the mitochondria.

But as a picture speaks a thousand words, take a look at this diagram of a typical animal cell and see if you can find these parts of a cell in amongst all the others.

Diagram of an Animal Cell Showing all the Major Components and Organelles

This schematic diagram shows a generic animal cell and the organelles, including the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, ribosomes, lysosomes, centrioles and mitochondria.
This schematic diagram shows a generic animal cell and the organelles, including the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, ribosomes, lysosomes, centrioles and mitochondria. | Source

The Nucleus of an Animal Cell: Where it Is and What it Does

The nucleus, in an animal cell, is usually found somewhere around the middle, or just off to one side.

Photograph of a Cell Nucleus Seen Through A Microscope

In this photograph of an animal cell nucleus taken through a microscope at high magnification, the very dark area is the part of the nucleus (called the nucleolus) where the DNA is stored.
In this photograph of an animal cell nucleus taken through a microscope at high magnification, the very dark area is the part of the nucleus (called the nucleolus) where the DNA is stored. | Source

It's quite a large organelle and frequently fairly spherical in shape (so it will usually appear round on a two dimensional diagram such as the one above).

It does lots of things, but the two most important are:

  • the nucleus controls everything else that happens inside the cell. It is often referred to as 'the brain' of the cell.
  • It is also where the chemically coded information (the DNA) is stored and copied to make new cells.

Because the nucleus is so big, it is usually the easiest component of a cell to see under a microscope.

Cytoplasm: Where Metabolism Takes Place.

The nucleus sits within a jello-like substance called cytoplasm. This stuff fills up the rest of the cell and includes all the other organelles. It helps give the cell its structure and it's also the place where most of the chemical reactions that sustain life (which, lumped all together, we call metabolism) take place.

A Variety of Organelles in the Cytoplasm of a Cell.

The cytoplasm is the substance within the cell membrane, which holds all the organelles and in which the processes of metabolism take place.
The cytoplasm is the substance within the cell membrane, which holds all the organelles and in which the processes of metabolism take place. | Source

The Cell Membrane Separates the inside of the Cell from the Environement and Regulates What Goes in and What Comes Out.

The cell is kept together by a surrounding cell membrane, sometime also referred to as the plasma membrane.

The cell membrane is made of fats (called lipids) and proteins.

The cell membrane protects the inside of the cell from the outside world - much as your skin protects the inside of your body from the environment around you. Like skin, the cell membrane is also a selectively permeable membrane. All that means is that only certain substances can cross the membrane - usually useful things like nutrients, oxygen and water, go in, and nasty things like poisons and waste materials go out.

In this way, the cell membrane helps to keep the internal composition of the cell in a constant, healthy state.

The Mighty Mitochondria: The Powerhouses of the Cell.

The organelles known as mitochondria (or mitochondrion if you're talking about just one) are very important to the maintenance of life.

They are small, sausage-shaped organelles. Do you remember what respiration is? respiration is the chemical process that releases energy, allowing the cell to do its work. Well, it is right here in the mitochondrion that respiration takes place.

That's why we often refer to the mitochondria as the power stations, or powerhouses of the cell.

TEM (Transmission Electron Micrograph) of a Mitochondrion.

This is what a mitochondrion looks like seen by an electron microscope. The little compartments inside are called lumen and it's in there that respiration occurs.
This is what a mitochondrion looks like seen by an electron microscope. The little compartments inside are called lumen and it's in there that respiration occurs. | Source

Plant Cells

It may be surprising to you to find out that plant cells are more complicated structures than animal cells.

We've looked at four fundamental cellular structures that typify animal cells. Plants have all of those structures and another three as well.

Simplified Diagram of a Plant Cell

This simplified diagram of a plant cell shows clearly the rigid cell wall around the membrane, the large central vacuole and the green chloroplasts in the cytoplasm.
This simplified diagram of a plant cell shows clearly the rigid cell wall around the membrane, the large central vacuole and the green chloroplasts in the cytoplasm. | Source

The Additional Structures in a Plant Cell

The additional structures in a plant cell are:

  • The Cell Wall is a tough, fairly rigid structure made of cellulose that forms a layer outside the cell membrane. It helps to maintain the plant cell's shape and structure and stips it from bursting under pressure.
  • The Central Vacuole is a membrane bound structure that in mature plant cells can be very large, taking up almost all of the space inside the cell. It is filled with cell sap and is the area where the cell's nutrients and other soluble substances are stored.
  • The Chloroplasts are the most distinctive and important elements of a plant cell. They are green, are found in the cytoplasm and are the cell structures which absorb sunlight to be used in the process of photosynthesis. Plant parts which are not green - such as bark, petals and so on, have cells that don't contain chloroplasts.

The cell wall in plants means that they are more rigid structures than most animal cells. They tend to maintain their shape.

This adaptation is possible because plants do not need to move around their environment in the same way as animals. The presence of chloroplasts and the ability to photsynthesize also means that most plants (there are some exceptions, such as fly-traps) don't need to eat. They can produce all the energy they need for life from sunlight, air and soluble nutrients drawn from the soil.

The Cell Song!

Cells, Tissues, organs and Systems in Living Things

So we've looked at cells and you should now have a pretty good idea of the basic structures and functions of animal and plant cells - the building blocks of living things. But the story doesn't end there. These building blocks are pout together by nature to make tissues, organs and systems at increasing levels of complexity.

The cells in living things aren't just thrown together randomly. They have evolved in arrangements known as levels of organisation. Let's take a look at these levels of organisation now:

  • Tissues are groups of similar or identical cells which combine to carry out a specialized function. For example, your muscles are all made up of specialized muscle cells which have the particular property of being able to contract.
  • Organs are groups of different kinds of tissues which are combined to work together to carry out specific physiological work. For example, your heart is made up of several kinds of muscle, valve and interconnecting tissues which cooperate to create the organ that pumps the blood around your body.
  • Systems combine groups of organs together to perform wider functions within an organism. For example, the heart, the blood itself and the blood vessels are all organs which, combined together, make up your circulatory system.

What other tissues, organs and systems can you think of that might be part of a living organism such as an animal or plant?

Biodiversity On Earth

Biodiversity: the Variety of Living Organisms

So far, biologists have identified and classified over ten million different species of living things on Earth - and there are almost certainly many millions more as yet undiscovered.

But how do we classify all these different living things?

Categories of Organisms

Because it is so complicated, biologists divide living things up into categories of increasing detail. The first and broadest set of categories after 'Living Things' are known as the Kingdoms.

There are six Kingdoms:

  • Animals
  • Plants
  • Fungi
  • Protoctists
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses

Not everyone agrees that viruses are properly alive, but until a final decision is made, they are still classified as 'organisms'.

Putting organisms together in groups is known as classification and the biologists who study classification are called taxonomists.

The groups are classified according to:

  • the kinds of cells they have
  • the way they obtain nutrition (the way they eat)

Evolution: the Process that Explains Biodiversity

Animals

Animals are multicellular organisms. They are made up of lots of different cells. Their cells can change shape and perform different functions within a tissue. They can move from one place to another. They are frequently controlled by a nervous system.

They feed on other organisms to obtain their nutrition and are able to store energy as fat.

Animals can be further divided into:

  • vertebrates
  • invertebrates

The vertebrates have backbones. The invertebrates don't. Whether they are invertebrates (such as insects, crabs, worms and so on) or vertebrates (such as lizards, snakes, rats, birds and humans) they are all classified as animals.

Variety of Animal Life

Animal life has evolved an enormous array of different forms.
Animal life has evolved an enormous array of different forms. | Source

Plants

Just like the animals, plants are multicellular organisms.

We've already seen that plant and animal cells have many similarities. They also have many differences. So, plant cells are surrounded by a tough cell wall which is composed of a substance called cellulose. This makes plant cells inflexible and they are not able to move.

Plants are the only biological group that (with a couple of exceptions) don't gain nutrition by eating other organisms. Plants use a process called photosynthesis to make food from light energy and mineral nutrients.

Animals store energy as glycogen. Plants store energy as starch and sugar.

In a similar way to the animals, plants can be divided into subgroups. The main sub groups are the flowering plants and the non-flowering plants.

Variety of Plant Life

Plants have evolved a stunning array of different forms.
Plants have evolved a stunning array of different forms. | Source

Fungi

People are often surprised to discover that fungi are not plants.

In fact, the fungi share many characteristics in common with both plants and animals. All living things have common elements because they all evolved from common ancestors.

A few of the fungi are very simple organisms. They have only one cell and are said to be unicellular. Most are more complex and are built up from long filaments called hyphae which mesh together to create a mycelium network.

Hyphae is the plural of hypha. A single hypha has more than one nucleus unlike other cells which only have one. Like plants, they also have cells walls but unlike plants these are made of a substance called chitin - the same stuff that insect skeletons are made of!

Fungi don't photosynthesize. They grow on their food as they are unable to move about like animals. By extracellular secretion, they give out enzymes which break the food down before it is absorbed. This process is known as saprophytic nutrition.

Moulds, mushrooms, toadstools and yeast are all different kinds of fungi.

Variety of Fungal Life

Fungi have evolved astonishing variety of forms.
Fungi have evolved astonishing variety of forms. | Source

Protoctists

The category protoctists include single-celled animals and plants.

  • protozoa are single-celled animals
  • algae are single-celled plants

Most protoctists need a watery environment to thrive and can be found in the soil, rivers, lakes, ponds and even blood, saliva and urine.

A Protozoan

A typical protozoan of a kind commonly found in pond water and seen through a light microscope.
A typical protozoan of a kind commonly found in pond water and seen through a light microscope. | Source

Bacteria

Bacteria are single-celled organisms that are not animals, plants or fungi. They are much smaller than the other living things. Most bacteria a one thousand times smaller than a human cell. They also have some special features of their own:

  • They do not have a nucleus. their DNA is wound into a single chromosome and circular plasmids which float freely inside the cell.
  • They have no other organelles.
  • They have an especially rigid cell wall outside the membrane which is made of a complex sugar and protein mixture called mucopolysaccharide.
  • Outside the cell wall, bacteria also have a layer of gooey slime known as the capsule.
  • Many bacteria can move and the most common way is by flicking a long flagellum which is a bit like a tail extending from the cell wall.

Some bacteria can photosynthesize but most eat other organisms. When they eat things that are already dead, this is known as decomposition. When they eat things that are still alive this is often a form of disease and is known as bacterial pathogenesis.

Bacteria

A photomicrograph of bacteria. The bacteria have been dyed purple to make them easier to see.
A photomicrograph of bacteria. The bacteria have been dyed purple to make them easier to see. | Source

Viruses

Viruses are very strange. Many biologists do not categorize them as living things, while others do.

They don't even have cells. They are even smaller than bacteria and made of some DNA wrapped in a coating of proteins.

Viruses do not show the signs commonly associated with life, but they can 'come to life' once they invade another organism's cells and take it over by introducing their own DNA. If they do that, the cell then stops functioning normally and starts to build more viruses.

For this reason, viruses, whether truly alive or not, are known as intracellular parasites.

Viruses can be extremely dangerous and threaten living things with serious disease and death.

Influenza Virus

An influenza virus, a common cause of illness in humans.
An influenza virus, a common cause of illness in humans. | Source

What are Pathogens?

Pathogens are any microorganisms which cause illness and disease. Pathogen is the scientific term for what we commonly call 'germs.'

Pathogens can be either viruses, bacteria, protoctists or fungi.

However, many of these types of organism are not pathogenic and can even be beneficial to other organisms.

Further Help & Information:

The 100+ Series Biology
The 100+ Series Biology

Wonderful, well-organized, easy-to-understand biology text covering everything you need for High School with a nice layout, good visuals and graded worksheets so you can keep track of your progress.

Not just a book, this is an excellent learning tool that will encourage and support any student keen to do well.

 

Keywords

  • Organism
  • Respire
  • Respond
  • Grow
  • Cell
  • Nucleus
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell wall
  • Vacuole
  • Organ
  • Species
  • Classification
  • Animal
  • Protoctist
  • Viruses
  • Unicellular
  • Saprophytic
  • Nutrition
  • Excrete
  • Reproduce
  • Develop
  • Organelle
  • Cell membrane
  • Mitochondrian
  • Chloroplast
  • Tissue
  • System
  • Kingdom
  • Plant
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Multicellular
  • Parasitic
  • Pathoigen

A Last Word

I hope that you've enjoyed this overview of biological life, looking at cells, organisms, evolution and the astonishing variety of living things.

Biology is a fascinating science because it explores the most important questions about ourselves, what we are, how we evolved and what it means to be alive. It also opens the doorway of understanding on the wide world of other living things and shows the intimate and awesome ways that all life is connected together in a vast biological web,

If you have any questions or comments, please don't be shy! There's a comments box at the end of the page and I do reply to all comments made.

© 2015 Amanda Littlejohn

Questions and comments are welcome!

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    • CorneliaMladenova profile image

      Korneliya Yonkova 2 years ago from Cork, Ireland

      Very useful and informative article. I bookmarked it because my little daughter really need this :)

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi CorneliaMladenova !

      Thank you so much for your comment. I hope above all else that the article is useful to you and your daughter.

      :)

    • pstraubie48 profile image

      Patricia Scott 2 years ago from sunny Florida

      This would be a great reference for kids to use since you have included so much pertinent information here.

      Botany and biology have been among my favorite areas of interest all of my life as my Momma got me interested . She used to take me on field trips around the area to see critters in their natural habitat not to mention all of the knowledge she shared about plants.

      Great hub Voted up++++ and shared Pinned to Awesome HubPages

      Angels are on the way to you this morning ps

    • Shane Ilagan profile image

      Shane M. Ilagan 2 years ago from Philippines

      This is so excellent article about Science! Wow, I am speechless. I recommend this to my friends.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi pstraubie48!

      So nice to see you again! Thank you so much for your very enthusiastic comments about this biology for kids article. Your Momma sounds like she was one switched on lady. I think it is so important to start early with kids by getting them out there into the natural environment (and your own backyard or the local park or recreation ground is as good a place as any) to discover the wonders of the often overlooked wildlife that there is to be seen if you just watch and listen, or turn over a stone. Sounds like your Momma knew that. :)

      This article is aimed at High School level learners, though, I guess.

      Thanks again (and for the angels - I can't believe in them literally, but I do appreciate the good intention).

      Bless you :)

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Shane!

      Thanks for your comment - glad you enjoyed it and thanks for sharing it, too.

      :)

    • erorantes profile image

      Ana Maria Orantes 2 years ago from Miami Florida

      I like your hub. It is good to learn things at the right age. You did an excellent job. Your hub makes it easier to learn the biology subjects. It shows a lot of work. I like the pictures. Thank you for haring your knowledge. You did a marvelous job.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi erorantes!

      Thanks so much for your kind comment. I hope that this page is useful to both students and teachers in explaining fundamental aspects of cell biology, organisms and biodiversity.

      Bless you :)

    • erorantes profile image

      Ana Maria Orantes 2 years ago from Miami Florida

      I am sure. Teachers and students will love your article. Some teachers are always looking for extra assignments and farther studies for their students. I like the way you made your hub with pictures and understand.

      You are bless too. Thank you.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 2 years ago from USA

      Great information with vivid photos and I love that you included a quiz, too. I see it as a wonderful classroom resource particularly. Fun fact: I recently learned that Darwin married his cousin, which I find so strange given his expertise.

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 2 years ago

      Hi Shelley!

      Thank you for your kind comments. yes, my hope is that this will prove useful to students and teachers alike.

      About Emma Darwin: yes, she was his first cousin, too. However, such marriages amongst the upper classes in Britain were not uncommon at the time. And in any case, despite their ever-diverging views on religion (she was a devout Unitarian) they maintained a happy and satisfying marriage by all accounts.

      Thanks again for your comment! :)

    • sujaya venkatesh profile image

      sujaya venkatesh 19 months ago

      very resourceful

    • stuff4kids profile image
      Author

      Amanda Littlejohn 19 months ago

      Thank you, sujaya venkatesh!

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