Skip to main content

Coelacanth Fish Tops List of Prehistoric Animals Found Alive

  • Author:
  • Updated date:

With interests in science and nature, the author explores topics from a unique and sometimes controversial perspective.

The Coelacanth is a prime example of the Lazarus Taxon, a prehistoric animal that disappears from the fossil record and is then found alive.

The Coelacanth is a prime example of the Lazarus Taxon, a prehistoric animal that disappears from the fossil record and is then found alive.

The Prehistoric Coelacanth

The Coelacanth is an ancient fish and the kind of creature science refers to as a Living Fossil. It’s also an example of something called the Lazarus Taxon. This is when a plant or animal seems to have vanished from the Earth, only to turn up again alive and well.

The Coelacanth swam at the time of the dinosaurs and was thought to have gone extinct along with them, about 65 million years ago.

For a while, the reputation of the Coelacanth was debated both by researchers who accepted it as an extant organism and skeptics who did not believe the creature still existed. Despite local legends and stories from fishers, until a few decades ago, there still wasn’t enough proof to convince mainstream science that the fish was still alive. Of course, today, we know these Living Fossils exist, and there are plenty of pictures and even some videos.

The discovery of a living Coelacanth was important to the fields of paleontology and marine biology, as well as the field of cryptozoology. Cryptozoology is the study of animals not yet proven to exist by science.

Other examples of known animals once considered legends include the Giant Squid and Mountain Gorilla. There are also those that will remain legends until more evidence surfaces to prove they are real, like Sasquatch or the Megalodon Shark. So, does the story of the Coelacanth make a strong enough case that there are still large, unknown animals out there to be discovered?

Discovery of a Living Fossil

Fishers along the coast of South Africa had been catching the occasional Coelacanth for years. Known to them as the Gombessa, it has no value as food and is seen as bycatch rather than something they intentionally fish. But back in 1938, when a museum official happened upon a recently caught specimen brought in by a South African fishing trawler, the fossil fish came back to life.

The original discovery was not without controversy. Because the specimen was not properly preserved, many academics dismissed the findings, claiming a case of mistaken identity. It took until 1952 for the next specimen to surface before modern science fully embraced the idea that this fish was still around. Another species of Coelacanth was discovered in 1998, this time in the waters of Indonesia.

There are presently two species of extant Coelacanth, the West Indian and Indonesian, although some researchers speculate there could be more to be found. For now, it’s considered an endangered species, with an estimated thousand or so wild specimens out there.

It was called a Living Fossil because its present-day form appears unchanged from the specimens in the fossil record. Researchers have discovered that’s not exactly true, and there are a few evolutionary divergences of note. Furthermore, while the West Indian and Indonesian species appear nearly identical, there are genetic differences.

The Coelacanth prefers deep, dark, cold water, which partly explains why we know so little about it. It remains in caves in the daytime but comes out at night to feed. They are lobe-finned fishes related to the Lungfish.

All in all, except for the part where it appeared to be extinct for millions of years and then turned up again, this sounds like a pretty boring fish. So why should we care?

Why the Coelacanth Is Important

The fish was an important find for a few reasons. The Coelacanth is a very primitive species, and many researchers believe it is closely related to Tetrapods. Who are Tetrapods? Well, we are, for one.

Tetrapods are the earliest four-limbed vertebrates and those species that came after. That includes mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Tetrapods evolved from primitive lobed-finned fishes, and some say the Coelacanth is actually more closely related to mammals than most other modern fish.

So, this isn’t just some weird fish someone found, but in fact an interesting piece of the Earth’s evolutionary puzzle. Somewhere back in time, the first Tetrapods crawled, flopped, or squirmed onto land, and everything we see today above the waves evolved from that day forward. The Coelacanth can help researchers to understand more about how that happened.

Scroll to Continue

Read More From Owlcation

The discovery of this Fossil Fish has allowed biologists to look back some 400 million years to the time when only the oceans held life. But there’s another reason the Coelacanth is important, and this one is not as widely embraced by mainstream science. The Living Fossil, raised from the dead like Lazarus, is a strong indicator that it’s still possible to discover amazing animals on this planet.

The Coelacanth is a cryptozoologist’s best friend.

Swimming With the Coelacanth

The Living Fossil and Cryptozoology

Most of the creatures studied by cryptozoologists are tethered to real science in some logical way. These aren’t fantastic creatures out of fairy tales; they are animals that may exist but simply haven’t been officially discovered yet. For example, one theory about Sasquatch says it is an advanced species of ape, and it’s sometimes even referred to as the North American Great Ape.

Of course, skeptics dismiss the field of cryptozoology as pseudoscience and refute any claims of bipedal apes or monster sharks. But, with a little help from the Coelacanth, even the most resolute of nonbelievers have to admit it’s possible there are large creatures out there still to be discovered, and even possible there are creatures we believe extinct which may still exist.

The facts are: the Coelacanth is a big fish that grows to over six feet and can weigh 200 pounds. They live in groups, so where there is one, there are several. Locals knew about them and even had a name for them. Even when the first specimen was found, many researchers were dubious that a fish extinct for 65 million years could still be around. Their total population is very small, and they live a long time.

This story sounds an awful lot like the saga of many other cryptids believed to be out there, tromping around in remote areas and unrecognized by science. In the case of the Coelacanth, the depth where it dwells is probably why it remained hidden for so long. People just didn’t go down there. But couldn’t the same be true for other large, presumably extinct sea creatures such as the megalodon shark?

The Legacy of the Coelacanth

“Consider the Coelacanth!” has become the battle cry of cryptozoologists under duress from ardent skeptics. If this beast has surfaced only recently, there’s no telling what kinds of amazing creatures might be lurking just out of the sight of mainstream biology. The Living Fossil offers hope that our world still has more to offer and that there are yet wonders to discover. There is still much to explore in the dark jungles, foreboding forests, and deep oceans.

Of course, skeptics point out that nobody was looking for the Coelacanth when it came back to life. On the other hand, all manner of expedition has gone out searching for Sasquatch, but nobody has found definitive proof Bigfoot is real. It’s hard to find fault with those who refuse to believe until they see the evidence. Provable fact is, after all, the backbone of real science.

Theoretical implications aside, the Coelacanth gives us a view of our planet’s past and some insight into how we came to be. The amazing process of evolution, from ocean to land, runs through this strange fish. With so few left in the wild, conservation efforts are underway to protect the Living Fossil and to find other populations scattered around the world.

After 65 million years, it would be a shame to see the Coelacanth go extinct...yet again.

References and Further Reading

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.


Chickennugget on October 27, 2017:

It was a AMAZING fish!

MJ Martin aka Ruby H Rose from Washington State on January 22, 2015:

We will never know all that is out there. Our seas are so deep and constantly changing. What a fascinating find about such a huge fish. Intrigued!

Audrey Howitt from California on January 21, 2015:

Fascinating creature!!

Anthony Altorenna from Connecticut on January 14, 2015:

The coelacanth is a great example of a scientific 'find' that was thought to be extinct. It makes me wonder how many other undiscovered and prehistoric creatures are still out there, waiting to be found.

cryptid (author) from USA on January 14, 2015:

Thanks everyone. I appreciate all the nice comments, and I'm happy so many people liked the Hub!

Chad Young from Corona, CA on January 13, 2015:

This is very interesting. Somewhere I read that scientist are finding over 200 new species each year. I'm not sure how accurate that is but this was definitely a great hub.

MJ Martin aka Ruby H Rose from Washington State on January 13, 2015:

Our oceans are so filled with many wonderful mysteries. I had never heard of this creature before. Great information on it, I am inspired. Congrats on HOTD, gonna share it.

Bill De Giulio from Massachusetts on January 13, 2015:

Fascinating. Never heard of the Coelacanth Fish. What an interesting hub. Congrats on the HOTD.

Richard de Mey from Scottsdale, Arizona on January 13, 2015:

Great hub very interesting indeed!

Paula from The Midwest, USA on January 13, 2015:

Wow, thank you for this fascinating hub about the "no longer extinct" coelacanth! I think its wonderful they found it again. It does make one rethink some of the other animals that we are so sure are completely extinct. Thank you for sharing this information and the images too, good stuff!

Elsie Hagley from New Zealand on January 13, 2015:

Very interesting article. I have never heard of the word Cryptozoology and if I had I would never have connected it with the study of animals not yet proven to exist by science.

That's a strange thought you never know what you come up with in your dreams, better not to think about it.

Congratulations for the HOTD.

Michael Higgins from Michigan on January 13, 2015:

Very interesting read. It's amazing to think about how this fish had to adapt to its surroundings while other creatures could not. Congrats on HOTD! Voted up!

cryptid (author) from USA on January 13, 2015:

Thanks for the kind words everyone! Always a surprise when cryptid gets HOD!

Susie Lehto from Minnesota on January 13, 2015:

I get excited when I read about discoveries of living species that were thought to be extinct with the prehistoric wildlife.

Congratulations on HotD, and thank you for sharing this.

Heidi Thorne from Chicago Area on January 13, 2015:

Congrats on Hub of the Day! Very interesting and just waiting to see if there are any other living "dinosaurs" to discover. :)

John Hollywood from Hollywood, CA on January 13, 2015:

Loved this hub - very interesting and pulled you in!

Debra Allen from West By God on January 13, 2015:

Congrats to the HOTD!!! I love this stuff because it shows people who think that the earth is not very old and the fact that things do and can exist that once where thought prehistoric or dead. This, in my opinion, puts credence to such things as Loch Ness and other living beings that, again in my opinion, are still alive and that we just have not found them yet.

I am sharing!!!

Royce on January 13, 2015:

Interesting. I have never heard of The Prehistoric Coelacanth.

mySuccess8 on January 13, 2015:

Simply astonishing and unbelievable to know that there are fish species that survived 65 million years. Now we learn why the field of cryptozoology exists and why it is important for the study of life on this planet. Enjoyed reading this. Congrats on Hub of the Day!

Carrie Lee Night from Northeast United States on August 03, 2014:

Intrtesting ! :). I love your subject matter and how you keep us guessing. Thank you for sharing.

cryptid (author) from USA on December 08, 2013:

@Sheila: I agree about the other fish. Even land animals. There are likely more Lazarus creatures out there left to discover.

@Nell: It is interesting to think of the coelacanth as such a "missing link" kind of creature. Another point, I think, it that this should make us think twice about things like ecology, and the preservation of the rainforests for example. Because who knows what else is out there, and it'd be a shame to kill it off before it's rediscovered.

Nell Rose from England on December 06, 2013:

Hi, this was fascinating, I remember reading a bit about it a few years back and was surprised to think that after all this time it was still around, and so important for science, amazing stuff. And yes if this is still here what else is out there? great read! and voted up and shared, nell

sheilamyers on December 06, 2013:

When it comes to the oceans, I think there are probably many species of fish science has claimed have gone extinct yet they have only moved into deeper water. Even those which were shallow water fish at some point may have changed enough to allow them to survive at greater depths. If anyone believes the statement about the survival of the fittest, why not believe some species survived by adapting to a place where humans can't bother them?

Related Articles