Coelacanth Fish Tops List of Prehistoric Animals Found Alive

Updated on January 28, 2017
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With interests in science, nature, history and the paranormal, Luther explores topics from a unique and sometimes controversial perspective.

The Coelacanth is a prime example of the Lazarus Taxon, a prehistoric animal that disappears from the fossil record and is then found alive.
The Coelacanth is a prime example of the Lazarus Taxon, a prehistoric animal that disappears from the fossil record and is then found alive. | Source

The Prehistoric Coelacanth

The Coelacanth is an ancient fish, and the kind of creature science refers to as a Living Fossil. It’s also an example of something called the Lazarus Taxon. This is when a plant or animal seems to have vanished from the Earth, only to turn up again alive and well.

The Coelacanth swam at the time of the dinosaurs, and was thought to have gone extinct along with them, about 65 million years ago.

For a while, the reputation of the Coelacanth was debated by those researchers who accepted it as an extant organism, and skeptics who did not believe the creature still existed. Despite local legends and stories from fishermen, until a few decades ago there still wasn’t enough proof to convince mainstream science that the fish was still alive. Of course today we know these Living Fossils exist, and there are plenty of pictures and even some video.

The discovery of a living Coelacanth was important to the fields of paleontology and marine biology, but also to the field of cryptozoology. Cryptozoology is the study of animals not yet proven to exist by science.

There are other examples of known animals once thought to be legends, such as the Giant Squid and Mountain Gorilla. Then there are those that will remain legends until more evidence surfaces to prove they are real, like Sasquatch or the Megalodon Shark. So, does the story of the Coelacanth make a strong enough case that there are still large, unknown animals out there to be discovered?

Discovery of a Living Fossil

Fishermen along the coast of South Africa had been catching the occasional Coelacanth for years. Known to them as the Gombessa, it has no value as food and is seen as bycatch rather than something they intentionally fish for. But back in 1938, when a museum official happened upon a recently caught specimen brought in by a South African fishing trawler, the fossil fish came back to life.

The original discovery was not without controversy. Because the specimen was not properly preserved many academics dismissed the findings, claiming a case of mistaken identity. It took until 1952 for the next specimen to surface before modern science fully embraced the idea that this fish was still around. Another species of Coelacanth was discovered in 1998, this time in the waters of Indonesia.

There are presently two species of extant Coelacanth, the West Indian and Indonesian, although some researchers speculate there could be more to be found. For now, it’s considered an endangered species, with an estimated thousand or so wild specimens out there.

It was called a Living Fossil because its present-day form appears unchanged from the specimens in the fossil record. Researchers have discovered that’s not exactly true, and there are a few evolutionary divergences of note. Furthermore, while the West Indian and Indonesian species appear nearly identical, there are genetic differences.

The Coelacanth prefers deep, dark, cold water, which explains in part why we know so little about it. In the daytime it remains in caves, but come out at night to feed. They are lobe-finned fishes, related to the Lungfish.

All in all, except for the part where it appeared to be extinct for millions of years and then turned up again, this sounds like a pretty boring fish. So why should we care?

Why the Coelacanth is Important

The fish was an important find for a few reasons. The Coelacanth is a very primitive species, and many researchers believe it is closely related to Tetrapods. Who are Tetrapods? Well, we are, for one.

Tetrapods are the earliest four-limbed vertebrates and those species that came after. That includes mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. Tetrapods evolved from primitive lobed-finned fishes, and some say the Coelacanth is actually more closely related to mammals than it is to most other modern fish.

So, this isn’t just some weird fish someone found, but in fact an interesting piece of the Earth’s evolutionary puzzle. Somewhere back in time the first Tetrapods crawled, flopped or squirmed onto land, and everything we see today above the waves evolved from that day forward. The Coelacanth can help researchers to understand more about how that happened.

The discovery of this Fossil Fish has allowed biologists to look back some 400 million years, to the time when only the oceans held life. But there’s another reason the Coelacanth is important, and this one is not as widely embraced by mainstream science. The Living Fossil, raised from the dead like Lazarus, is a strong indicator that it’s still possible to discover amazing animals on this planet.

The Coelacanth is a cryptozoologist’s best friend.

Swimming with the Coelacanth

The Living Fossil and Cryptozoology

Most of the creatures studied by cryptozoologists are tethered to real science in some logical way. These aren’t fantastic creatures out of fairy tales; they are animals that may exist, but simply haven’t been officially discovered yet. For example, one theory about Sasquatch says it is an advanced species of ape, and it’s sometimes even referred to as the North American Great Ape.

Of course skeptics dismiss the field of cryptozoology as pseudoscience, and refute any claims of bipedal apes, or monster sharks. But, with a little help from the Coelacanth, even the most resolute of nonbelievers have to admit it’s possible there are large creatures out there still to be discovered, and even possible there are creatures we believe extinct which may still exist.

The facts are: the Coelacanth is a big fish that grows to over six foot and can weigh 200 pounds. They live in groups, so where there is one there are several. Locals knew about them, and even had a name for them. Even when the first specimen was found, many researchers were dubious that a fish extinct for 65 million years could still be around. They’re total population is very small, and they live a long time.

This story sounds an awfully lot like the saga of many other cryptids believed to be out there, tromping around in remote areas and unrecognized by science. In the case of the Coelacanth, the depth where it dwells is probably the main reason it remained hidden for so long. People just didn’t go down there. But couldn’t the same be true for Sasquatch in the unexplored forests of the Pacific Northwest, the prehistoric dinosaur Mokele Mbeme in the deep jungles of Africa, or the massive Megalodon Shark which has a vast ocean to hide in?

The Legacy of the Coelacanth

“Consider the Coelacanth!” has become the battle cry of cryptozoologists under duress from ardent skeptics. If this beast has surfaced only recently, there’s no telling what kinds of amazing creatures might be lurking just out of the sight of mainstream biology. The Living Fossil offers hope that our world still has more to offer, and that there are yet wonders to discover. In the dark jungles, foreboding forests and deep oceans there is still much to explore.

Of course, skeptics point out that nobody was looking for the Coelacanth when it came back to life. On the other hand, all kinds of expeditions have gone out in search of Sasquatch, but nobody has found definitive proof Bigfoot is real. It’s hard to find fault with those who refuse to believe until they see the evidence. Provable fact is, after all, the backbone of real science.

Theoretical implications aside, the Coelacanth gives us a view of our planet’s past, and some insight into how we came to be. The amazing process of evolution, from ocean to land, runs through this strange fish. With so few left in the wild, conservation efforts are underway to protect the Living Fossil and to find other populations scattered around the world.

After 65 million years it would be a shame to see the Coelacanth go extinct . . . yet again.

Living Fossil Poll

Does the Coelacanth really offer proof that there are likely still large animals out there to be discovered?

See results


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    • profile image


      23 months ago

      It was a AMAZING fish!

    • MJ Martin profile image

      MJ Martin aka Ruby H Rose 

      4 years ago from Washington State

      We will never know all that is out there. Our seas are so deep and constantly changing. What a fascinating find about such a huge fish. Intrigued!

    • AudreyHowitt profile image

      Audrey Howitt 

      4 years ago from California

      Fascinating creature!!

    • Anthony Altorenna profile image

      Anthony Altorenna 

      4 years ago from Connecticut

      The coelacanth is a great example of a scientific 'find' that was thought to be extinct. It makes me wonder how many other undiscovered and prehistoric creatures are still out there, waiting to be found.

    • cryptid profile imageAUTHOR

      Luther Urswick 

      4 years ago from USA

      Thanks everyone. I appreciate all the nice comments, and I'm happy so many people liked the Hub!

    • cyoung35 profile image

      Chad Young 

      4 years ago from Corona, CA

      This is very interesting. Somewhere I read that scientist are finding over 200 new species each year. I'm not sure how accurate that is but this was definitely a great hub.

    • MJ Martin profile image

      MJ Martin aka Ruby H Rose 

      4 years ago from Washington State

      Our oceans are so filled with many wonderful mysteries. I had never heard of this creature before. Great information on it, I am inspired. Congrats on HOTD, gonna share it.

    • bdegiulio profile image

      Bill De Giulio 

      4 years ago from Massachusetts

      Fascinating. Never heard of the Coelacanth Fish. What an interesting hub. Congrats on the HOTD.

    • Anthony Moreau profile image

      Richard de Mey 

      4 years ago from Scottsdale, Arizona

      Great hub very interesting indeed!

    • oceansnsunsets profile image


      4 years ago from The Midwest, USA

      Wow, thank you for this fascinating hub about the "no longer extinct" coelacanth! I think its wonderful they found it again. It does make one rethink some of the other animals that we are so sure are completely extinct. Thank you for sharing this information and the images too, good stuff!

    • Elsie Hagley profile image

      Elsie Hagley 

      4 years ago from New Zealand

      Very interesting article. I have never heard of the word Cryptozoology and if I had I would never have connected it with the study of animals not yet proven to exist by science.

      That's a strange thought you never know what you come up with in your dreams, better not to think about it.

      Congratulations for the HOTD.

    • MHiggins profile image

      Michael Higgins 

      4 years ago from Michigan

      Very interesting read. It's amazing to think about how this fish had to adapt to its surroundings while other creatures could not. Congrats on HOTD! Voted up!

    • cryptid profile imageAUTHOR

      Luther Urswick 

      4 years ago from USA

      Thanks for the kind words everyone! Always a surprise when cryptid gets HOD!

    • colorfulone profile image

      Susie Lehto 

      4 years ago from Minnesota

      I get excited when I read about discoveries of living species that were thought to be extinct with the prehistoric wildlife.

      Congratulations on HotD, and thank you for sharing this.

    • heidithorne profile image

      Heidi Thorne 

      4 years ago from Chicago Area

      Congrats on Hub of the Day! Very interesting and just waiting to see if there are any other living "dinosaurs" to discover. :)

    • misterhollywood profile image

      John Hollywood 

      4 years ago from Hollywood, CA

      Loved this hub - very interesting and pulled you in!

    • Lady Guinevere profile image

      Debra Allen 

      4 years ago from West By God

      Congrats to the HOTD!!! I love this stuff because it shows people who think that the earth is not very old and the fact that things do and can exist that once where thought prehistoric or dead. This, in my opinion, puts credence to such things as Loch Ness and other living beings that, again in my opinion, are still alive and that we just have not found them yet.

      I am sharing!!!

    • Royce S profile image


      4 years ago

      Interesting. I have never heard of The Prehistoric Coelacanth.

    • mySuccess8 profile image


      4 years ago

      Simply astonishing and unbelievable to know that there are fish species that survived 65 million years. Now we learn why the field of cryptozoology exists and why it is important for the study of life on this planet. Enjoyed reading this. Congrats on Hub of the Day!

    • carrie Lee Night profile image

      Carrie Lee Night 

      5 years ago from Northeast United States

      Intrtesting ! :). I love your subject matter and how you keep us guessing. Thank you for sharing.

    • cryptid profile imageAUTHOR

      Luther Urswick 

      5 years ago from USA

      @Sheila: I agree about the other fish. Even land animals. There are likely more Lazarus creatures out there left to discover.

      @Nell: It is interesting to think of the coelacanth as such a "missing link" kind of creature. Another point, I think, it that this should make us think twice about things like ecology, and the preservation of the rainforests for example. Because who knows what else is out there, and it'd be a shame to kill it off before it's rediscovered.

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 

      5 years ago from England

      Hi, this was fascinating, I remember reading a bit about it a few years back and was surprised to think that after all this time it was still around, and so important for science, amazing stuff. And yes if this is still here what else is out there? great read! and voted up and shared, nell

    • profile image


      5 years ago

      When it comes to the oceans, I think there are probably many species of fish science has claimed have gone extinct yet they have only moved into deeper water. Even those which were shallow water fish at some point may have changed enough to allow them to survive at greater depths. If anyone believes the statement about the survival of the fittest, why not believe some species survived by adapting to a place where humans can't bother them?


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