AcademiaAgriculture & FarmingHumanitiesSocial SciencesSTEM

Compare and Contrast: Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Updated on November 08, 2015

Chloroplast and Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of living organisms and perform functions vital for the cell to live.

This article will go over the characteristics of these organelles as well as the major differences differences and similarities of these organelles.


Known as the powerhouse of the cell, mitochondria are kind of like the digestive system, taking in nutrients and breaking them down to give the cell energy. Mitochondria help take energy from sugar or glucose and convert it into a simpler form, called ATP, that the cell can more easily use. This process is called cellular respiration, and the mitochondria plays a central role in it.

Mitochondria Structure & Function

Mitochondria are composed of two membranes.

  • An outer membrane covers the organelle like a skin, protecting it.
  • An inner membrane, that is folded over again and again to create a layered structure called crista, which is studded with proteins. The fluid inside these folds is called the matrix.


Chloroplast Function

Chloroplasts are very similar to mitochondria, but are found only in the cells of plants and some algae. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts produce food for their cells. Chloroplasts help turn sunlight into food that can be used by the cell, a process known as photosynthesis.

Chloroplast Structure

Like the mitochondria, the chloroplast has an inner and outer membrane. Inside those membranes are its different parts, which include thylakoids and stroma. A stack of thylakoids is called a grana (pl. granum).

Chlorophyll molecules on the thylakoids capture sunlight and begin the process of photosynthesis. The molecules created by this reaction then move to the stroma, which synthesizes the sugars and “fixes” the CO2.

Plant Cell vs. Animal Cell

Chloroplast & Mitochondria: Similarities & Differences


  • convert energy
  • have its own DNA
  • enclosed by two membranes
  • oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are involved in its processes
  • have fluids inside of it



  • plural: chloroplasts
  • usually found in plants and unicellular organisms
  • converts solar/light energy into chemical energy (sugar)
  • process is photosynthesis: composed of Light Reactions and Calvin Benson Cycle
  • has three compartments(parts): thylakoids (traps sunlight), granum (pl: grana; stacks of thylakoids), stroma (fluid inside the outer membrane, which interacts with the cytoplasm. It surrounds the granum and thylakoids
  • plural: mitochondria
  • found in almost all cells
  • converts chemical energy (sugar) into another form of chemical energy (ATP), which is simpler and could be used by the cell
  • process is cellular respiration: composed of Glycolysis, ETC, and Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • has two compartments. Crista (pl:cristae) is the compartment formed by the inner and outer membrane of the mitochondria; it is the layer of folds in the mitochondria and is studded with proteins. The other compartment is called matrix; it is the fluid inside the foldings (cristae).


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      person 6 months ago

      i like pie

    • profile image

      not a person 6 months ago

      ^^^ This guy..

    • profile image

      carticle 6 months ago

      Thank you so...... much, this site was very helpful to me.

    • profile image

      Ducklover84 6 months ago

      I Love Ducks

    • profile image

      might be a human 6 months ago


    • profile image

      Don 5 months ago

      Hey guys, thanks for this. Just to let yalls know, you use the comments for usefulness, not unusefulness. :)

    • profile image

      Don Jon 5 months ago

      Okay Don. Thank you for your very useful, needed input.

    • profile image

      monkeymo2oo5 5 months ago

      Hi! I wanted to say that I was doing test this was very helpful

    • profile image

      nadia butts 5 months ago

      thats alsome

    • profile image

      big dick dave 5 months ago

      dope bro

    • profile image

      boi 4 months ago

      boi you wish

    • profile image

      tyler wilson 4 months ago

      This was a ton of hemp

    • profile image

      nicole 3 months ago

      This helped so much for my report, thanks!

    • profile image

      Aqsa 3 months ago

      thx so much it was very helpful

    • profile image

      Mememan123 3 months ago

      this article was litty in my city

    • profile image

      Tom 3 months ago

      Dr. Jack Kruse is a genius to say the least. He thinks outside the box to find much helpful info by biohacking all useful data and providing us with enlightened useful information so we can improve our health. Thank you DR Kruse for going against all the misinformation out there and making it crystal clear.

    • profile image

      Mr. TootyFruity 3 months ago

      Thank you. This helped a lot.

      TootyFruity Out. Peace.

    • profile image

      Wallace State Community College Student 6 weeks ago

      This site was very helpful for my study questions for my BIO 103 college biology class.

    • profile image

      Weirdo 6 weeks ago

      Thnx 4 the info

    Click to Rate This Article