I have been an online writer for over five years. My articles focus primarily on anatomy and cellular biology.
Chloroplast and Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of living organisms and perform functions vital for the cell to live. This article will go over the characteristics of these organelles as well as the major differences and similarities of these organelles.
Questions This Article Will Answer
- What are their similarities and differences?
- What is the structure and function of mitochondria?
- Where is the mitochondria located in a cell?
- What is the structure and function of chloroplasts?
- Where is the chloroplast located in a cell?
- What are the main differences between an animal and a plant cell?
1. Similarities and Differences
Like the mitochondria, the chloroplast has an inner and outer membrane. Inside the membranes are its different parts. These include thylakoids and stroma. A stack of thylakoids is called a grana. Chlorophyll molecules on the thylakoids capture sunlight and begin the process of photosynthesis.
Similarities of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
- convert energy
- have its own DNA
- enclosed by two membranes
- oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are involved in its processes
- both have fluids inside of them
Differences Between Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Usually found in plants and unicellular organisms.
Found in almost all cells.
Converts solar/light energy into chemical energy (sugar).
Converts chemical energy (sugar) into another form of chemical energy (ATP), which is simpler and could be used by the cell.
Process is photosynthesis: composed of Light Reactions and Calvin Benson Cycle.
Process is cellular respiration: composed of Glycolysis, ETC, and Oxidative Phosphorylation.
Has three compartments(parts): thylakoids (traps sunlight), granum (pl: grana; stacks of thylakoids), stroma (fluid inside the outer membrane, which interacts with the cytoplasm. It surrounds the granum and thylakoids.
Has two compartments. Crista (pl:cristae) is the compartment formed by the inner and outer membrane of the mitochondria; it is the layer of folds in the mitochondria and is studded with proteins. The other compartment is called matrix; it is the fluid inside the foldings (cristae).
2. Mitochondria Structure & Function
Known as the powerhouse of the cell, mitochondria are kind of like the digestive system, taking in nutrients and breaking them down to give the cell energy. Mitochondria help take energy from sugar or glucose and convert it into a simpler form called ATP that the cell can more easily use. This process is called cellular respiration, and the mitochondria plays a central role in it.
Mitochondria are composed of two membranes:
- An outer membrane covers the organelle like skin, protecting it.
- An inner membrane that is folded over again and again to create a layered structure is called crista, and it is studded with useful proteins. The fluid inside these folds is called the matrix.
3. Where Is the Mitochondria Located in a Cell?
Mitochondria are found in nearly all body cells. There are usually multiple mitochondria found in one cell, depending upon the function of that type of cell. Mitochondria are located in the cytoplasm of cells along with other organelles of the cell.
What Is Mitochondrial DNA?
The mitochondrial DNA is located inside the mitochondria, which are cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use. The mitochondrial DNA is passed down directly from the mother and the genes are specific to the mother's lineage.
Why Do We Inherit Mitochondria From Our Mothers?
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is genetic material found in mitochondria. It is passed down from mothers to sons and daughters. Sons cannot pass along their mothers' mtDNA to their children. This happens because mtDNA is transmitted through the female egg.
Why Is Mtdna Only Inherited From the Mother?
In sexual reproduction, mitochondria are normally inherited exclusively from the mother. The mitochondria in mammalian sperm are usually destroyed by the egg cell after fertilization. The fact that mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited enables researchers to trace maternal lineage far back in time.
4. Chloroplast Function and Structure
Chloroplasts are very similar to mitochondria, but are found only in the cells of plants and some algae. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts produce food for their cells. Chloroplasts help turn sunlight into food that can be used by the cell, a process known as photosynthesis.
Like the mitochondria, the chloroplast has an inner and outer membrane. Inside those membranes are its different parts, which include thylakoids and stroma. A stack of thylakoids is called a grana (pl. granum).
Chlorophyll molecules on the thylakoids capture sunlight and begin the process of photosynthesis. The molecules created by this reaction then move to the stroma, which synthesizes the sugars and “fixes” the CO2.
What Are the Five Parts of the Chloroplast?
Two membranes contain and protect the inner parts of the chloroplast. These membranes are named the outer and inner membranes. The inner membrane surrounds the stroma and the grana (stacks of thylakoids). One thylakoid stack is called a granum.
Parts of the Chloroplast
|Parts of Chloroplasts||What It Does|
The inner membrane is less permeable and studded with transport proteins. The innermost matrix of chloroplasts, called the stroma, contains metabolic enzymes and multiple copies of the chloroplast genome.
The outer membrane provides further protection to the chloroplast.
Stroma refers to the colorless fluid surrounding the grana within the chloroplast.
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. They are the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
Stacked into grana, the shape of the thylakoids allow for optimum surface area, maximizing the amount of photosynthesis that can happen.
5. Where Is the Chloroplast Located in a Cell?
The chloroplast is located throughout the cytoplasm of the cells of plant leaves and other parts depending on the type of plant. You can see where the chloroplasts are because chloroplasts they are what make the plant appear green. Therefore, wherever there is green on a plant there are chloroplasts.
Why Does The Chloroplast Appear Green?
Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants. Chlorophyll absorbs light in the red (long wavelength) and the blue (short wavelength) regions of the visible light spectrum. Green light is not absorbed but reflected. This makes the plant appear green.
What Is Chlorophyll?
It is a green substance that traps light energy from the sun, which is then combines carbon dioxide and water into sugars in the process of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis, which allows for plants to get energy from light.
6. Differences in Animal and Plant Cells
Structurally, plant and animal cells are very similar because they are both eukaryotic cells. Beyond size, the main structural differences between plant and animal cells lie in a few structures found in plant cells. These structures include: chloroplasts, the cell wall, and vacuoles.
What Is a Cell Wall?
Definition: The cell wall is a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
The plant cell wall is composed of cellulose. Cellulose is a structural carbohydrate and is considered a complex sugar because it is used in both protection and structure. The plant cell wall consists of three layers. Each layer has its own unique structure and function.
What Are Vacuoles?
Definition: Vacuoles are a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell. They are enclosed by a membrane and typically contain fluid.
Function of the Vacuole. A vacuole is usually found in all plant and fungal cells, as well as some cells of protists, animals, and bacteria. These membrane-bound structures are enclosed compartments that are filled with both inorganic and organic molecules, along with water to support the organelle.
- ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA, "Vacuole BIOLOGY"
- Sciencing, "Similarities in Structure of Mitochondria & Chloroplasts"
- Bio Info, "Chloroplasts Resemble Mitochondria But Have an Extra Compartment"
Frephx De visgth on April 25, 2020:
This is helpful for me
oof on December 02, 2019:
I like trains (*-*)
Tanisha jaiswal on June 02, 2019:
Thanks superb your owlcation
Laxshiyaa on May 29, 2019:
Thankyou so much
Poof on January 06, 2019:
There is NO CELL WALL in an animal cell!!!!!!!!!
Animal cell (eukaryote) has cell membrane, not cell wall.
my name jeff JJJKKK on December 03, 2018:
Francine on December 03, 2018:
I have a body metabolism test this afternoon and this teaching is eactly what »I was looking for, simple and informative... thank you
Mr kSE on November 21, 2018:
Negeena Shefa on October 26, 2018:
Very detailed and clear.
kriccy on October 23, 2018:
Carl on October 18, 2018:
Kenot Dodis on October 11, 2018:
Pee on October 02, 2018:
thank you for the notes
SamuelKenobiYT on October 01, 2018:
This didn't help me. I needed something that had things like descended from micro-organisms, but this didn't work.
Kath Aoshi on October 01, 2018:
but dont die
Recommended for You
aldrine on September 27, 2018:
thanks for this notes
cris on September 18, 2018:
i want to die i hate my life
Aliza on July 12, 2018:
Merliya Bustamante on July 08, 2018:
Gosh it helps!
Ken Kaneki on June 25, 2018:
Great info, not to mention the simplicity! Loved it! Saved me a lot of time from getting wasted.
Ur werst enemy on June 13, 2018:
Thsk u fore teacking me photosyrhensys
craig on June 07, 2018:
thx so much
sadia zainab on May 27, 2018:
Thank you so much
yo on April 15, 2018:
Becky on February 12, 2018:
Wassup my G?
Dax on December 18, 2017:
free him on December 15, 2017:
I really love it for my study guide
DAMMMMNNNN on December 09, 2017:
love it, helped so much
Jeymow on November 06, 2017:
waffle queen on October 16, 2017:
thx for the information
bill on September 20, 2017:
jct on September 20, 2017:
thank you for stuff :)
JEFF WAS HERE on May 31, 2017:
funny guys funny.
some girl on May 26, 2017:
this was helpful for my science project thanks.
invisible on April 14, 2017:
thanks for this "wonderful" information....
Weirdo on February 11, 2017:
Thnx 4 the info
Wallace State Community College Student on February 11, 2017:
This site was very helpful for my study questions for my BIO 103 college biology class.
Mr. TootyFruity on December 28, 2016:
Thank you. This helped a lot.
TootyFruity Out. Peace.
Tom on December 23, 2016:
Dr. Jack Kruse is a genius to say the least. He thinks outside the box to find much helpful info by biohacking all useful data and providing us with enlightened useful information so we can improve our health. Thank you DR Kruse for going against all the misinformation out there and making it crystal clear.
Mememan123 on December 11, 2016:
this article was litty in my city
Aqsa on November 30, 2016:
thx so much it was very helpful
nicole on November 30, 2016:
This helped so much for my report, thanks!
tyler wilson on November 08, 2016:
This was a ton of hemp
big dick dave on October 25, 2016:
monkeymo2oo5 on October 17, 2016:
Hi! I wanted to say that I was doing test this was very helpful
Don Jon on October 03, 2016:
Okay Don. Thank you for your very useful, needed input.
Don on October 03, 2016:
Hey guys, thanks for this. Just to let yalls know, you use the comments for usefulness, not unusefulness. :)
might be a human on September 30, 2016:
Ducklover84 on September 28, 2016:
I Love Ducks
carticle on September 26, 2016:
Thank you so...... much, this site was very helpful to me.
person on September 15, 2016:
i like pie