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Abiotic Factors: A Component of Ecosystem

Kenneth is a computer whiz who also enjoys nature and traveling. He likes researching the natural world and sharing his findings.

Living Objects

In the environment, there are external factors that really affect the organism living in it. And one of these factors is Abiotic factors or the nonliving variables such as wind, ocean, day length, rainfall, temperature, and ocean current. Abiotic factors influence the flow of interaction in an environment so it is important to move to study their effects on living organisms.

Abiotic (or Non-living) things have a vital role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem. The factors of Abiotic have varied components and aspects in the physical environment on how they affect biotic factors. Below are some of the observations that will help you to learn further about Abiotic factors.

  1. Bamboo can stand on strong winds while the banana plant cannot for it doesn't have a hard trunk and doesn’t sway with the blowing wind.
  2. Cogon thrives well in abundant sunlight while ferns are much on shades which is why they are shade-loving plants.
  3. Coconut grows well in warm climates while Pine trees in cold climates
  4. Cacti can withstand arid places like deserts while mosses can’t because they are moisture-loving plants.

The descriptions and examples above are some of the effects of climate on the growth and thriving abilities of plants, more specifically light, temperature, moisture, and wind. The soil is another aspect of the physical environment that we should also consider for the characteristics of soil determines what type of organism/living things can live. Below are some of the things that must be considered.

  1. The nutrients in the soil
  2. Acidity level of the soil
  3. Moisture content of the soil
Abiotic-like stones

Abiotic-like stones

The amount of water that the soil can hold and the amount of minerals that can drain away are affected by the acidity of the soil and the size of particles on it. Topography is also one of the aspects of the physical environment. Below are some of the observations that can make these things clear out, in the aspect of topography, and the effects on the distribution and growth of an organism/living things.

1. Most of the mossy forests are found at elevations above 1520 meters and not in the lowlands.
Cloud rats are found in high mountains, unlike the lowland field rats.

2. Plants that need a large amount of water are found in lowlands or along gentle slopes while plants that can tolerate little moisture grow along steep slopes.

3. It was also observed that mountain slopes that are oriented facing the sun generally have thicker plant growth than those on the shaded side.

These are some observations that illustrate the effect of the topography of the land on plant and animal life, more specifically altitude or elevation angle of the slope and orientation of the slope.

Climate (Factors)Soil (Factors)Topography (Factors)


Nutrients in the soil

Altitude or elevation


Acidity of the soil

Angle of the slope


Moisture content

Orientation of the slope


Of the soil

Four Main Abiotic Factors

Abiotic or non-living things contribute to the physical components of the environment such as water, soil, air, heat, and light. They are continually subjected to different situations in the physical environment such as erosion, typhoons, volcanic events, ocean current and etc. It can cause the extinction of any type of organism as a threat and may cause alteration to form new species and hybrids as well.

1. Water - it is an essential part of the environment where the organism can find food, shelter, a way to escape from predators, and a place for marine life. Bodies of water act as "heat sink" to slow down the large temperature changes creating a more stable environment. The bodies of living things are almost made up of water, likewise, the earth is 70% water and 30% land. Helps in the process of photosynthesis and other cycles in nature…

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2. Air - is a mixture of several gases; it is the second key abiotic factor that contributes to the ecosystem, where birds can fly and seeds can be dispersed. Air composes of different gases: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and the remaining 1%contains mostly of hydrogen, carbon diode, water, helium, argon, and krypton. They endlessly circulate where all life depends.

3. Soil - is the third major abiotic key for the physical environment. Basic medium for a land base ecosystem where plants grow and some organism lives on it. Soil is a natural reservoir for inorganic mineral elements such as iron, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus. It also contains humus which certainly comes from humans and decayed plants. Soil that contains more humus is support more plant and animal life. It affects countless organisms.

4. Heat - is the fourth abiotic major factor that affects the physical environment. Most heat energy here on the earth's surface originates and comes from the sun. The effect of heat is very obvious, tropical environments support different organisms than cold environments. Temperature affects what kind of organism can live in a certain place.

References; Science and Technology by Lilia M. Rabago Ph. D , Crescensia C. Joaquin Ph.D, Catherine B. Lagunzad , PH. D, Encarta, Youtube


isaac on May 11, 2020:

this was frigging boring that why you only have 7 comments this was so bad.

Ivanna on April 28, 2020:

Uh, I don't even know if you're gonna be able to see this but how do biotic factors compete for abiotic factors?

billy pharam on October 11, 2019:

thank you, this was very educational

lilly on September 17, 2019:

ur mom

SRanz on April 17, 2019:

What would happen if there were no abiotic factors?

Jim on January 28, 2019:

Mr moose

Steve Marchesky on June 07, 2018:

I must say, it was awfully good

What idiot would say that abiotic factors aren't essential

Momodou on December 03, 2017:

Useful and educative

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