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Dinosaurs Alive: Animal Facts and Model Photos

The body form, feathers and curved claws of this Dakotaraptor are based on our current knowledge. We don't know the colour of the animal, however.
The body form, feathers and curved claws of this Dakotaraptor are based on our current knowledge. We don't know the colour of the animal, however. | Source

Dinosaurs and the Fair at the PNE

The Dinosaurs Alive exhibit has become one of the highlights of the fair at the PNE. The annual fair is held in the second half of August. It's run by a Vancouver organization called the Pacific National Exhibition and takes place on grounds with the same name. For the past two years, Dinosaurs Alive has been an attraction at the fair. The exhibit consists of life-sized or close to life-sized dinosaur models, many of which are animatronic. This article contains photos of some of the models as well as facts about the real animals. The photos were taken by me during my visits to the PNE.

A Tyrannosaurus rex at the PNE
A Tyrannosaurus rex at the PNE

Introduction to Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs appeared about 230 million years ago and became extinct about 65 million years ago, except for the evolutionary line that produced modern birds. Birds have many skeletal similarities to dinosaurs as well as scales on their feet and the lower part of the legs. The similarities are so striking that many biologists consider birds to be a type of dinosaur instead of simply being descended from dinosaurs. Based on this idea, dinosaurs didn't become extinct. They live on in the form of birds.

As a group, dinosaurs were highly successful and existed for a very long time. During this time period, some species disappeared and others appeared. Based on our discoveries so far, the smallest species were slightly bigger than a chicken. We've discovered only limited remains of big animals, so their size is hard to estimate. Some seemed to have been huge, however.

The biggest dinosaurs known at the moment belonged to a group known as sauropods. These herbivorous animals had a very long neck and tail. Argentinosaurus huinculensis is believed to have been a massive sauropod and may have been one of the longest dinosaurs. It had an estimated length of 35 to 37 metres (114.8 to 121.4 feet). A single vertebra of this animal is as tall as a human.

Pterosaurs (a group of flying reptiles) and plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs (two groups of marine reptiles) were prehistoric animals, but they weren't dinosaurs.

A close-up view of the face of the T. rex at the PNE
A close-up view of the face of the T. rex at the PNE

Scales and Feathers

Scientists are continuing to find dinosaur fossils and are discovering new features of the animals' bodies and lives. Many dinosaurs seem to have been covered by scales, but some had feathers. The list of feathered animals is growing.

Dinosaur forelimbs covered in feathers are sometimes referred to as "wings", but researchers say that it's unlikely that feathered dinosaurs could fly. The feathers are believed to have been used for insulation or in displays to other members of the species. It's thought that some of the smaller and lighter feathered dinosaurs might have been able to glide, however. The idea that some of them could also fly hasn't been completely ruled out, especially in the evolutionary line that eventually produced today's birds.

Archaeopteryx is sometimes said to have been the first bird. It's more commonly believed to be a transitional form between feathered dinosaurs and birds, however. Although it probably could fly, it was unlikely to have been a strong flier.

How Do We Know That Dinosaurs Had Feathers?

Warm-Bloodedness

The fact that some dinosaurs had feathers has been established by the fossil record. Less certain is the idea that dinosaurs were warm-blooded (endothermic) instead of cold blooded (ectothermic). The term "warm-blooded" means that an animal maintains a warm temperature by processes and adaptations within their body. Cold-blooded animals have to change their body temperature by behaviours such as sun bathing to warm themselves up and moving into the shade to cool themselves down.

The proposal that at least some dinosaurs were endothermic is based on bone structure that seems to indicate rapid growth in the animals. Some researchers think that this high growth rate meant that dinosaurs must have been able to maintain a warm body temperature. Other researchers are less impressed by the evidence in the bones and think that the dinosaurs might have been mesothermic. A mesothermic animal can partially regulate its temperature by internal processes. The great white shark is an example of a modern animal that is mesothermic.

Were Dinosaurs Warm-Blooded?

Biological Classification of Dinosaurs

Two different systems of biological classification are used - the Linnaean system, which is generally used by school students and the general public, and the phylogenetic system, which is used by most biologists. In the Linnaean system, organisms are placed in categories based on their appearance and structure. The phylogenetic system is based on clades (groups of organisms with a common ancestor) and evolutionary lines.

All dinosaurs belong to the clade known as the Dinosauria. This contains two smaller clades - the Ornithischia or bird-hipped dinosaurs and the Saurischia or lizard-hipped dinosaurs. Each of these contains even smaller clades. One of the clades within the Saurischia - the Therapoda - gave rise to modern birds.

It might be thought that birds must have originated from the Ornithischia, since the scientific and common name of the clade refers to birds. Biologists say that this isn't the case, however. A hip that resembles the one found in birds evolved twice in the dinosaur lineage - once in the Ornithischian line and once in the Saurischian line that led to birds.

Dinosaur classification changes over time as researchers discover new fossils and learn more about the animals. In addition, biologists sometimes disagree about the evolutionary lines within the Dinosauria clade.

We don't know the colour of Dakotaraptor, but we do know that the feathers of Archaeopteryx were black and white.
We don't know the colour of Dakotaraptor, but we do know that the feathers of Archaeopteryx were black and white.

The Dinosaurs Alive Exhibit at the PNE: A Review

The Dinosaurs Alive exhibit at the PNE includes twenty dinosaurs, fourteen of which are animatronic. Moving parts in the animatronic models include some combination of the head, mouth, tongue, eyes, neck, tail, forelegs or a hind leg. A roaring sound is played as the dinosaurs move, which is meant to represent the animal's voice.

The exhibit is both entertaining and educational, although it has some problems. One of these is the realism of the surface on the dinosaurs. The models have a slightly shiny, rubberized appearance. Bumps are used to represent scales. These features are successful in some models but less so in other ones. I do like the fact that the models have some accurate structural details and that their features reflect recent research, however.

Dinosaur facts are posted around the exhibit as well as in front of the models. More information would have been nice, though, especially in relation to the models and their real-life counterparts. The availability of a knowledgeable person who could answer people's questions would have been a great enhancement to the exhibit. A printed, audio or downloadable tour guide would probably have been useful, too. The Dinosaurs Alive exhibit is free with admission to the PNE fair, however, which could limit the desire of the exhibit's owner to offer anything other than a basic self-guided tour.

At the moment, the colour of the vast majority of dinosaurs is unknown. Only the fossils of certain feathered dinosaurs have given us evidence of body colour. This is why different artists sometimes use different colours for a specific dinosaur.

A scientific illustrator's impression of Dakotaraptor
A scientific illustrator's impression of Dakotaraptor | Source

Dakotaraptor

Dakotaraptor was discovered in South Dakota and lived about 66 million years ago. It was a bipedal predator that was about 5.5 metres or 18 feet long. It's one of the biggest raptors known so far. "Raptor" is the common name for dinosaurs belonging to the Dromaeosauridae clade (or the Dromaeosauridae family in the Linnaean system). Velociraptor is another animal that belongs to the clade. This raptor was the size of a turkey, despite its depiction in Hollywood movies.

The ulna from the forelimb of Dakotaraptor shows quill knobs where feathers were attached. Its forelimbs and perhaps its whole body were covered by feathers. A claw from the forearm can often be seen at the bottom of the wing in reconstructions of the animal. The term "wing" is used as a term for the feathered forelimb, as is often the case in dinosaur biology. Like Ostriches, Dakotaraptor couldn't fly. The large, curved claws on the animal's feet are known as sickle claws and were likely used to kill or hold down prey. The animal is thought to have been a good runner.

The model of Dakotaraptor in the Dinosaurs Alive exhibit looks more heavyset than the version in the illustration. Neither the creator of the model nor the artist has made an error. Fossil remains of two versions of the dinosaur have been discovered. One version is slender while the other is robust. It's thought that this difference may be an example of sexual dimorphism. This is a phenomenon in which the male and the female of a species have noticeable differences in appearance. It's unknown whether the robust Dakotaraptor was the male or the female.

The Dakotaraptor model is more heavyset than the version shown on the identification sign. An explanation for this disparity would have been useful for the public.
The Dakotaraptor model is more heavyset than the version shown on the identification sign. An explanation for this disparity would have been useful for the public.
Qianzhousaurus
Qianzhousaurus

Qianzhousaurus

Qianzhousaurus was a relative of Tyrannosaurus rex. It has been nicknamed Pinnochio rex due to its long snout. The dinosaur was discovered in China and like Dakotaraptor is thought to have lived about 66 million years ago. Its discovery was reported in 2014 and was exciting for the scientists who had suspected that long-snouted tyrannosaurs existed. Qianzhousaurus and T. rex belong to the clade (or family) known as the Tyrannosauridae.

Qianzhousaurus was a carnivore, like its relatives. It was probably a fearsome predator. It had long and narrow teeth while T. rex had wider ones. There were other differences between the snouts of the two animals, including the fact that Qianzhousaurus had small horns on the top of the snout.

Some dinosaurs had hair-like fibres on parts of their body, which formed what has been called "dino fuzz". The fibres were actually feather precursors or proto-feathers. Some researchers strongly suspect that T. rex and its relatives had this fuzz, at least in their juvenile stages. Others disagree with this idea. The creators of the Dinosaurs Alive exhibit have chosen to put the fibres on the back of the Qianzhousaurus model and on the juvenile T. rex model.

A foreshortened view of the Qianzhousaurus showing the small horns on top of the snout
A foreshortened view of the Qianzhousaurus showing the small horns on top of the snout
Click thumbnail to view full-size
A foreshortened view of a juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex with hair-like fibres on its body and its mouth open during animationA less foreshortened view of the juvenile between animations
A foreshortened view of a juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex with hair-like fibres on its body and its mouth open during animation
A foreshortened view of a juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex with hair-like fibres on its body and its mouth open during animation
A less foreshortened view of the juvenile between animations
A less foreshortened view of the juvenile between animations

Tyrannosaurus rex

Tyrannosaurus rex lived in what is today western North America. At the time when T. rex lived, the area was an island continent known as Laramidia. Laramidia was separated from the rest of North America by ocean. T. rex fossils date from 68 to 66 million years ago. The animal was a predator, though it may also have scavenged food.

Unlike the case for most dinosaurs, many T. rex fossils have been found. Even the soft tissue located inside bones has been identified in fossils, which is very exciting. Soft tissue doesn't often survive the fossilization process.

The largest and most complete T. rex skeleton known today has been named Sue. In life, Sue was about 12.3 metres (40 feet) long and about 3.7 metres (12 feet) tall at the hips. She died at about 28 years of age, which is thought to be around the maximum lifespan for her species.

T. rex had a very large head and a long tail. It was bipedal and walked on its powerful hind limbs. The forelimbs were much smaller. They each had two digits with claws and a smaller third digit without claws. The puzzle about whether the animal had feathers and if so to what extent is one that many scientists would love to solve. A covering of proto-feathers would change the appearance of T. rex significantly.

An adult Tyrannosaurus rex
An adult Tyrannosaurus rex
Regaliceratops
Regaliceratops

Regaliceratops

Regaliceratops was a horned dinosaur that was closely related to the better-known Triceratops. Both animals belonged to the clade or family known as the Ceratopsidae. Regaliceratops is believed to have lived about 70 million years ago. Its remains were discovered in the province of Alberta in Canada.

Unlike all the animals shown above, Regaliceratops belonged to the Ornithischian line of dinosaurs and was a quadruped. It was also a herbivorous animal. It had a large horn on its nose, a smaller horn over each eye and other projections on its head. It also had a huge, decorated frill behind its head. The massive skull and frill of one animal was found to weigh 592 pounds once it was extracted from the ground.

The function or functions of the head ornamentation is unknown, but there are some theories in relation to Triceratops that may apply to Regaliceratops as well. The projections may have been used for defence. They may also have been used in courtship displays or in dominance displays when interacting with rivals.

Pinacosaurus
Pinacosaurus

Pinacosaurus

Like Regaliceratops, Pinacosaurus was an Ornithischian dinosaur, a quadruped and a herbivore. It lived in China and Mongolia 80 million to 75 million years ago. The animal is notable for the spikes on its head, the spiked plates of bone along its back that look like a suit of armour and the bony, club-shaped structure at the end of its tail.

Pinacosaurus belonged to the clade or family known as the Ankylosauridae. The clade contained armoured dinosaurs, which are sometimes referred to as living tanks. Their dermal plates protected them from their enemies. Their tail club is believed to have been used as a weapon.

Since bones of multiple Pinacosauruses have been found together, researchers suspect that the animals travelled in groups or herds. Their armour would probably have been excellent protection from predators, unless the herbivores were somehow flipped on to their back. This would have exposed their soft and vulnerable belly.

A view of Pinacosaurus that shows its tail club
A view of Pinacosaurus that shows its tail club

The Advantage of Dinosaur Models

Models can bring dinosaurs to life in a way that may not be possible for an illustration, especially when the models are life-sized. In order for this to happen, though, the model must be as realistic as possible. Ideally, it should also be based on our latest knowledge of dinosaurs. This may not be possible due to the expense of creating a large model and the time required for its creation, however.

This year's dinosaur exhibit at the PNE is larger and more interesting than last year's. It's definitely worth visiting, despite its limitations. I'm hoping that an even better and more informative display will be present next year. Dinosaurs are a fascinating and intriguing group of animals. It's very enjoyable to learn about them.

© 2016 Linda Crampton

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44 comments

Buildreps profile image

Buildreps 3 months ago from Europe

Fascinating article, Alicia. The idea that dinosaurs like the T-rex or Dakotaraptor might have feathers must have looked funny to us, after we've got used to the Hollywood movies. I can't somehow get used to the idea that these quite heavy animals could run that fast, but on the other hand is it for us humans almost impossible to outrun an elephant. Thanks for the nice article!


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, Buildreps. Thanks for the comment. The thought of a dinosaur with feathers is strange but very interesting. I hope we discover a lot more about animals from the past.


billybuc profile image

billybuc 3 months ago from Olympia, WA

What a great exhibit!!!! I would absolutely love to see that. Thanks for taking me along so I could snap some pictures in my mind.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

It is an interesting exhibit. I'm glad that I'm able to see it. Thanks for the visit, Bill.


teaches12345 profile image

teaches12345 3 months ago

I viewed this exhibit at the Cincinnati Museum and thought it was impressive. Putting them outdoors really gives them almost a sense of reality. I would love to see this at the PNE. Your background on the dinosaurs is educational and interesting.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, Dianna. Thank you very much for the comment. I'd like to see the exhibit in other areas to compare it to the Vancouver version. I noticed that the PNE exhibit had several dinosaurs discovered in Canada. It would be interesting to see what models were included in other areas.


Nell Rose profile image

Nell Rose 3 months ago from England

How cool! I would love to go there! I was a great dinosaur fan when small, I used to collect loads of models and write all about them in my school books! lol!


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, Nell. I can understand why you're a dinosaur fan. They are fascinating and mysterious creatures. Thanks for the visit.


Jackie Lynnley profile image

Jackie Lynnley 3 months ago from The Beautiful South

Very interesting! I was just watching Land Before Time again last night, lol, that is the preferable ones to me. They are beautiful though and I can imagine how majestic they were in their natural settings long ago.

Shared.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Thanks for the comment and the share, Jackie. Many of the dinosaurs must have been majestic in their natural settings. I wish there was a way to go back in time to see them. I've never seen any of the Land Before Time films. I should find out what I've been missing!


FlourishAnyway profile image

FlourishAnyway 3 months ago from USA

between the review and the detailed information on the dinosaurs, you have truly outdone yourself on this one! the photos make me think that kids would love this place and they do need a guide to provide information and answer questions. Sharing!


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Thank you so much for the kind comment, Flourish. I appreciate both the comment and the share a great deal. The children that I saw at the PNE were very interested in the dinosaurs. So were the adults!


Jodah profile image

Jodah 3 months ago from Queensland Australia

I have always been interested in dinosaurs since I was a young child and even considered studying palaeontology after leaving school, so I would have enjoyed this exhibit New species are being discovered all the time and the recent finding that many may have had feathers is interesting. I must say the model of the Dakotaraptor is hard to accept as what that dinosaur may have looked like. Good hub, Linda.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, Jodah. Thank you for the comment. I've been interested in dinosaurs for a long time, too. I think it's exciting that information about them is still being discovered. Hopefully new models will be created as new discoveries are made.


Mel Carriere profile image

Mel Carriere 3 months ago from San Diego California

Having feathers doesn't make them any more cute and cuddly. These "terrible lizards" are not lizards at all, but birds! There are two theories, called "top down" and "bottom up" to explain how dinosaurs began to fly. Top down says they started in trees and began to glide down, bottom up that they were on the ground and leapt into the sky. We're talking over millions of years, of course. Top down seems to make more sense but I think bottom up has more adherents. Any thoughts?

This was great. I learned a lot.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, Mel. Thanks for such an interesting comment. Top down seems to make more sense to me, too. I'll have to research both ideas to see what the evidence or reasoning is. It can be difficult learning about dinosaurs from indirect evidence, but it's so interesting!


manatita44 3 months ago

Thanks Alicia. A very well-written article, and with much work put in. You've made the dinosaurs very life-like and the models are probably great for kids. I've seen them in theme parks and movies which were quite scary.

Interesting take on birds. Most certainly much gentler. We do have a great museum in London, near South Kensington, where quite a few are on display. Many tourists and nationals with groups of children go there.

Once again, great to see your wonderful write on dinosaurs. Much Love.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Thank you very much, Manatita. I appreciate your kind comment, as I always do. I'm guessing that you're referring to the Natural History Museum in your comment. I went there many years ago and found it fascinating. I'd love to go there again! Best wishes to you, Manatita.


Faith Reaper profile image

Faith Reaper 3 months ago from southern USA

Interesting hub, Alicia. Thank you for taking us along with you to the great exhibit. There was a Dinosaur Alive exhibit in the city in which I work one weekend not too long ago, and I so wanted to take my grandchildren, but that particular weekend they already had other plans. I know they would have love it. And after reading this, I wish I had gone anyway without the grands.

I couldn't even imagine living among the dinosaurs, especially the T-rex, would have been terrifying to me. It is hard to picture them with feathers!

I appreciate all the details and photos you've included. Wonderful hub!


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, Faith. I think you would have enjoyed the Dinosaur Alive display if it was as good as the Vancouver one. Some of the dinosaurs would have been terrifying in real life, but they would have been interesting, too! Thank you very much for the comment.


Suhail and my dog 3 months ago

Hi Linda,

I love to read about dinosaurs and this hub was no exception.

What you wrote about Dakotaraptor and the size of velociraptors is something everybody should know. I don't know why they chose to use velociraptors in Jurassic Park series of movies. They would have been better of using Deinonychus instead.

And finally, I wish I could attend the Dinosaurs Alive at PNE.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, Suhail. Thanks for the visit. The movie industry has a lot to answer for with respect to people's understanding of dinosaurs! I hope Dinosaurs Alive visits your part of Canada soon.


DDE 3 months ago

An informative hub and with lovely photos.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Thank you very much, Devika.


vespawoolf profile image

vespawoolf 3 months ago from Peru, South America

What an educational and fascinating exhibit! I've been interested in dinosaurs since I was young, and the Jurassic Park movies certainly heightened interest in these prehistoric creatures. How interesting that they're most closely related to birds. Thank you for sharing your personal photos, too.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, vespawoolf. Yes, the exhibit is educational and very interesting. It's worth seeing, especially for people who are fascinated by dinosaurs. Thanks for commenting.


Vellur profile image

Vellur 3 months ago from Dubai

Dinosaur Fair is amazing! So many types of dinosaurs, great photos. Learned a lot about dinosaurs reading your interesting and informative hub.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 3 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Thank you very much, Vellur. The dinosaurs are certainly interesting. I hope to see the exhibit again in the not too distant future.


Larry Rankin profile image

Larry Rankin 2 months ago from Oklahoma

So many puzzle pieces to put together. I'm always fascinated with archaeology.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

I find studying the past fascinating, too, Larry. As you say, there are so many puzzles to solve! Thanks for the visit.


Martie 2 months ago

Hi Alicia, this is an extremely interesting article about dinosaurs. Can't imagine those huge ones with feathers. Excellent article!


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Thank you, Martie. I appreciate your comment. It's very interesting to think about dinosaurs having feathers!


Deb Hirt 2 months ago

So much is being considered now. The claw near the elbow in ancient birds could be the rear facing claw on some perching birds. To make a long story short, after every ice age and readjustment in climate, "new animals" have come into being to survive the next challenge with new climate. We are already seeing new species, two from the wood warblers, in fact, that should be good survival candidates for the upcoming climate challenge. Some animals will perish, of course, but there are so many others that will continue to be our future. By the way, I would query the fact that your dakotaraptor is kin to the Greater Roadrunner. It would be quite interesting to work on THAT project!


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Thank you for the very interesting comment, Deb. Evolution and adaptation in animals are fascinating topics to explore.


ValKaras 2 months ago

A very interesting hub, indeed. If one doesn't know something about it as you do, who would ever think that birds have anything to do with those prehistoric monsters - except sit on their backs. It's amazing stuff, Linda, thank you for sharing.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Thank you for the visit and the comment, ValKaras. Dinosaur history is definitely amazing! I think it's fascinating as well.


AudreyHowitt 2 months ago

What fun! Fascinating and fun!


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, Audrey. I agree - the exhibit is both fascinating and fun!


DDE 2 months ago

You have interesting and detailed information and this topic.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

I appreciate your comment, Devika.


Greensleeves Hubs profile image

Greensleeves Hubs 2 months ago from Essex, UK

Nothing in the world of animal life interests me so much as prehistoric life Linda, and none of course are so dramatic and other-worldly as dinosaurs. It's good to see any exhibition of dinosaur models and I guess this one, with its animatronics, will appeal to children. And it's very good that some of the lesser known species are included too (some that I've never heard of), because that serves to illustrate the vast range of species within this enormously successful group of animals.

I must admit I'm still more familiar with the old Linnaean classification, than the modern cladistic system, but using that older system I've always had issues. Traditionally dinosaurs have been classified as reptiles. And yet I've always felt for reasons too involved to go into here, that differences in anatomy and physiology were so great that dinosaurs should really be considered quite separately from reptiles, in a class of vertebrates all of their own. Equally however, I feel that birds - although evolved from dinosaurs - are sufficiently distinct today to retain their own class status - Aves. Anyway, that's just a personal view.

Thanks for your article and your photos. Alun


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Thank you for the interesting comment, Alun. I think that biological classification is both useful and frustrating at the same time. I share your view that there are problems with the Linnaean system. I think that's to be expected when we try to impose a human system of categorizing things on the natural world. The cladistic system seems to work better because it's based on evolutionary relationships. Scientists don't agree on all of these relationships, though, which can make the results confusing. They are often intriguing results, though!


Rachel L Alba 2 months ago

Hi Linda. Your pictures are great. This is an interesting hub and the fair looks like it would be a lot of fun. Thanks for sharing your information and pictures.

Blessings to you.


AliciaC profile image

AliciaC 2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada Author

Hi, Rachel. Thanks for the comment. A visit to the fair is interesting and fun. I always enjoy it. Blessings to you as well.

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    Linda Crampton (AliciaC)1,250 Followers
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    Linda Crampton is a teacher with an honours degree in biology. She loves to study nature and write about animals and plants.



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