As a psychology major at the University of North Texas, C. E. Clark found, and continues to find psychology endlessly fascinating.
New Research and Studies Suggest There Is a Correlation Between Eye Color, Iris Pattern, and Personality
As sometimes happens in my quest for information, I recently came across several articles proclaiming that eye color and iris pattern of the eye can indicate intelligence, personality traits, and one’s health condition.
I have heard about doctors being able to tell about a person’s health condition by examining their eyes before, but this was the first I have heard that one’s personality or intelligence could be predicted, or diagnosed if you prefer, from the color of one’s eyes.
It was a surprise to me to learn that several people and organizations have actually conducted studies on the subject of eye color and iris pattern in relation to personality and/or intelligence.
Mats Larsson, a graduate student in psychology at Orebro University in Sweden has connected iris patterns of the eye to personality traits. Also, a group of Czech researchers will soon have the results of a study published in which they determined a person’s ability to dominate over others according to their eye color. Indeed, I could almost meet the word requirement for a HubPages article just by listing every person and organization that has done research of any kind on this subject; so let us get on to the findings.
Variations In Eye Color and How They Are Perceived
Europeans have the most variation in eye color. The most common eye color is brown, the second most common eye color is blue or gray, and the least common, or most rare eye color is green.
A survey was conducted by CyberPulse, a division of Impulse Research Corporation in Los Angeles, and commissioned by CIBA Vision. The survey questioned 1,016 women ages 16 to 35. The results found that women often associate different eye colors with specific personality traits.
The above study found that 34% of participants considered people with brown eyes intelligent, kind, and trustworthy. In contrast, people with blue eyes were considered kind, sweet, and sexy, but only 7% of participants described blue-eyed people as intelligent. Finally, 29% of research participants said they considered green eyes, the sexiest of all the different colors, and their owners to be creative, sexy -- and a bit devious.
A List of What Some Researchers Believe the Different Eye Colors Indicate
Brown Eyes: Outgoing, vivacious, and affable. People with brown eyes are often individualists who are steadfast, serious, practical, self sufficient, with a somewhat retiring nature, and a strong sense of commitment. Often attractive, adorable, and enjoys making new friends. Kind, loyal and devoted to the special people in their lives, likes to cheer people up, and known as the best kissers of all.
Hazel Eyes: Determined, imaginative, loves adventure and trying new things, often has a boundless inner vitality. People with hazel eyes are often risk takers yet profound thinkers, courageous in the face of adversity, aware of their own limitations, responsible, but often have a serious selfish streak.
Green Eyes: Have an air of mystery and a quiet self-sufficiency. People with green eyes are often unpredictable, yet slow to anger. They often have unlimited patience, capable of great emotional restraint. They are original, creative, highly intelligent, intellectual, and can easily employ serious concentration even in highly distracting environments. People with green eyes love freedom, project sex appeal, and perform well under great pressure. They tend to be the happiest of all the different eye colors. Passionate and tending towards long-term relationships both romantic and platonic, they are generally attractive and sensual.
Blue Eyes: Pose high intellect, devotion to noble causes, sincerity, self-sufficiency, and are sentimental. People with blue eyes get easily bogged down by routine, often hold grudges, are moody, but have great stamina, and generally have a bright and happy nature.
Violet Eyes: Highly imaginative and creative, possess lots of self-esteem, and they are often perfectionists with high ideals. People with violet eyes generally have lots of charisma.
Gray Eyes: People with gray eyes are thought to be conformists, quiet and self-effacing, but usually patient in waiting for self-opportunities, as well as calculating and deceptive. People with gray eyes tend to be courageous, but obstinate. They are uncertain in affection.
Black Eyes: Have a dynamic character full of vitality, people with black eyes tond to be hot-tempered, impulsive and often seek dangerous adventures. They command respect, exhibit great dignity, but they are often pretentious, secretive and mysterious.
The Iris Pattern and Color of Every Eye Is Unique
Read More From Owlcation
No Two People Have the Exact Same Eye Color or Iris Pattern
Since no two people have the same fingerprints or footprints, it should be no surprise that no two people have the same exact eye color or iris pattern either.
What may be surprising is that researchers believe every single person with blue eyes originated or descends from the same ancestor! Yes, that does seem surprising to me. There are a lot of people with blue eyes in this world and to think that they all descend from the same ancestor seems pretty amazing.
Researchers have determined that eye color changes over time because the eyes do not constantly and consistently produce pigment. Well, I already knew eye color can change, not only from the eye color a baby is born with to something else when they get older, but eye color can change even in older children or adults over time.
My eyes were blue as a child, but as I got older they became green. They were green by the time I reached 17 years. My mother’s eyes were green and now my daughter’s eyes are also green. Not surprisingly genetics play a big part in a person’s eye color.
However, it is not just one gene that determines eye color, but a combination of genes which is why some people may have two colors or more in their iris if you look closely, and some people may even have different colored irises in each eye.
Examples of Iris Patterns and Color
What Are Furrows and Crypts?
Crypts: Squiggly lines radiating out from the pupil.
Furrows: Circular lines curving around the outer edge of the iris.
See examples of crypts and furrows in the photo above.
More Scientific Than Subjective
Mats Larsson has gotten more scientific about his research regarding the correlation between personality and the color and pattern of the human eye’s iris. He counts the crypts and furrows in a person’s iris. He determined that, “. . . a low frequency of crypts was significantly associated with tender-mindedness, warmth, trust, and positive emotions, whereas more distinct and extended furrows were associated with impulsiveness.”
‘”Still, cautions Larsson, looking deep into people’s eyes won’t give you irrefutable insight into their personality. “We’ve only looked at group effects,” he says. “It’s not possible to describe an individual’s personality from our data.”’
Determining personality and intelligence by examining a person’s eye color and the patterns in one’s iris is still in the early developing stages. With so many studies being conducted by researchers and scientists, be prepared over the next few years to learn what they are discovering about this relatively new and curious practice.
What are your perceptions about eye color? Do you think the descriptions above fit you, or most of the people you know? Do you think in time that it will be possible to determine scientifically what someone’s intelligence and/or personality are by ‘reading’ or examining the irises of their eyes?
What Your Eyes Say About You
Your eyes are [continually] making tiny movements, called saccades, and brief pauses, called fixations as you read and observe different things on the page or in the room around you.
Scientists are discovering that eye movement patterns — where we look, and for how long — reveals important information about how we read, how we learn, and even what kind of people we are.
How You Move Your Eyes Tattles on You!
Researchers are learning the importance of eye movement. Evan Risko, cognitive researcher and assistant professor at the University of Waterloo in Ontario Canada, one of Canada’s leading universities, has concluded, “Who a person is relates to how they move their eyes.”
Learning what is relevant often takes years of experience. Studies have shown that the ability to focus on what is important with ones eyes where graphs, text, photos, diagrams, etc., are concerned, is one of the most important differences between experts and newbies.
While newbies can be taught what the experts took years to learn, the question I have is what about those people who found the right answer to the test questions posed, but were not experts? Was their ability to find the right answer without anyone directing their gaze at important parts of a diagram due to intelligence, since they had limited, if any, experience with similar challenges previously?
Eye-tracking equipment (video cameras that record even the tiniest movement of the eyes) has shown that people who are naturally curious and who like to learn and have new experiences, move their eyes much more, taking in more details of graphics and other information. These people tend to score higher on intelligence tests.
This is not related to eye color or iris pattern, but to eye movement when studying something new, whether it is a concept, directions on how to do something, or even a new social experience.
Something to think about . . . 7 things that can change your eye color
Meaning behind eye color
Meaning behind eye color 2
Psychology Today, What Your Eyes Say About Who You Are
Questions & Answers
Question: My eyes are a mix of blue and green, and when I was born they were bright blue. What eye colour is this called?
Answer: Blue-green eyes are extremely rare, but I know of no particular word used to identify them, like hazel, for example. I have always heard them called blue-green.
Question: Why do genetics cause gold circles around pupils of blue eyes?
Answer: Genetic material donated to a person by their mother and father is what makes every person who they are physically, and in many cases mentally and personality-wise also. Apparently, someone in your ancestry had blue eyes with gold circles around the pupils. You are the lucky descendant who inherited those eyes.
Question: My eyes are gray, green, orange, and yellow. Why are they so many different colours? And why are they clearly separated?
Answer: Eye color is usually the result of your genetic makeup. That is most likely the answer to both of your questions.
Question: I've seen reports saying black eyes do not exist. Is this true?
Answer: There is disagreement about whether or not people can have black irises. I have always heard (and read from scientists writings on the subject) that what appear to be black irises are really just very, very dark brown so as to appear black.
Question: Can you have tan eyes?
Answer: I'm told this can be caused by genetically inherited disorders such as hypopigmentation. Hypopigmentation means one's body has little or no melanin in the effected area (skin, hair, eyes, etc.). Albino individuals result from this disorder. They generally have pale blue or tan eyes, rather than pink as some nonhuman species do.
Question: Why is there a difference in color across the iris of my eye?
Answer: Genetics. Rarely other things can affect the color of a person's eyes, but for the most part, eyes get their color, and changeability of their color at certain ages or times, due to genetics.
Question: If I have brown eyes does that make me dumb?
Answer: I know lots of brown-eyed people who are very intelligent and successful. I do not believe any particular eye color indicates a lack of intelligence. However, I also know a lot of people with a gazillion different eye colors who are not very well informed about a lot of different things. If one is ignorant, one can change that by learning more and becoming more informed. No, having brown eyes does not IMHO indicate a lack of intelligence, nor does any other eye color.
© 2012 C E Clark
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on August 23, 2020:
Ace, thank you for checking out my article! Most things about a person are genetic, especially eyes. Somewhere in your ancestry, someone must have had eyes similar to yours. Your eye color could also be the result of a mix of genes from both of your parents that ended up very unique and beautiful.
Ace on August 21, 2020:
I have a very dark bright blue lambel around my eye fades to bright green then amber looks like earth what causes this I’ve always got many compliments but I’ve never seen anyone close to having eyes like mine
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on June 13, 2020:
nourddin, thank you for your question. I think honey colored eyes might be more in with amber eyes, just a little paler.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on June 13, 2020:
Billy J Burton, thank you for commenting on my article! I apologize for taking so long to respond. I try to do that within a week of receiving a comment. For some reason there must have been a hiccup in the system or something because I wasn't informed of your comment. I only discovered it when checking on another comment from a different reader just now.
The jury is still out regarding whether one's intelligence can be determined even in part by one's eyes. If anything about the eye did indicate one's intelligence level it would probably be the crypts and furrows in the iris. I don't know why eye color alone would indicate intelligence level any more than skin or natural hair color does.
Thank you again for your interest.
nourddin on June 08, 2020:
My eyes color is honey is it consider as a brown?
Billy J Burton on April 26, 2020:
I would have liked to know more about a possible correlation between eye color and IQ or emotional intelligence.
I have written an article about IQ levels and personality on HubPages that might be of interest.
Thanks for your insightful research.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on February 13, 2020:
Arya, thank you for reading my article and for taking time to leave a comment. I'm glad you enjoyed it!
Arya on February 08, 2020:
Hi I have very dark eyes(black) whatever you described is very appropriate for black eye people.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on December 26, 2019:
:) Thank you for your inquiry regarding amber eyes. There is mention of amber eyes in my response to Selena Lisowski, last paragraph, 3 comments down from your own. They are very rare. Perhaps that is why so little has been written about them . . .
:) on December 25, 2019:
I what about amber eyes? This was pretty interesting but you forgot amber eyes (either I didn’t see anything about amber eyes or they are not on here) I’m very curious about amber eyes.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on October 26, 2019:
MrChicken? Glad you found this interesting. Thank you for stopping by and leaving a comment.
MrChicken on October 24, 2019:
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on July 02, 2019:
Selena Lisowski, thank you for reading and sharing your thoughts on this subject. Most authorities see gray eyes as a variation of blue eyes. I have found no credible sources that say otherwise.
Respectfully, because certain people are experts or authorities in their field, their 'opinion' carries more weight than your opinion or my opinion on the subjects they are considered authorities in.
Just now when I was searching for information on this issue, I read that green eyes are only 2% of our world's population. If one considers all the information on the Internet on any subject it will frankly have opinions all over the place, and that is why we must be careful when judging the credibility of websites and the people who manage or own those sites.
I always list my sources so that my readers can visit them for more details on the subject of my article and so my readers can judge the quality of the source.
Many sources agree that green, grey/silver, and amber are the most rare eye colors in the world. They are all so rare that it's sort of like trying to split hairs as to which of them is the most rare.
Thank you again for commenting.
Selena Lisowski on June 26, 2019:
That is untrue! Blue and Green eyes are way more common than Gray eyes! Grey eyes are 3 percent of the worlds population, Green eyes are 5 percent, and Blue eyes are 10-14 percent!
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on June 22, 2019:
Bee, so long as you give me credit for my work I would be honored to be part of your book. I'm not sure how you can include me in your story line as you have minimum information on me personally, but I would love to read your finished product . . . Wishing you every good thing in your endeavor.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on June 22, 2019:
Despacito, thank you for reading and commenting on my article!
Bee on June 20, 2019:
hello my name is Brandon and I am writing a book and i liked your paper, may i use you and your paper in it?. as you will be in my story line.
Despacito on March 11, 2019:
i have one dark brown eye and one more hazle one
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on September 18, 2018:
DragonAdmiration, thank you for commenting. I'm so glad you enjoyed this article!
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on August 14, 2018:
Peggy Woods, thank you for stopping by! It used to be a good money maker, but like many of my best performing articles, it has been copied many times. It's impossible to keep up with all the different thieves who have copied and pasted this article, and several others as well, word for word on other sites. A lot of trouble to have to constantly be chasing after thieves.
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on August 08, 2018:
Judging from all of the comments you get on this article it seems that many people are interested in what is written about each of the different eye colors. This must be a good money maker for you!
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on February 05, 2018:
Lynnette, thank you for sharing your experience. Glad you enjoyed this article!
Lynnette on February 03, 2018:
My eyes are black and it matches my personality to a t
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on January 29, 2018:
Eliza, thank you for reading this article and for your inquiry. I am not aware of any scientific proof that eye color effects character, intelligence, or personality. As this article explains, researchers were trying to determine whether or not eye color might indicate something about these characteristics, but so far I have not heard anything about any results they may have gotten.
I would expect the iris pattern combined with the color to be a better indicator than just the color alone, but really, there are many, many things that combine to determine both a person's eye color as well as the iris pattern. Physical and genetic things that have little if anything to do with personality or intelligence.
That isn't to say that genetics has nothing to do with intelligence or personality. However, some diseases of the body can manifest through effecting the color or iris pattern of the eye, yet have no barring on intelligence or personality, etc.
I can only recommend that you look into the references I have at the end of my article for more in depth information on this subject, and of course Google the questions you have and see what new information may be available.
Good luck on your fair project. Hope you get a blue ribbon!
Eliza on January 29, 2018:
im doing a science fair project on eye color sterotypes and how they affect personalities any tips?
Eliza Fleming on January 29, 2018:
are the personality trates of the eyes proven
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on September 29, 2017:
SaiyanRace, appreciate your finding those terms/phrases for eyes like ours. When I looked for terms I couldn't find any except hazel eyes, which really doesn't fit because brown is included. When I looked up chameleon eyes I got tons of articles about the eyes of chameleons. :) I did eventually find a couple on human eyes that change color, but it wasn't easy.
I have never heard these terms/phrases you mention before. Would be hard to put them on one's driver's license as they're quite long.
Thank you for your time and input.
SaiyanRace on September 22, 2017:
@C E Clark,
Actually, there is a name for our type of eyes. The technical term is Chameleon Eyes or Rayleigh Scattering Eyes.
My eyes change from Green to Blue to Grey to Hazel and I've even been told Violet.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on September 22, 2017:
SaiyanRace, thank you for reading my article and for taking time to comment! Your eyes sound exactly like my own! It was my understanding that here we usually refer to eyes like these as 'hazel eyes,' but then I learned that hazel eyes are usually brownish green, and mine have no brown, so I guess we have no word here for eyes like yours and mine that seem to change from green to blue or some shade thereof according to what color we're wearing, or to our surroundings.
SaiyanRace on September 20, 2017:
I have Green eyes by default, but I also have what's called Chameleon or Rayleigh scattering eyes. My eyes usually change colors to what shirt I am wearing. It's interesting.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on September 06, 2017:
Marvin Helton, thank you for sharing your experience and unique eye color with me and my readers! Your eyes sound very unusual indeed. I think the variation in human eyes is truly amazing and wonderful.
Marvin Helton on September 04, 2017:
I was born with blue yellow eyes. Sometimes the blue will become darker or lighter blue, but the yellow stay the same color yellow. The yellow is around the iris only. I am the only family member I know with blue yellow eyes. Everyone has steel blue or light blue.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on August 09, 2017:
Renjan Paul . . . thank you!
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on June 05, 2017:
Samuel, thank you for commenting. I'm glad you enjoyed this article!
Samuel on May 18, 2017:
It's scary how accurate it is
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on December 14, 2016:
Eliza K., and James, thank you for stopping by. Yes, most people in the world do have brown eyes.
Jay C. O'Brien, thank you for stopping by. Hope you come back, and this time please read this article before commenting so that your comments will be relevant. ;)
James. on November 30, 2016:
Brown eyes. Seems most of us fall under this category.
Jay C. O'Brien on October 07, 2016:
Does Eye Color Indicate Intelligence and Personality?
Learn about the person by what they say and do.
Stop being prejudiced.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on October 06, 2016:
Jakub Klimont and Wendy Cameron, thank you both for commenting on my article. It sounds like you both have some very unusual eye colors. Jakub, I don't understand what it is you want me to tell you. The information here is gathered from many different sources and none of it originates with me. I am not a scientist, just the reporter. I do hope you find the answers you are looking for. Thanks to you both again for taking time to comment and share!
Wendy Cameron on September 27, 2016:
I have green eyes, with a large splash of gold around the pupil, and then a teal ring around the eyeball.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on September 13, 2016:
Ellie, thank you for coming by. I honestly don't know what a thick, dark ring around the iris means. I'm sure it means something. So glad you enjoyed this article!
Ellie on September 07, 2016:
This is a great Article! I have grey/blue eyes with an extremely thick/dark ring. What does that indicate? People keep telling me that I can see inside their soul.
poooonjbkb bn on September 04, 2016:
)i have a mix between blue green gray and black (Really dark brown
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on July 06, 2016:
Shyron, thank you for coming by. All the visuals are here so far as I can tell. All the photos, etc. Check back. Maybe it was a weird glitch. Take care, especially while 'out there.' It's just too hot to be out there.
Shyron E Shenko from Texas on June 29, 2016:
I came back to re-read this and found the pictures gone. Does HP not like visuals?
This is a very informative hub and I found the visuals very helpful, but now they are gone. What is up with that?
Blessings and hugs dear friend.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on February 17, 2016:
Rings, thank you for stopping back and sharing your discoveries and thoughts!
Rings on February 17, 2016:
I commented earlier on another page about my eyes. Ever since I noticed my eyes change from blue to green to Gray with a yellow ring around the pupil it got me to notice my friends. Two of them have the same color. Gray with red ring around the pupil. I never payed attention to eye color so closely until I saw this. Keep in mind my friends and I are in the age group 20-25. We are all Caucasian and brown hair.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on November 11, 2015:
MizBejabbers, thank you for reading and leaving such an interesting comment! As you must have noted, eye color alone is not the determiner of intelligence or personality. Color is combined with the pattern of the iris, but regardless of that, this research is still underway and there has been no definite outcome announced as yet.
Lots of people have eye color that seems to change and some that really does change. I had blue eyes and they only turned green when I was about 15, to match my mother's. My eyes still look blue sometimes if I wear certain colors near my face, and they look very green sometimes for the same reason. Lots of people experience this phenomenon as well.
I have seen people who have black irises. I believe one person commented here who has black irises. They are not common, but they do exist.
Did you know albino people have pink irises often times? Lots of people have flecks in their eyes that may be yellow, red, orange, or other. Sometimes the flecks are thought to indicate disease or other abnormalities.
Doris James MizBejabbers from Beautiful South on November 09, 2015:
Au fait, how interesting about eyes. You bring out black eyes, when another hub I read says there are no such thing. I was told by a Nez Perce that only Native Americans had naturally black eyes. She claimed that other races' dark eyes, including Africans, were brown. She said that she could tell that I am part Native American because (at that time) I had green/black eyes. That is misinformation because my sister had light blue, almost violet eyes, and we had the same parents. My eyes have changed colors a couple of times from blue/black to green/black, and now after the removal of my thyroid, they are going back to an almost navy blue with a limbel that I never noticed I had. So, kind of like hair color, I never know what to list on my driver's license. And does this mean my personality changes every time my eye color changes? LOL
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on July 31, 2015:
MageSim, thank you for stopping and leaving a comment. Black eyes are not common, yet they are more common than green eyes and many other variations.
Hope you noted that black eyes were listed in this article, and this writer has seen people who have them.
Some people may not be exposed to others with different colored eyes very often and they might get the idea that things they haven't seen first hand do not exist, but they are wrong.
MageSim on July 30, 2015:
People say that black eyes are not natural, while i have them.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on July 15, 2015:
Pumpkincat210, thank you for reading and commenting and so glad you enjoyed! I'll be adding some information about iris pattern if the Good Lord is willing and the creek don't rise. I have it and it is not yet as extensive as I would like, but it is interesting . . .
Courtney Rhodes on July 14, 2015:
Ha! That's truly amazing, my eyes are green and the description of the personality is very accurate. I can't wait until they know more about iris patterns. Very interesting.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on July 05, 2015:
Peggy W, good to see you! Thank you for adding some good information to this article. I don't know if you noticed, but I added a new section to the end of this article about 2 months ago, (How You Move Your Eyes Tattles On You).
Thank you for coming by and letting me and my readers know about the relationship between light colored eyes and alcoholism.
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on July 04, 2015:
Something interesting about eye color that I just heard on the news of late... Apparently people with light colored eyes are more susceptible to becoming addicted to alcohol compared to those with darker eyes. It is a recent study and genetics are obviously involved but they have not yet isolated the exact gene. I am sure more scientific research will be done and then what they do with the information other than to pass it along...who knows. Thought that you would be interested since you wrote this hub about different things associated with eye color.
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on April 20, 2015:
Thank you for taking time to read and comment Shyron, especially when you must have so much on your mind. So glad John has been able to come home and hope he will get back to being himself and feel good again.
Yes, I have added some interesting information about eye movement and how it tells researchers who we are. Literally what kind of people we are. Took me long enough to get it published in here.
Also just finished filing a DMCA complaint for plagiarism. 2 entities copied this article word for word and 4 more copied large parts of it. Hope they get them down. Now I have 2 more hubs to do the same thing on.
Blessings and hugs for you both. Hope things only get better now . . .
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on April 18, 2015:
Mariana, thank you for stopping by! Hope you enjoyed this article.
I have just added new information to this article, over 300 words, regarding eye movement and how researchers have determined your eye movements tell the world who you are! It would seem we have no secrets these days regardless of FB or surveillance cameras.
Shyron E Shenko from Texas on April 18, 2015:
Just sitting here at the hospital and reading this again. This is so interesting. Voted up, ABI, I can't share I don't know how to get that button to click to share. I hate this computer but it is the only one I can use in here.
I hope you did not get soaked yesterday.
mariana on April 17, 2015:
the eye colours are very beautiful
my eye colour is dark brown
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on March 17, 2015:
Ezzly, thank you for the vote and the Tweet. Glad you enjoyed. One of these days if I live long enough, I'll be adding more information as more research is in . . .
ezzly on March 16, 2015:
This is a fascinating topic - thank you for opening my eyes ;) Sharing on twitter and voted up !
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on February 27, 2015:
PsychGeek, thank you for reading and commenting, so glad you enjoyed. One of these days I'll get the update incorporated in this article that I've already written. There's much more on this subject. Thanks again!
C E Clark (author) from North Texas on February 26, 2015: