Enceladus and Her Many Mysteries Revealed by the Cassini Space Probe
Enceladus not only has the highest albedo of the solar system but it also has a rather interesting property that is truly unique: it emits huge plumes. And as it turns out those plumes may be exciting for the possibility of life on Enceladus. In June of 2009 German and UK scientists found that table salt could be up to 2 percent of the material that are in the plumes, nearly the same concentration as that found on Earth. This is encouraging because salt in water usually means that erosion is occurring and hence a good source of minerals. And in July 2009 the mass spectrometer on Cassini found ammonia in the debris. This means that liquid water could exist despite the -136 degrees F conditions it would be under. And later observations showed a ph level between 11 and 12, further indicating the salty and acidic nature of Enceladus. Other chemical signatures detected include propane, methane, and formaldehyde, with sodium carbonate levels comparable to those on Earth's Mono Lake (Grant 12, Johnson "Enceladus", Douthitt 56, Betz "Curtains" 13).
The plumes that leave the moon near its south pole becomes plasmic in nature, or that it exits as a highly ionized gas, as it interacts with Saturn's magnetic field. Scientists can learn about plasma behavior and Saturn's magnetic field based on how the plasma acts after leaving the moon. Cassini's plasma spectrometer, magnetometer, magnetosphere imaging, and the radio and plasma science instruments were key in the finding that the plasma mix is made of particles from a few molecules to almost a thousandth of an inch. They also found that almost 90% of the electrons in the plasma tended to be near the larger particles, causing the larger particles to be negative and the smaller one positive. This is the opposite of normal plasma behavior (JPL "Enceladus").
So, what type of particles are the electrons clinging to? The plasma mix is mainly water vapor and dust and thus has different characteristics. After looking at the data scientists concluded that the water molecules mainly stuck together while dust between a nanometer and a micrometer held a majority of the electrons. Not in any other place in the solar system has this type of plasma interaction been recorded and it is sure to reveal many surprising properties in the field of plasma mechanics (Ibid).
How Gravity Paints a Picture
This stream does fluctuate, for Enceldaus orbits Saturn in 33 hours. Because of the elliptical orbit, Enceladus goes through tidal forces, or gravitational pull, that heats up the subsurface water. In fact, as Enceladus gets closer to Saturn the fissures from which the water vapor escapes close up and as Enceladus gets further from Saturn the fissures open up. Infrared observations gathered by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer from 2005 to 2012 show that the plumes can increase in size by as much as 3 times their minimum and also escape at a faster velocity. Scientists suspect that the pull of gravity closes the fissures but that once the gravity is less the fissures open back up. This may also explain why the peak for emissions is 5 hours after the moon's perihelion with Saturn (Johnson "Enceladus", NASA "Cassini Spacecraft," Haynes "Saturn's").
Identifying the Sources of the Plumes
After nearly a decade of observations, in mid-2014 scientists announced that 101 separate geysers had been located on Enceladus. They are scattered amongst the cracks at the south pole and correlate to hot spots on the moon, with higher temperatures corresponding to higher emissions. As it turns out, the friction the water vapor produces by leaving the fissure creates the heat that Cassini measured. Most significant, the size of the openings of the geysers were only 20-40 feet in size, too small to be a result of surface friction. They must have a source deep down to allow such small openings to dispel material, giving further evidence for a subsurface ocean (JPL "Cassini Spacecraft", Wall "101").
Impact on Saturn System
And do those jets impact Saturn's rings? You betcha. Recent observations and computer analysis from Colin Mitchell of the Space Science Institute in Boulder have shown that each geyser flow and its materials manage to escape the pull of the moon and leave behind a wake that eventually gets stretched out into the E ring. It wasn't easy to spot them, however. Certain lighting conditions were needed to get the material to reflect enough light to be captured on camera. In fact, the size of the particles was found to be 1/100,000 of an inch in diameter which matches the size of the material in the E ring. But it gets even better: By knowing how much mass is leaving the moon, scientists can possibly forecast the future date when all the water will be gone from Enceladus (Cassini Imaging Central Lab "Icy tendrils").
And those particles which enter the E ring have some interesting implications. They had traces of oxygen, sodium, and magnesium but the majority of them were made of silica (Si02) which is not a very common molecule to find in the sizes seen by Cassini. In fact the most likely way they form is as a result of hydrothermal vents. But to make sure scientists replicated the expected conditions on Enceladus and tried to generate the particles. They had hot water with ammonia, sodium bicarbonate, olivine, and pyroxene. After mixing well, the sample was frozen in a manner consistent with leaving Enceladus through a geyser. Turns out the condensation removes silica well because the water no longer has sufficient energy to trap it. So long as the water is above 90 degrees Celsius and has an acidity of 8.5 to 10.5 on the ph scale, the particles can be generated. And here on Earth, life exists at vents like these. Enceldaus makes the case for life better and better (Johnson "Hints," Betz "Hydrothermal").
But after examining images Cassini has taken of Enceladus over the years, scientists concluded that a majority of the eruptions we see from the moon are more spread out along the fissures on the surface and not as concentrated jets at specific places. The perspective is key, with different points of Cassini's orbit yielding new views on the fissures, according to a May 7 2015 issue of Nature by Joseph Spitale (from the Planetary Science Institute). Yes, those types still occur but a majority of the material that leaves the moon departs in these diffuse curtains after image processing constantly showed a background glow of material along the fractures in the surface (JPL "Saturn moon's," Betz "Curtains" 13).
Well, all the signs pointed to this conclusion, but after many gravity readings Cassini was able to confirm that Enceladus does have a liquid ocean. The moon orbited too much for it to have a solid interior and models based off the Cassini data point to a liquid ocean. How so? Gravity tugs at objects and as Cassini beams radio waves back to Earth, Doppler shifts record the intensity of the gravity. After over 19 flybys of the moon enough data was collected to see how different places tugged at different rates. Also, images from Cassini show that the surface rotates at a slightly different rate than the rest of the moon. The potential ocean may be 6 miles deep and underneath 19-25 miles of ice. Another chance for life in our solar system! (NASA "Cassini," JPL "NASA").
Betz, Eric. "Curtains of Ice Spew From Enceladus' Salty Seas." Astronomy Sept. 2015: 13. Print.
---. "Hydrothermal Vents Brew in Enceladus' Ocean" Astronomy Jul. 2015: 15. Print.
Douthitt, Bill. "Beautiful Stranger." National Geographic Dec. 2006: 51, 56. Print.
Grant, Andrew. "Wonder Worlds." Discover Oct. 2009: 12. Print.
Haynes, Korey. "Saturn's Moons are Young and Active." Astronomy Jul. 2016: 9. Print.
Johnson, Scott K. "Enceladus' Icy Jets Pulse to the Rhythm of Its Orbit." ars technica. Conte Nast., 31 Jul. 2013. Web. 27 Dec. 2014.
---. "Hints of hydrothermal activity on floor of Enceladus’ ocean." ars technica. Conte Nast., 11 Mar. 2015. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
JPL. "Cassini Spacecraft Reveals 101 Geysers and More on Icy Saturn Moon." Astronomy.com. Kalmbach Publishing Co., 29 Jul. 2014. Web. 29 Dec. 2014.
---. "Enceladus Plume is a New Kind of Plasma Laboratory. Astronomy.com. Kalmbach Publishing Co., 01 Jun. 2014. Web. 27 Dec. 2014.
---. "NASA Space Assets Detect Ocean Inside Saturn Moon." Astronomy.com. Kalmbach Publishing Co., 04 Apr. 2014. Web. 25 Jul. 2016.
---. "Saturn moon's activity could be 'curtain eruptions." Astronomy.com. Kalmbach Publishing Co., 07 May 2015. Web. 10 Jun. 2015.
NASA. "Cassini finds global ocean in Saturn’s moon Enceladus." Astronomy.com. Kalmbach Publishing Co., 15 Sept. 2015. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.
NASA/JPL. "Cassini Spacecraft Reveals Forces Controlling Saturn Moon Jets." Astronomy.com. Kalmbach Publishing Co., 02 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 Dec. 2014.
Wall, Mike. "101 Geysers Discovered On Saturn's Icy Moon Enceladus." HuffingtonPost.com. Huffington Post, 30 Jul. 2014. Web. 29 Dec. 2014.
© 2016 Leonard Kelley
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