Klebsiella pneumoniae Facts, Possible Effects, and Research

Updated on September 24, 2019
AliciaC profile image

Linda Crampton has an honors degree in biology and many years of teaching experience. She finds the study of microorganisms fascinating.

Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (colorized scanning electron micrograph)
Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (colorized scanning electron micrograph) | Source

A Bacterium With Many Potential Effects

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a rod-shaped bacterium that is found in the human body and in the environment. Its effects in humans range from harmless to dangerous, depending on the strain of the bacterium, its location in the body, the ability of the immune system to control or destroy it, and the effect of medical treatment. The most serious effects usually occur in people weakened by pre-existing conditions who are spending time in hospitals or healthcare facilities

The microbe is capable of living in multiple places in the body. It’s commonly stated that K. pneumoniae living in the digestive tract is harmless and that healthy people are unlikely to be affected by the bacterium. This seems to be generally true. Scientists have recently discovered that while the bacterium is in the digestive tract, it may cause problems in some people and in specific circumstances. Further research is required, but the information obtained so far is fascinating and could be very significant.

White blood cells are a major part of the immune system and play an important role in fighting Klebsiella.
White blood cells are a major part of the immune system and play an important role in fighting Klebsiella. | Source

Features of Klebsiella pneumoniae Cells

The photo of K. pneumoniae cells shown at the start of this article is real, but the colours aren't. Colour was added to make the different parts of the photo easier to see. The cells are interacting with a type of white blood cell known as a neutrophil. The photo was taken with the aid of a scanning electron microscope, which produces a highly magnified image in shades of grey. It's wonderful to see such a detailed view of organisms in scanning electron micrographs, as the photos made with the microscope are called.

Like other bacteria, K. pneumoniae is unicellular. Its cell is a short and bulky rod that occurs singly, in a pair (as in the photo above), in a chain, or occasionally in a group. The cell is non-motile. Its contents are covered by an inner cell membrane, a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, and an outer cell membrane. These coverings are in turn surrounded by a capsule. Encapsulated bacteria are often harder to attack than ones without a capsule. Klebsiella cells are gram negative, which means they are stained pink by a particular lab procedure. Gram positive cells are stained purple by the procedure.

Potential Problems Caused by the Bacterium

K. pneumoniae can sometimes be a special problem in healthcare settings. The bacterium can cause a variety of disorders, including:

  • pneumonia
  • urinary tract infections
  • blood infections
  • infected skin wounds and surgical sites
  • meningitis (infection of the meninges, or the membranes around the brain)

There are many other causes of these problems. Anyone experiencing symptoms suggesting their presence should visit a doctor for a diagnosis and treatment.

Infection by the Microbes

According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the bacteria must enter specific areas to cause infections. For example, to cause pneumonia they must enter the lungs and to cause an infected skin wound they must enter the injured area.

The personnel of most health institutions are well aware of the possibility of bacterial transmission and are careful to prevent this from happening. Since the bacteria are microscopic and can't be seen by the unaided eye, however, they are sometimes transferred accidentally on contaminated hands or equipment. Anyone with questions about potential contamination in a particular situation should consult a medical professional.

Since Klebsiella bacteria are mainly transferred by direct contact, washing the hands is important in both health institutions and home situations. It's important to wash the hands:

  • after using a toilet or after helping someone to do this
  • before and after touching a wound or applying an item such as bandage
  • after touching the nose or mouth or materials expelled from them
  • after touching items in hospitals or other places that may have bacteria on their surface
  • before eating food

The CDC recommends that even healthy people take these precautions both outside their homes and inside them.

Washing the hands after an activity that may transfer harmful bacteria is very important.
Washing the hands after an activity that may transfer harmful bacteria is very important. | Source

The Importance of Strain

Like many bacteria, K. pneumoniae exists in the form of different strains, which affects its ability to cause disease and the ability of medications to destroy it. Members of a strain have slightly different features from members of other strains in the species. The differences aren't large enough to create a new species, but they may be very significant with respect to a bacterium's effect on our body. Multiple bacteria have strains that are harmless, cause only minor problems, or are even beneficial as well as strains that are dangerous.

The effects of K. pneumoniae depend on its strain, its location, the body's reaction to its presence, and probably other factors. Understanding the details is important because of the microbe's ability to cause serious health problems. It's also important because of another situation. At least one strain is becoming resistant to the effects of a group of antibiotics known as carbapenems. This is of great concern because carbapenems are considered to be the drugs of last resort for some infections. The development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a serious problem today.

The large intestine contains the greatest concentration of gut bacteria.
The large intestine contains the greatest concentration of gut bacteria. | Source

The Intestinal or Gut Microbiome

The strains of K. pneumoniae that live in the digestive tract are often assumed to be harmless, at least in that location. They may frequently be so. Recent research has suggested that this may not true for everyone. The digestive tract is also known as the gastrointestinal or GI tract and the gut.

It may seem strange that bacteria can survive in our digestive tract. In fact, we have a large population of microbes living in our gut, especially in the large intestine. The community is often referred to as the intestinal or gut microbiome. It's an important community because some species make substances or perform activities that are helpful for us. Research shows that there are at least sometimes harmful species in the gut as well, but they often seem to be kept under control by beneficial or apparently neutral species.

The effects of K. pneumoniae described below are not inevitable and probably depend on specific conditions in the microbe and in the human body. They are important for scientists to explore, though. Researchers need to discover how the bacterium can affect us and ways to prevent problems from occurring.

Alcohol Production by a Bacterium

A very interesting report has shown a possible link between K. pneumoniae in the gut, alcohol production inside the human body, and a potentially serious liver problem. The problem was discovered in a Chinese man who became so drunk after eating a meal rich in carbohydrate or sugar that he sometimes lost consciousness. He had experienced this problem for around ten years before his condition was studied by researchers.

As might be expected, some people at first suspected that the man was a secret drinker. Research showed that this wasn't the case, however. The man was placed in an intensive care unit of a hospital and observed carefully. The doctors discovered that after he ate a meal that contained a lot of sugar, his blood alcohol level rose dramatically and sometimes reached 400 milligrams per deciliter. In more familiar terms, this is the level of alcohol found in 15 shots of 40% whisky.

The researchers analyzed the man's feces at different times and looked for bacterial DNA in the stool. They made a significant discovery. When the man was most intoxicated, Klebsiella pneumoniae formed 18.8% of the bacteria in his stool. This was 900 times greater than the normal level of the bacterium in the feces. The bacteria apparently absorbed components of the man's food and then produced alcohol.

The researched analyzed the Klebsiella bacteria that were present during the man's periods of intoxication. By giving the bacteria sugar, they found that the microbes could be divided into strains that produced a high amount of alcohol, a moderate amount, or a low amount.

Location and shape of the liver
Location and shape of the liver | Source

A Link to Liver Disease

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, is a condition in which fat builds up in the liver. Some people who have the disease eventually experience cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer. Cirrhosis involves the replacement of liver tissue with nonfunctional scar tissue. This can be serious because the liver is a vital organ with many functions. NASH, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is the most serious form of NAFLD. It involves inflammation and cell damage.

Although certain health problems have been linked to the development of NAFLD, the cause of the condition is unknown. Some researchers have previously suggested that gut bacteria are a cause, but the idea hasn't been widely accepted.

The patient mentioned above had NASH. Despite the "nonalcoholic" in the condition's name, his condition may have been caused by alcohol produced by his gut bacteria. When he took antibiotics to kill the Klebsiella and also altered his diet, he no longer became drunk and his liver condition was "alleviated". Evidence described below suggests that his problem was due to the bacteria in his gut and only indirectly to his diet.

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and a neutrophil
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and a neutrophil | Source

Evidence Supporting the Link to Liver Disease

In an attempt to confirm the information described above, the researchers performed four additional experiments.

1. The scientists examined the feces of 43 patients with NAFLD and 48 without the disease. 61% of the people with the liver disease had high or medium alcohol-producing strains of K. pneumoniae in their feces while only 6% of the people without the disease did.

2. The researchers divided mice into three groups and fed them a high alcohol strain of K. pneumoniae, alcohol, or a mixture of yeast and sugar. At the end of four weeks, the first two groups had liver damage while the third group did not.

3. In another experiment, the researchers put K. pneumoniae from the man described above into mice that had no bacteria in their gut. These mice developed liver damage.

4. Phages are viruses that attack bacterial cells but are unable to attack human ones. A group of mice were pre-treated with phages that were able to destroy the Klebsiella in their gut. When the mice were then given the high alcohol strain of the microbe, no liver damage occurred. This results of this experiment suggest that phages might be useful as a treatment for some cases of NASH.

During their experiments, the researchers discovered that simply having a high alcohol strain of the bacterium in their gut was not enough for the mice to exhibit symptoms of inebriation. If they were fed glucose while they contained the bacterium, however, their blood alcohol level rose and they became drunk. Results in mice don't necessarily apply to humans, but they are sometimes very significant.

Understanding how the bacterium may affect our digestive tract and perhaps the liver and what conditions may be required for these effects to occur is important.
Understanding how the bacterium may affect our digestive tract and perhaps the liver and what conditions may be required for these effects to occur is important. | Source

Further Research Is Important

Most of us don't need to worry about Klebsiella pneumoniae in the gut or anywhere else in our body. Unfortunately, this isn't the case for everyone. Since K. pneumoniae is known to cause serious health problems in certain situations, studying its abilities and finding ways to destroy it are very important.

The possible ability of the bacterium living in the digestive tract to cause problems when conditions are suitable is intriguing. I think it's a topic that should be further investigated. The results of the research performed so far are very interesting. If the idea that K. pneumoniae in the gut is never harmful is wrong, we need to know this and find ways to deal with the situation.

Exploring the effects of the microbe is complex due to genetic variability in the bacterium and variation in people's ability to deal with it. The situation is worth exploring, though.

References

  • Klebsiella pneumoniae in healthcare settings from the CDC
  • K. pneumoniae and disease information from WebMD
  • The intestinal microbiome and health from the US National Library of Medicine
  • A possible link between a microbe, alcohol production in the body, and liver disease from Science (the website of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, or AAAS)

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

Questions & Answers

    © 2019 Linda Crampton

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        I appreciate your kindness, Cynthia. I think that the study of our body's microbiome is fascinating.

      • techygran profile image

        Cynthia 

        2 months ago from Vancouver Island, Canada

        Wow, Linda, another excellent science hub. If I had had you as a teacher back in my high school years I do believe that I would have understood biology much better-- or at least would have been more interested in what was being taught. The video about the microbiome was also clearly presented. Good work!

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, Flourish. Yes, there must have been many

        problems for the man. I'm glad the real cause of his condition was eventually discovered.

      • FlourishAnyway profile image

        FlourishAnyway 

        2 months ago from USA

        The story about the man suspected to be a closet drinker is so sad. Just imagine the social, financial, legal, and other impacts from having this.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        I agree, Liz. The drug resistance problem is very worrying. Thanks for the visit.

      • Eurofile profile image

        Liz Westwood 

        2 months ago from UK

        This is a detailed and interesting article. I find it quite frightening to see how drug resistant some strains are becoming.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thanks, Haleema. I appreciate your visit.

      • Haleema Bibi profile image

        Conscious Dreamer 

        2 months ago from Pakistan

        This hub is really helpful. Thanks for sharing this!

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you very much, Hari.

      • shprd74 profile image

        Hari Prasad S 

        2 months ago from Bangalore

        Very useful and comprehensive hub this is Linda. Thanks. :-)

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you, Shaloo. I appreciate your visit and your kind comment.

      • swalia profile image

        Shaloo Walia 

        2 months ago from India

        A very detailed and well researched hub. Your hubs are always full of so much new and interesting information. Thanks for sharing!

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thank you very much for the comment, Heidi. It is amazing to think of the microscopic organisms and particles around and within us. The living world is fascinating.

      • heidithorne profile image

        Heidi Thorne 

        2 months ago from Chicago Area

        One of the most fascinating things is that we are swimming in a pool of almost unlimited bacteria and viral strains. It's amazing we've survived. This is certainly an example of how nature keeps this all in balance (at least most of the time).

        Thanks for sharing your wealth of health and science knowledge with us!

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thanks for the comment, Penny. I was familiar with the bacterium before I started writing this article, but what really sparked my interest was the recent report about its effects. I'm going to follow the news about K. pneumoniae closely.

      • Penny Sebring profile image

        Penny Leigh Sebring 

        2 months ago from Fort Collins

        Very interesting. This is a bacterium I was previously unfamiliar with!

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Thanks for the comment and for sharing your recollection, Bill. Remembering loved ones can sometimes be a moving event.

      • AliciaC profile imageAUTHOR

        Linda Crampton 

        2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

        Hi, Pamela. I appreciate your comment. The report about the link between the bacteria and alcohol production in the body is a recent one. I think it's fascinating research.

      • billybuc profile image

        Bill Holland 

        2 months ago from Olympia, WA

        Once more a fascinating look inside our vessels. My mother would have read this and then convinced herself she was feeling sick. lol Funny what we think of from time to time...that just jumped into my head. My mother was always convinced she was sick. :)

      • Pamela99 profile image

        Pamela Oglesby 

        2 months ago from Sunny Florida

        This is such an interesting article. I have seen people that have his bacteria when I was working as a RN. I sure never heard of the diet (without drinking alcohol) making you drunk. Then, the consequences of serious liver disease is also very concerning. You obviously did a lot of research and wrote an excellent article, Linda.

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)