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Sedimentary Rocks Formation and Fossils

Amazing sedimentary rocks in the Grand Canyon, Arizona.

Amazing sedimentary rocks in the Grand Canyon, Arizona.

A sedimentary rock is just what it sounds like: it is a rock that consists of sediment! They can consist of sand, clay, chalk and fossils. As a marine geologist, I find sedimentary rocks very fascinating!

Some may think that sedimentary rocks are a bit dull since they aren't created by violent and exciting volcano eruptions from the Earth's mantle like the igneous rocks. No, sedimentary rocks have another type of fascinating origin, and every single rock tells a story if you just know how to "read" them! That is one of the fascinating things with sedimentary rocks.

The other exciting part with sedimentary rocks is that they tell us about Earth's history! I will tell you a little about how to do read the rocks, and I hope it will help you to see sedimentary rocks in nature in a new way.

Every single particle in a sedimentary rock initially comes from a rock or as soil on land. Over time, the rock is broken down into small particles by weathering and the small particles are transported away. Sometimes the transportation distance is long and sometimes shorter. Most sedimentary rocks consist of small particles that have a long and fascinating story to tell from their long journey behind them. Read on and you will know why and how.

Sediment

First we need to make clear what sediment is! Sediment is material that occurs natural and is broken down by processes like weathering and erosion. Sediment are also transported in some way by water or wind, by ice, and/or transported by gravity from the particles itself.

This means that sedimentary rocks can consists of all the materials on earth and take a minute to think about the breathtaking fact that every single particle in a sedimentary rock have been transported and shaped by transportation in more than one media, and finally, that particle has settled down upon the deep ocean floor long, long time ago. It gets even more fascinating to think about that we can actually see and walk on former ocean floor that looks amazing in many places on earth. I have some pictures from such a place further down in the article. And then, when the ocean floor becomes rocks on land the weathering starts again. It is like an ongoing transportation of particles that never ends.

Weathering

I think you all know what weathering is but I include the definition anyway. Weathering occurs when a rock is fragmented by mechanical forces or are decomposed by chemical alteration.

Mechanical weathering is done by water, wind, frost wedging, heat, ice, biological activity like roots, and since it is only mechanical influence, there is no change in the ingoing parts of the rock since the rock's mineral composition is the same. It is only broken it down in smaller pieces. The end result is many small pieces from a single large one.

Chemical weathering means that the rock goes through a transformation chemically into one or more new compounds. Since water is a great solvent water is a major force in chemical weathering. But rocks are also weathered in other ways such as through dissolution, oxidation and hydrolysis that occurs in water.

How Are Sedimentary Rocks Formed?

All these single particles of sand, rocks, mud and clay becomes sedimentary rocks mainly by through two major ways of lithification.

Lithification means a process where sediments are transformed into sedimentary rocks. Cementation and compaction are both lithification processes that transform sediments into sedimentary rocks. The necessary compaction is created by the accumulation of sediment that accumulate over already deposited sediment. By time, the weight and the heat increases and the grains are pressed closer and closer together. The compaction reduces the pore space between the particles and can in this way transform fine grained particles into more or less solid rocks.

For rocks with bigger particles, the transformation to a rock comes from cementation that is created by smaller particles that fills the pore spaces between the bigger particles.

Groups

There are two major groups of sedimentary rocks: chemical sedimentary rocks and detrital sedimentary rocks.

Detrital Sedimentary Rocks

The most common minerals in detrital sedimentary rocks are clay minerals and quartz but they can also consist of feldspars and micas.

Detrital rock are distinguished by particle size as you can see in the table above. Apart from distinguish different sedimentary rocks the particle size can also tell us useful information about the environment where the particle once deposited. Big particle size needs stronger currents to move them and so big particle size implies that the particle was settled in a stronger current. Less energy is required to transport small particles as clay and sand, so then we know that fine sand can be transported by wind and smaller water currents and it takes a very calm environment for clay to settle and deposit. This is very interesting and by thinking about it we can figure out where a sedimentary rock was created.

Shale

Shale is a very common sedimentary rock that consists of clay and silt sized particles. Since the particles are so small they can not be seen without magnification. The particle size is very small and this means that it must have been deposited in a relatively calm environment such as deep-ocean basins or in lakes with not so strong currents. Other places where shale can form are lagoons and river floodplains. The special with shale is that this sedimentary rock has the ability to split into thin layers. This is because silt and clay particles in shale are so closely packed and the particles are also positioned parallel alignment to each other. Although shale is the most common of sedimentary rock it is not so well known as the sandstone. The reason for that is probably that shale isn't so visible and many time the shale are covered with soil or are overgrown by vegetation. The soil comes from the shale itself since shale decompose easily. This is very obvious in places where shale and sandstone are present. In such places you can see sandstone that have dramatic forms with steep edges and the shale that has much less steep slopes and shale is also often the areas where vegetation are visible.

Sandstone

Sandstone is a rock that contains of sand sized grains and sandstone is the second most common sedimentary rock on earth and probably the most known. The history and origin of a sandstone can often be told by the sorting of the grains, by the particle size, the particles roundness and mineral composition. For example, if the grains are rounded we can tell that the particle has been transported some distance by water. There are many different types of sandstones and the difference between them is due to the minerals in the stone.

Grand Canyon, Arizona is a place where both Sandstone and Shale can be seen.

Conglomerate and Breccia

Conglomerate consists mostly of gravels. It can consist of large boulders and smaller gravel. The particles with large grain size can be seen visually and the spaces between the gravel are often filled with sand and mud. With the aid from the big particle size in conglomerate we can tell that there are indications of that the deposition have occurred in an environment with strong currents and/or slopes.

Breccia is pretty much the same as a conglomerate but in a breccia the particles have angular shape instead of rounded shape. The angular shape tells us that the gravel hasn't been transported very long distance from where it was deposited.

Detrital Rocks

Rock nameParticle sizeComments

Conglomerate

Gravel (<2 mm)

Rounded rock fragments

Breccia

Gravel (<2 mm)

Angular rock fragments

Quartz Sandstone

Sand (1/16 mm)

Quartz predominates

Arkose

Sand (1/16 mm)

Quartz with considerable feldspar

Graywacke

Sand (1/16 mm)

Dark color; quartz, feldspar, clay

Shale

Mud (<1/16 mm)

Splits into thin layers

Mudstone

Mud (<1/16 mm)

Breaks into clumps and blocks

Chemical Sedimentary Rock

Limestone

Limestone is the most abundant chemical sedimentary rock and consists mostly of calcite. Most of them origins from a marine environment and consists of the skeletons of dead organism. One example are coral reefs, and the most well-known coral reef is the Australian Great Barrier Reef. But there are also limestones that have an inorganic origin and consist of calcite that that was formed by chemical changes or high water temperatures.

In 2002 I participated in an Excursion on Cyprus conducted by the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg. It was 14 wonderful days on the lovely island Cyprus and I learn so much by using marine geology practically in field. One of the tasks that was given to us was to describe and interpret the formation and also date the limestone called the Lefkara formation at Petounda Point in southern Cyprus. You can see the impressive formation in the photo. Although this formation is very spectacular and special, there are so many places where you can see fantastic limestones on Earth.

Chert

Chart is made of silica that is very compact and hard. Examples of Chart are Flint and Agate. Chart can be found in limestone and as layers in rock. The silica in charts can be originated from organism with silica skeletons or from volcanic ash.

Dolostone

Dolostone is composed of dolomite that are a calcium, magnesium carbonate mineral. They are formed in seawater and is related to limestone.

Evaporites

Evaporites are formed when seawater evaporates. And everywhere evaporites can be found today there has been a basin submerged under seawater during Earths history. The minerals in seawater evaporates in different pace according to their solubility. Gypsum and halite are not so soluble and evaporates first and later comes potassium and magnesium salt.

Coal

Coal is made of organic matter such as leaves, wood and bark and other plant materials. It takes millions of years to form coal and it can only develop in a oxygen- poor swamp where the bacteria can not fulfill the decomposition of the plants.

Chemical Rocks

Rock nameComposition

Limestone

Calcite Co3

Dolostone

Dolomite, CaMg (Co3)2

Chert

Microchrystalline Quartz SiO2

Rock Salt

Halite NaCl

Rock Gypsum

Gypsym, Ca So4 2 H2O

Coal

Altered Plant Remains

Fossils and Dating

Dating fossils can for example be done by dating the rock itself or by dating the rock from its fossil content. Many times both methods are used for correlation.

Through many years of research on rocks and fossils scientists has developed a geological time scale for Earth. This geologic scale has been thouroughly verified by matching rocks of similar age in different regions.

Dating rocks from a rocks physical criteria can easily be done by correlation when it comes to short distances since we can find similar layers in the rocks from one place to another. But when it comes to correlation of rocks in widely separated areas it is better to correlate the layers in rock by its fossil content. This can be done because research has shown that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order. This means that any time period in Earth history can be recognized by its fossil content. This is known as the "principal of fossil succession."

Some fossils are more useful for dating and correlation than other fossils and these fossils are called index fossils. Index fossils are fossils that was spread over big parts of the Earth at a certain time and these fossils are therefor great time indicators.

Dating fossils and rocks isn't done by using only one dating method. Instead many different methods are being used to correlate in order to be sure of the dating. It would take me several more hubs to explain in detail the methods and how it is done, and maybe I will extend this hub later with dating methods.

Quiz

For each question, choose the best answer. The answer key is below.

  1. What is the name of the sedimentary rock that is formed by rounded rock fragments?
    • Breccia
    • Conglomerate
  2. What is the name of the chemical sedimentary rock that consist of calcite?
    • Limestone
    • Chert
  3. To which group of sedimentary rock belongs Shale?
    • Detrital rocks
    • Chemical rocks
  4. In what type of environment is a fine-grained mudstone created?
    • In an environment with very strong currents
    • In a very calm environment

Answer Key

  1. Conglomerate
  2. Limestone
  3. Detrital rocks
  4. In a very calm environment

Comments

Ringo Star on March 19, 2019:

I Love rocks this is a brilliant report have u any I can buy thanks

steve Grant on October 08, 2017:

Found it very informative thanks. I have found some leaf prints in shale in Captains Flat n.s.w. Australia.

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 28, 2012:

Hi cclitgirl, Sedimentary rocks create such beautiful places and many times with wonderful colors! No wonder you want to go back there someday. Garden of Gods in Colorado Springs sounds like a wonderful place and I immediately get a view in my head with fantastic sedimentary rocks! It is funny how rocks is important to most people, but sometimes without we think about it. We become so used to see the rocks in the area where we grow up and we don't realize how much it means to us until we return or see them again. i feel the same with the coastline here on the Swedish west coast and I feel at home the moment I see the typical rocks here and gets near them! Thanks for reading and for the comment and all, cclitgirl!

Tina

Cynthia Calhoun from Western NC on March 27, 2012:

What an amazing gem of a hub! I love how you go into such detail about sedimentary rocks. I can't believe I forgot that sandstone was sedimentary rock - the Garden of the Gods in Colorado Springs where I grew up are sandstone and you helped me remember this in your hub. I love that region of the country. Perhaps I'll have the opportunity to move back there someday. :) Voted up and shared!

jjexon on March 26, 2012:

my pleasure, always be happy

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Thanks jjexon! I am glad you liked this!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Martie, Congratulations from you are special to me, my sister in hub land! Hugs!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Hi homesteadbound, I often feel the same when I read something, and the memories from what I once learned comes back while I read! I am glad that I could remind you of this. I am always glad to see you and thanks for the congrats and the comment!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Hi Rufus rambles! It is a great subject and the best is that it gets more interesting when we learn more about it! Thanks for reading and the comment, I appreciate both!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Ruchira, Thanks for your fantastic and warm comment! It is easy to write here with such fantastic hub friends!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Hi TrahnTheMan, I am so glad you say that and I feel a bit overwhelmed by all the fantastic comments! It is always great to know that the my article can be useful to others. Thanks for reading and for the great comment!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

acaetnna, I didn't know that you where a teacher but the children are lucky to have such a warm and loving person as a teacher! Thank you for your support and the voting! Hugs!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

prasetio, Thank you! You are always so kind and leave wonderful comments. You are a special hub friend and I am very pleased that I could teach you something new!

I hope you have a great day!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

pstraubie48, You are so right, both about the story and that I enjoyed writing this hub! Thanks for this wonderful and nice comment and for the congrats! I am happy to share the fantastic journey of sedimentary rocks with you!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Hi livingpah2004, Thank you so much for the positive comment and I am glad that you liked this one!

Best wishes,

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Thank you silver Fish! It is great to see you and I appreciate the visit!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Movie, I am always glad to see you and thanks for the congrats! Hugs

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 23, 2012:

Hi pinto2011, Yes they have a great story to tell! It is nice meeting you and I appreciate your great comment!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 22, 2012:

Hi Lilleyth, Thanks for reading and for the comment! I appreciate it!!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 22, 2012:

Hi the girls, Grand Canyon must be so magnificent to see and I do wish I can go there some time. I can not imagine a better place to study sedimentary rocks:) Thanks for reading and for the comment!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 22, 2012:

Hi simplyreviews, I agree with you totally! Nature always make me feel amazed and humble over the well designed structures and events that are linked together. Thank you for the insightful comment , I am glad to hear that you liked this one!

Best wishes to you,

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 22, 2012:

Hi randomcreative and thanks for the lovely comment! Sedimentary rocks are very beautiful and also fascinating! I appreciate your visit and I hope you have a great day!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 22, 2012:

Hi vespawoolf! I am happy to know that you found this hub interesting, it is great to share knowledge in an area that I love! Thank you so much for the positive comment and for the congrats!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 22, 2012:

Thank you Tammy! I am so glad you liked this one and I appreciate your comment. It means a lot to me! Earth is fantastic and there is so much more to learn.

Take care

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 22, 2012:

Hi Marcy, I know what you mean and I do the same when I am driving! Speak about focusing on the wrong thing as a driver:) Some rocks are really fantastic and there are so much to see, both in colors and layers. Sedimentary rocks are like an ancient book if we know the letters. I have only seen your part of the world on TV and it looks fantastic with all the formations but it must be so much more beautiful in reality. If I ever come to your part of the world, I will not be driving! Thank you so much Marcy, it is always great to see you!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 22, 2012:

Hi amilypitt, Yes, sedimentary rocks have a beauty of their own and can tell us an interesting story! Thanks for reading and for taking the time to leave such a nice comment, I appreciate it,

Best wishes

Tina

jjexon on March 22, 2012:

Yery Nice work madam, i like it

jjexon on March 22, 2012:

very nice

Martie Coetser from South Africa on March 21, 2012:

Congratulations, my dear friend, Tina, with this Hub of the Day (22 March 2012)

:)))

Cindy Murdoch from Texas on March 21, 2012:

I have always found rocks to be fascinating. Until reading your hub, I had forgotten many things that I had learned about rocks and the kinds of rocks. Thanks so much for reminding me.

Congrats on hub of the day. This was indeed a good one!

Rufus rambles from Australia on March 21, 2012:

I used to love Geography at school - this is a great hub that will be really useful for students.

Ruchira from United States on March 21, 2012:

Congrats Tina for creating such a marvelous hub that it's the HUB OF THE DAY :) Cheers!

TrahnTheMan from Asia, Oceania & between on March 21, 2012:

Fabulous hub Tina! I can see many junior high geography teachers using this as a basis for geology 101. Highly deserving of hub of the day! Voted up.

acaetnna from Guildford on March 21, 2012:

Tina congratuations, this is a sensationally brilliant hub. It is so informative and well written. This will without doubt be really useful to the children that I teach. Voting up of course and pressing all those buttons too!

prasetio30 from malang-indonesia on March 21, 2012:

Excellent and very well written, Tina. I love the way you taught us about fossils and sedimentary rocks. I learn many things from you. Good presentation. Thanks for writing and share with us. Vote up (useful, awesome, beautiful, interesting).

Prasetio

Patricia Scott from North Central Florida on March 21, 2012:

What an adventure you have shared with us... I do imagine it was fun to write as it contains all of the elements of a story that takes one on a journey that we find at the end we are not ready for it to end..thank you for sharing this and congratulations on hub of the day...

Milli from USA on March 21, 2012:

Very well researched! I have learned some new information, thanks to you. Congratulations on the Hub of the day award. Voted up!

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 21, 2012:

Hi SanneL, It is so nice to see you here! I think it is very common that we don't really see the things that are familiar and have always been in our surroundings. And even if we see rocks in nature, we normally don't spend so much time thinking about how and why the rocks are there!

You are so lucky to have the best of both, both the fantastic rocks along the Swedish west coast and the wonderful sedimentary rocks in Greece! That would be awesome! I was so fascinated over the rocks on Cyprus when I was there, and I will never forget the beautiful nature and the clear blue sea. Mediterranian is special, so Greece is definitely in top of my list of places I will visit next time I travel somewhere.

Thank you SanneL, for reading and for the wonderful comment. It is special to have another Swede here on HubPages!

Have a great day in the sunshine

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 21, 2012:

Rajan Jolly, I am so glad you like this and I am overwhelmed by your kind words! My purpose with this hub was to share my fascination of nature and rocks in particularly and from your comment I know that I must have done just that. Thanks for telling me, it made my day! There is something so beautiful and comforting to think about the individual particles that make a never ending journey. Thanks for reading, for the congrats and for the votes!! I appreciate it very much!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 21, 2012:

Kelley! Thank you for the congrats! This is my first hub of the day and I must say that I am pleased that this hub was chosen, since I had a great time writing it! I am so glad you liked this hub

Take care

Tina

Silver Fish from Edinburgh Scotland on March 21, 2012:

Well done Tina on your Hub of the day!

Movie Master from United Kingdom on March 21, 2012:

I'm back again to say congratulations on hub of the day!

Well done, a great hub, best wishes Lesley

Subhas from New Delhi, India on March 21, 2012:

Just great piece of info. It seems that a rock is having a whole piece of history in its heart and trying to tell us something.

Suzanne Sheffield from Mid-Atlantic on March 21, 2012:

Really interesting and beautiful photographs.

Theresa Ventu from Los Angeles, California on March 21, 2012:

I have been to Grand Canyon and it was an awesome experience! I felt insignificant compared to the power and beauty of nature :-)

simplyreviews from Global Citizen. on March 21, 2012:

@thougtforce

The force of Nature never fail to amaze me. Just how they form rock is enough to send me into awe. Nature is a good reminder that we should be humble. I only know how Evaporites are formed today. Thanks for sharing.

Rose Clearfield from Milwaukee, Wisconsin on March 21, 2012:

What a great resource! This hub is both interesting and beautiful. Congrats on getting Hub of the Day!

Vespa Woolf from Peru, South America on March 21, 2012:

Congratulations on Hub of the Day! You actually make sedimentary rock formations interesting...love the charts on detrital and chemical rocks.

Tammy from North Carolina on March 21, 2012:

Gorgeous photos and a great science lesson. I love learning about the Earth. Congratulations on a well deserved Hub of the Day! Excellent!

Marcy Goodfleisch from Planet Earth on March 21, 2012:

Great photos, and excellent details about how they are formed. I love driving through areas where you can see the layers and the colors that signify various stages of weathering and climate changes. The Southwest is particularly rich in these formations - it's almost like driving through the pages of a textbook (maybe I got that in reverse - I guess the mountains were there before the textbooks were!).

Great hub!

amilypitt from Washington, USA on March 21, 2012:

Informative post. You did a lot of research on sediment rocks and also explain it in a very easy way. You did your job very well. I like your topic, sediment rocks and yes though they are dull and their formation is different from the other kind of rocks but yet they have their own beauty and prosperity.

SanneL from Sweden on March 21, 2012:

First of all, I have to congratulate you for "The hub of the day" award, and after having read this, I understand why. This hub is truly fascinating and well presented! I'll admit, I don't have much knowledge about rocks, but admire people for their interest and expertise in this subject.

I do agree with your love, for our "typical" rocks along the Swedish west coast. To me there is nothing more beautiful. However, sharing my life between Sweden and Greece, I have the fortune to enjoy the nature Greece has to offer. Besides the natural advantage of abundant sunshine and history, this country also have an abundant of different rocks, which I had no idea what they were called, before I read this. Voted up, awesome and shared.

Tina, thank you for a very interesting read. Well done!

Best wishes!

Rajan Singh Jolly from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA. on March 21, 2012:

Tina, what a beautifully drawn out history of the mystery in rock formation. Very enjoyable and informative. You explained it all so well in such simple terms. The pictures are so adorably complementary to the hub.

Voted up and across, awesome ,beautiful, interesting and useful. No wonder it had to make it to the hub of the day. Congratulations.

kelleyward on March 21, 2012:

What a great hub with great pictures! Congrats on the Hub of the Day!

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 20, 2012:

Hi acaetnna, Yes, I do love to have rocks in my garden too, they add so much in both shape and form! Thanks for the visit and the comment, I always appreciate a visit from you in my corner! Have a great day,

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 20, 2012:

Hi Nell, I know what you mean and I can not resist to collect a beautiful or special rock from different places either. Sometimes it can be difficult to tell the exact name of the rock but I love them anyway and it gives me something to wonder about later. The rocks I collect remember me of the place I picked them up, and who was with me that day so it is also great memories. There are so many ways to use them and the garden or the balcony are great ideas. I am thrilled to know that you found this interesting and I wish you many more fantastic findings of rocks!

Take care

Tina

acaetnna from Guildford on March 19, 2012:

Wow this is so completely packed with amazing facts. I would dearly love to see your garden at sometinme in the very near future.

Nell Rose from England on March 19, 2012:

Hi, Tina, this was really interesting for me, I collect rocks, small ones from different places such as the beach or inland where I visit, smooth ones or ones with strange shapes, and use them for my brothers garden or my balcony, but I never realised which one was what, I had heard of sedimentary rocks but wasn't quite sure what it meant, this was great and really interesting, voted up! cheers nell

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 18, 2012:

Hi Tom, To share my fascination for sedimentary rocks was the purpose with this article and I am so glad to hear that you liked this one! Thank you so much for the votes and the comment, I am always glad to see you in my corner!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 18, 2012:

Hi Alicia! Thanks for this positive comment, I value your opinion very much! Sedimentary rocks are indeed beautiful and interesting!

Take care,

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 18, 2012:

Hi Eiddwen and thank you for the encouraging comment! It is easy to write about things we like and are interested in! I am glad you enjoyed it too! Take care,

Tina

Thomas Silvia from Massachusetts on March 17, 2012:

Hi Tina, thanks for this very informative hub, it made me feel like i was on a geological dig it was very fascinating to learn more about this interesting subject.

Vote up and more !!!

Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on March 17, 2012:

This is a very informative hub, Tina! It contains a lot of useful and interesting information and is a great description of sedimentary rocks. Thanks for all the helpful facts, photos and videos.

Eiddwen from Wales on March 17, 2012:

I remember learning all this in school but I think you are a better teacher!!

Very interesting;take care and enjoy your weeknd.

Eddy.

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 17, 2012:

Ruchira, Thank you very much for the positive comment! I hope your kid liked it too! I believe it all it all depends on the age and if they are interested. I try to show my daughter the beauty of geology but I have not been successful so far:))

Best wishes to you Ruchira

Tina

Ruchira from United States on March 16, 2012:

Very thorough research Tina. Loved it. Actually made my kid read it as well :)

Voted up as useful and interesting.

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 14, 2012:

Hi Movie M! Yes, it really is a fascinating subject:) Oh, the Jurassic coast is a fantastic place for fossil hunting! I have never been there myself but I have heard about it, and I would love to visit it someday. To search for fossils in places like that is so fun and interesting! How lucky you are to have it near by. You must have an awesome collection of fossils and rocks at home!

Thanks Lesley for the interesting comment and for reading!

Best wishes to you

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 14, 2012:

Hi Simone, It is always great to see you and I hope you enjoyed studying geology as much as I did! Thanks for the comment, I appreciate it!

Tina

Movie Master from United Kingdom on March 13, 2012:

What a fascinating subject, thank you for such a detailed and informative hub.

I have always been interested in unusual rock formation, but know little on the subject.

We have a coastline in England called the Jurassic coast, it's fantastic for fossil hunting, I love searching there and bring home all sorts of stuff!

Voting up best wishes Lesley

Simone Haruko Smith from San Francisco on March 12, 2012:

This totally takes me back to my geology days in college. Great explanations!

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 12, 2012:

Hi Alastar, Yes they are! It is like a key to the past and sometimes a very long, long time back in time. Yes, the Sphinx has a fascinating story too and it will be interesting to follow the different ideas of its origin.

Oh, I am a bit envy of people like you living in areas with sandstones! It must be so many beautiful rocks to look at in such parts of the world. Where I live, the dominating rocks are granite and gneiss and although I love the typical rocks along the Swedish west coast I would like to have some sedimentary rocks here too. Thanks Alastar for your visit and the comment! I hope you have a great day in your parts of the world!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 12, 2012:

Cloverleaf, Since this is one of my interests, I really had a great time writing this! The difficult part is to stop writing before the hub gets way too long:) Thanks for reading and your comments are always appreciated by me,

Tina

Alastar Packer from North Carolina on March 12, 2012:

Sedimentary rocks and fossils are fascinating with their ability to tell us what they do. Much enjoyed learning about them here Tina. Although not a fossil the Weathering part reminds of how the Sphinx has been all but proven to be much, much older than ever thought before. Also, we have lots of quartz, mica, and sandstone over in this neck of the woods. Thanks Tina, from now on I'll know a good bit more about what's what with the sediment layers in fossil dating and such.

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 11, 2012:

Thank you Silver Fish, I value your comment and I appreciate your visit in my corner!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 11, 2012:

Hi lone77star, It certainly is a great story that the rocks can tell us and it is also our history. We can learn so much from research in this field and there is still so much more to know. Even though volcano eruptions are magnificent and fantastic to see I agree with you that sedimentary rocks are more interesting! Thanks for your visit and the encouraging comment,

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 11, 2012:

Rusticliving, A mining store! That sounds so interesting for both you and the customers! Then you know so much about this subject, isn't it fascinating? Thank you so much for the comment and for sharing, it means a lot to me!

Tina

Cloverleaf from Calgary, AB, Canada on March 11, 2012:

Hi Tina, thanks for putting together such an informative and well presented hub about fossils and sedimentary rocks. I had never heard of the term lithification before; I found this especially interesting.

Voted up / interesting

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 11, 2012:

Hi Sir Dent! I am so glad to meet you and I want to thank you for asking this interesting question! I knew I had to answer the question the moment I saw it, since marine geology is one of my passions in life:) 75% is good, and you can always take the test again! Thanks for the question, the vote and the comment!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 11, 2012:

Deborah, Great to know that you liked this one! Yes, there are so many fantastic pictures from all over the world and I had a great time when I selected these. Thanks for your visit, the votes and the generous comment,

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 11, 2012:

Hi Billybuc, Yes, to see a sample in a microscope is like entering a totally new world! Many rocks are simply beautiful and I am not the same person as before after my studies in geology. You must have inspired so many kids during your time as a teacher, and to have an inspiring teacher like you can make all the difference later in life!I am glad to meet another one who is fascinated by rocks:) It is a fantasic area to be interested in and there is so much more to learn! Thanks for your comment, I appreciate you!

Tina

Christina Lornemark (author) from Sweden on March 11, 2012:

Hi Judi Bee, it is so great to hear that you liked this one even if it isn't about one of your areas of interest. That makes your comment so valuable! I often find myself reading and enjoying hubs about topics totally unknown for me and that is one of the best things about hub pages. We learn form each other! Thank you so much for your comment and the votes!

Tina

Silver Fish from Edinburgh Scotland on March 11, 2012:

Fascinating hub, well done.

Rod Martin Jr from Cebu, Philippines on March 10, 2012:

I find sedimentary rock far more interesting than igneous. So much more detail and variety and what a story!

Nicely done!

Liz Rayen from California on March 10, 2012:

Great great Hub! I used to teach a great deal of this to my customers when we had our Mining store. Nicely done Christina! :) Voted up and Shares!

Lisa

SirDent on March 10, 2012:

Great answer. You went into a lot of detail in your answer and I appreciate it very much. I voted your answer up. Only scored 75% on the test though. I have to do better.

Deborah Brooks Langford from Brownsville,TX on March 10, 2012:

wow how interesting. great hub.. thanks for sharing.

the pictures are awesome.. I learned so much

voted up

Debbie

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on March 10, 2012:

I thought I was the only one fascinated by rocks. I used to bring in samples to science class and the kids were awestruck when they got those samples under a microscope. Great subject, great hub, great pictures.

Judi Brown from UK on March 10, 2012:

This is a subject right out of my comfort zone and I really enjoyed reading it! Loved the photos too, thanks for sharing!

Voted up etc.