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Sedimentary Rocks Formation and Fossils!

Updated on March 15, 2015

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Amazing sedimentary rocks, Grand Canyon, arizona
Amazing sedimentary rocks, Grand Canyon, arizona | Source

Sedimentary Rocks!

A sedimentary rock is just what it sounds like: it is a rock that consists of sediment! Sedimentary rocks can consist of sand, clay, chalk and fossils and as a marine geologist I find sedimentary rocks very fascinating! Some may think that sedimentary rocks is a bit dull since sedimentary rocks isn't created by violent and exciting volcano eruptions from the Earths mantle like the igneous rocks. No, sedimentary rocks have another type of fascinating origin and every single rock tells a story if you just know how to "read" the rock! That is one of the fascinating thing with sedimentary rocks! The other exciting part with sedimentary rocks is that they tell us about Earths history! I will tell you a little about how to do read the rocks and I hope it will help you to see sedimentary rocks in nature in a new way!

Every single particle in a sedimentary rock initially comes from a rock or as soil on land. By time, the rock is broken down into small particles by weathering and the small particles are transported away. Sometimes the transportation distance is long and sometimes shorter. And most sedimentary rocks consists of small particles that have a long and fascinating story to tell from their long journey behind them. Read on and you will know why and how!


Sediment

First we need to make clear what sediment is! Sediment is material that occurs natural and is broken down by processes like weathering and erosion. Sediment are also transported in some way by water or wind, by ice, and/or transported by gravity from the particles itself.

This means that sedimentary rocks can consists of all the materials on earth and take a minute to think about the breathtaking fact that every single particle in a sedimentary rock have been transported and shaped by transportation in more than one media, and finally, that particle has settled down upon the deep ocean floor long, long time ago. It gets even more fascinating to think about that we can actually see and walk on former ocean floor that looks amazing in many places on earth. I have some pictures from such a place further down in the article. And then, when the ocean floor becomes rocks on land the weathering starts again. It is like an ongoing transportation of particles that never ends.


Weathering

I think you all know what weathering is but I include the definition anyway. Weathering occurs when a rock is fragmented by mechanical forces or are decomposed by chemical alteration.

Mechanical weathering is done by water, wind, frost wedging, heat, ice, biological activity like roots, and since it is only mechanical influence, there is no change in the ingoing parts of the rock since the rockĀ“s mineral composition is the same. It is only broken it down in smaller pieces. The end result is many small pieces from a single large one.

Chemical weathering means that the rock goes through a transformation chemically into one or more new compounds. Since water is a great solvent water is a major force in chemical weathering. But rocks are also weathered in other ways such as through dissolution, oxidation and hydrolysis that occurs in water.


How are sedimentary rocks formed?

All these single particles of sand, rocks, mud and clay becomes sedimentary rocks mainly by through two major ways of lithification.

Lithification means a process where sediments are transformed into sedimentary rocks. Cementation and compaction are both lithification processes that transform sediments into sedimentary rocks. The necessary compaction is created by the accumulation of sediment that accumulate over already deposited sediment. By time, the weight and the heat increases and the grains are pressed closer and closer together. The compaction reduces the pore space between the particles and can in this way transform fine grained particles into more or less solid rocks.

For rocks with bigger particles, the transformation to a rock comes from cementation that is created by smaller particles that fills the pore spaces between the bigger particles.

Groups

There are two major groups of sedimentary rocks: chemical sedimentary rocks and detrital sedimentary rocks.

Detrital Rocks

Rock name
Particle size
Comments
Conglomerate
Gravel (<2 mm)
Rounded rock fragments
Breccia
Gravel (<2 mm)
Angular rock fragments
Quartz Sandstone
Sand ( 1/16 mm)
Quartz predominates
Arkose
Sand ( 1/16 mm)
Quartz with considerable feldspar
Graywacke
Sand ( 1/16 mm)
Dark color; quartz, feldspar, clay
Shale
Mud (<1/16 mm)
Splits into thin layers
Mudstone
Mud (<1/16 mm)
Breaks into clumps and blocks

Chemical Rocks

Rock name
Composition
Limestone
Calcite Co3
Dolostone
Dolomite, CaMg (Co3)2
Chert
Microchrystalline quartz SiO2
Rock salt
Halite NaCl
Rock Gypsum
Gypsym, Ca So4 2 H2O
Coal
Altered plant remains
Shale
Shale | Source
Sandstone from Colorado
Sandstone from Colorado | Source
The big rounded gravel particles can be seen clearly in this Conglomerate from Australia!
The big rounded gravel particles can be seen clearly in this Conglomerate from Australia! | Source
The gravel in Breccia has a much more angular shape than in conglomerate.
The gravel in Breccia has a much more angular shape than in conglomerate. | Source

Detrital sedimentary rocks

The most common minerals in detrital sedimentary rocks are clay minerals and quartz but they can also consist of feldspars and micas.

Detrital rock are distinguished by particle size as you can see in the table above. Apart from distinguish different sedimentary rocks the particle size can also tell us useful information about the environment where the particle once deposited. Big particle size needs stronger currents to move them and so big particle size implies that the particle was settled in an stronger current. Less energy is required to transport small particles as clay and sand so then we know that fine sand can be transported by wind and smaller water currents and it takes a very calm environment for clay to settle and deposit. This is very interesting and by thinking about it we can figure out where a sedimentary rock was created.

Shale

Shale is a very common sedimentary rock that consists of clay and silt sized particles. Since the particles are so small they can not be seen without magnification. The particle size is very small and this means that it must have been deposited in a relatively calm environment such as deep-ocean basins or in lakes with not so strong currents. Other places where shale can form are lagoons and river floodplains. The special with shale is that this sedimentary rock has the ability to split into thin layers. This is because silt and clay particles in shale are so closely packed and the particles are also positioned parallel alignment to each other. Although shale is the most common of sedimentary rock it is not so well known as the sandstone. The reason for that is probably that shale isn't so visible and many time the shale are covered with soil or are overgrown by vegetation. The soil comes from the shale itself since shale decompose easily. This is very obvious in places where shale and sandstone are present. In such places you can see sandstone that have dramatic forms with steep edges and the shale that has much less steep slopes and shale is also often the areas where vegetation are visible.

Sandstone

Sandstone is a rock that contains of sand sized grains and sandstone is the second most common sedimentary rock on earth and probably the most known. The history and origin of a sandstone can often be told by the sorting of the grains, by the particle size, the particles roundness and mineral composition. For example, if the grains are rounded we can tell that the particle has been transported some distance by water. There are many different types of sandstones and the difference between them is due to the minerals in the stone.

Grand Canyon, Arizona is a place where both Sandstone and Shale can be seen.

Conglomerate and Breccia

Conglomerate consists mostly of gravels. It can consist of large boulders and smaller gravel. The particles with large grain size can be seen visually and the spaces between the gravel are often filled with sand and mud. With the aid from the big particle size in conglomerate we can tell that there are indications of that the deposition have occurred in an environment with strong currents and/or slopes.

Breccia is pretty much the same as a conglomerate but in a breccia the particles have angular shape instead of rounded shape. The angular shape tells us that the gravel hasn't been transported very long distance from where it was deposited.

Amazing limestone at Petounda Point ,Cyprus! The formation consists of chalk that is slumped and contorted.
Amazing limestone at Petounda Point ,Cyprus! The formation consists of chalk that is slumped and contorted. | Source
Another section of the formation at Petounda Point on Cyprus.
Another section of the formation at Petounda Point on Cyprus. | Source
Source
Source
Dolostone, France
Dolostone, France | Source
Evaporite from Death Valley, California
Evaporite from Death Valley, California | Source

Chemical sedimentary rock

Limestone

Limestone is the most abundant chemical sedimentary rock and consists mostly of calcite. Most of them origins from a marine environment and consists of the skeletons of dead organism. One example are coral reefs, and the most well know coral reef is the Australian Great Barrier Reef. But there are also limestones that have an inorganic origin and consist of calcite that that was formed by chemical changes or high water temperatures.

In 2002 I participated in an Excursion on Cyprus conducted by the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg. It was 14 wonderful days on the lovely island Cyprus and I learn so much by using marine geology practically in field. One of the tasks that was given to us was to describe and interpret the formation and also date the limestone called the Lefkara formation at Petounda Point in southern Cyprus. You can see the impressive formation in the photo. Although this formation is very spectacular and special, there are so many places where you can see fantastic limestones on Earth.

Chert

Chart is made of silica that is very compact and hard. Examples of Chart are Flint and Agate. Chart can be found in limestone and as layers in rock. The silica in charts can be originated from organism with silica skeletons or from volcanic ash.

Dolostone

Dolostone is composed of dolomite that are a calcium, magnesium carbonate mineral. They are formed in seawater and is related to limestone.

Evaporites

Evaporites are formed when seawater evaporates. And everywhere evaporites can be found today there has been an basin submerged under seawater during Earths history. The minerals in seawater evaporates in different pace according to their solubility. Gypsum and halite are not so soluble and evaporates first and later comes potassium and magnesium salt.

Coal

Coal is made of organic matter such as leaves, wood and bark and other plant materials. It takes millions of years to form coal and it can only develop in a oxygen- poor swamp where the bacteria can not fulfil the decomposition of the plants.

Fossils and dating!

Dating fossils can for example be done by dating the rock itself or by dating the rock from its fossil content. Many times both methods are used for correlation.

Through many years of research on rocks and fossils scientists has developed a geological time scale for Earth. This geologic scale has been thouroughly verified by matching rocks of similar age in different regions.

Dating rocks from a rocks physical criteria can easily be done by correlation when it comes to short distances since we can find similar layers in the rocks from one place to another. But when it comes to correlation of rocks in widely separated areas it is better to correlate the layers in rock by its fossil content. This can be done because research has shown that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order. This means that any time period in Earth history can be recognized by its fossil content. This is known as the "principal of fossil succession".

Some fossils are more useful for dating and correlation than other fossils and these fossils are called index fossils. Index fossils are fossils that was spread over big parts of the Earth at a certain time and these fossils are therefor great time indicators.

Dating fossils and rocks isn't done by using only one dating method. Instead many different methods are being used to correlate in order to be sure of the dating. It would take me several more hubs to explain in detail the methods and how it is done, and maybe I will extend this hub later with dating methods.

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    • Judi Bee profile image

      Judith Hancock 4 years ago from UK

      This is a subject right out of my comfort zone and I really enjoyed reading it! Loved the photos too, thanks for sharing!

      Voted up etc.

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 4 years ago from Olympia, WA

      I thought I was the only one fascinated by rocks. I used to bring in samples to science class and the kids were awestruck when they got those samples under a microscope. Great subject, great hub, great pictures.

    • Deborah Brooks profile image

      Deborah Brooks Langford 4 years ago from Brownsville,TX

      wow how interesting. great hub.. thanks for sharing.

      the pictures are awesome.. I learned so much

      voted up

      Debbie

    • SirDent 4 years ago

      Great answer. You went into a lot of detail in your answer and I appreciate it very much. I voted your answer up. Only scored 75% on the test though. I have to do better.

    • Rusticliving profile image

      Elizabeth Rayen 4 years ago from California

      Great great Hub! I used to teach a great deal of this to my customers when we had our Mining store. Nicely done Christina! :) Voted up and Shares!

      Lisa

    • lone77star profile image

      Rod Martin Jr 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines

      I find sedimentary rock far more interesting than igneous. So much more detail and variety and what a story!

      Nicely done!

    • Silver Fish profile image

      Silverfish 4 years ago from Edinburgh Scotland

      Fascinating hub, well done.

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Judi Bee, it is so great to hear that you liked this one even if it isn't about one of your areas of interest. That makes your comment so valuable! I often find myself reading and enjoying hubs about topics totally unknown for me and that is one of the best things about hub pages. We learn form each other! Thank you so much for your comment and the votes!

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Billybuc, Yes, to see a sample in a microscope is like entering a totally new world! Many rocks are simply beautiful and I am not the same person as before after my studies in geology. You must have inspired so many kids during your time as a teacher, and to have an inspiring teacher like you can make all the difference later in life!I am glad to meet another one who is fascinated by rocks:) It is a fantasic area to be interested in and there is so much more to learn! Thanks for your comment, I appreciate you!

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Deborah, Great to know that you liked this one! Yes, there are so many fantastic pictures from all over the world and I had a great time when I selected these. Thanks for your visit, the votes and the generous comment,

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Sir Dent! I am so glad to meet you and I want to thank you for asking this interesting question! I knew I had to answer the question the moment I saw it, since marine geology is one of my passions in life:) 75% is good, and you can always take the test again! Thanks for the question, the vote and the comment!

      Tina

    • Cloverleaf profile image

      Cloverleaf 4 years ago from Calgary, AB, Canada

      Hi Tina, thanks for putting together such an informative and well presented hub about fossils and sedimentary rocks. I had never heard of the term lithification before; I found this especially interesting.

      Voted up / interesting

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Rusticliving, A mining store! That sounds so interesting for both you and the customers! Then you know so much about this subject, isn't it fascinating? Thank you so much for the comment and for sharing, it means a lot to me!

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi lone77star, It certainly is a great story that the rocks can tell us and it is also our history. We can learn so much from research in this field and there is still so much more to know. Even though volcano eruptions are magnificent and fantastic to see I agree with you that sedimentary rocks are more interesting! Thanks for your visit and the encouraging comment,

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Thank you Silver Fish, I value your comment and I appreciate your visit in my corner!

      Tina

    • Alastar Packer profile image

      Alastar Packer 4 years ago from North Carolina

      Sedimentary rocks and fossils are fascinating with their ability to tell us what they do. Much enjoyed learning about them here Tina. Although not a fossil the Weathering part reminds of how the Sphinx has been all but proven to be much, much older than ever thought before. Also, we have lots of quartz, mica, and sandstone over in this neck of the woods. Thanks Tina, from now on I'll know a good bit more about what's what with the sediment layers in fossil dating and such.

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Cloverleaf, Since this is one of my interests, I really had a great time writing this! The difficult part is to stop writing before the hub gets way too long:) Thanks for reading and your comments are always appreciated by me,

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Alastar, Yes they are! It is like a key to the past and sometimes a very long, long time back in time. Yes, the Sphinx has a fascinating story too and it will be interesting to follow the different ideas of its origin.

      Oh, I am a bit envy of people like you living in areas with sandstones! It must be so many beautiful rocks to look at in such parts of the world. Where I live, the dominating rocks are granite and gneiss and although I love the typical rocks along the Swedish west coast I would like to have some sedimentary rocks here too. Thanks Alastar for your visit and the comment! I hope you have a great day in your parts of the world!

      Tina

    • Simone Smith profile image

      Simone Haruko Smith 4 years ago from San Francisco

      This totally takes me back to my geology days in college. Great explanations!

    • Movie Master profile image

      Movie Master 4 years ago from United Kingdom

      What a fascinating subject, thank you for such a detailed and informative hub.

      I have always been interested in unusual rock formation, but know little on the subject.

      We have a coastline in England called the Jurassic coast, it's fantastic for fossil hunting, I love searching there and bring home all sorts of stuff!

      Voting up best wishes Lesley

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Simone, It is always great to see you and I hope you enjoyed studying geology as much as I did! Thanks for the comment, I appreciate it!

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Movie M! Yes, it really is a fascinating subject:) Oh, the Jurassic coast is a fantastic place for fossil hunting! I have never been there myself but I have heard about it, and I would love to visit it someday. To search for fossils in places like that is so fun and interesting! How lucky you are to have it near by. You must have an awesome collection of fossils and rocks at home!

      Thanks Lesley for the interesting comment and for reading!

      Best wishes to you

      Tina

    • Ruchira profile image

      Ruchira 4 years ago from United States

      Very thorough research Tina. Loved it. Actually made my kid read it as well :)

      Voted up as useful and interesting.

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Ruchira, Thank you very much for the positive comment! I hope your kid liked it too! I believe it all it all depends on the age and if they are interested. I try to show my daughter the beauty of geology but I have not been successful so far:))

      Best wishes to you Ruchira

      Tina

    • Eiddwen profile image

      Eiddwen 4 years ago from Wales

      I remember learning all this in school but I think you are a better teacher!!

      Very interesting;take care and enjoy your weeknd.

      Eddy.

    • AliciaC profile image

      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      This is a very informative hub, Tina! It contains a lot of useful and interesting information and is a great description of sedimentary rocks. Thanks for all the helpful facts, photos and videos.

    • kashmir56 profile image

      Thomas Silvia 4 years ago from Massachusetts

      Hi Tina, thanks for this very informative hub, it made me feel like i was on a geological dig it was very fascinating to learn more about this interesting subject.

      Vote up and more !!!

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Eiddwen and thank you for the encouraging comment! It is easy to write about things we like and are interested in! I am glad you enjoyed it too! Take care,

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Alicia! Thanks for this positive comment, I value your opinion very much! Sedimentary rocks are indeed beautiful and interesting!

      Take care,

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Tom, To share my fascination for sedimentary rocks was the purpose with this article and I am so glad to hear that you liked this one! Thank you so much for the votes and the comment, I am always glad to see you in my corner!

      Tina

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 4 years ago from England

      Hi, Tina, this was really interesting for me, I collect rocks, small ones from different places such as the beach or inland where I visit, smooth ones or ones with strange shapes, and use them for my brothers garden or my balcony, but I never realised which one was what, I had heard of sedimentary rocks but wasn't quite sure what it meant, this was great and really interesting, voted up! cheers nell

    • acaetnna profile image

      acaetnna 4 years ago from Guildford

      Wow this is so completely packed with amazing facts. I would dearly love to see your garden at sometinme in the very near future.

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Nell, I know what you mean and I can not resist to collect a beautiful or special rock from different places either. Sometimes it can be difficult to tell the exact name of the rock but I love them anyway and it gives me something to wonder about later. The rocks I collect remember me of the place I picked them up, and who was with me that day so it is also great memories. There are so many ways to use them and the garden or the balcony are great ideas. I am thrilled to know that you found this interesting and I wish you many more fantastic findings of rocks!

      Take care

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi acaetnna, Yes, I do love to have rocks in my garden too, they add so much in both shape and form! Thanks for the visit and the comment, I always appreciate a visit from you in my corner! Have a great day,

      Tina

    • kelleyward 4 years ago

      What a great hub with great pictures! Congrats on the Hub of the Day!

    • rajan jolly profile image

      Rajan Singh Jolly 4 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar,INDIA.

      Tina, what a beautifully drawn out history of the mystery in rock formation. Very enjoyable and informative. You explained it all so well in such simple terms. The pictures are so adorably complementary to the hub.

      Voted up and across, awesome ,beautiful, interesting and useful. No wonder it had to make it to the hub of the day. Congratulations.

    • SanneL profile image

      SanneL 4 years ago from Sweden

      First of all, I have to congratulate you for "The hub of the day" award, and after having read this, I understand why. This hub is truly fascinating and well presented! I'll admit, I don't have much knowledge about rocks, but admire people for their interest and expertise in this subject.

      I do agree with your love, for our "typical" rocks along the Swedish west coast. To me there is nothing more beautiful. However, sharing my life between Sweden and Greece, I have the fortune to enjoy the nature Greece has to offer. Besides the natural advantage of abundant sunshine and history, this country also have an abundant of different rocks, which I had no idea what they were called, before I read this. Voted up, awesome and shared.

      Tina, thank you for a very interesting read. Well done!

      Best wishes!

    • amilypitt profile image

      amilypitt 4 years ago from Washington, USA

      Informative post. You did a lot of research on sediment rocks and also explain it in a very easy way. You did your job very well. I like your topic, sediment rocks and yes though they are dull and their formation is different from the other kind of rocks but yet they have their own beauty and prosperity.

    • Marcy Goodfleisch profile image

      Marcy Goodfleisch 4 years ago from Planet Earth

      Great photos, and excellent details about how they are formed. I love driving through areas where you can see the layers and the colors that signify various stages of weathering and climate changes. The Southwest is particularly rich in these formations - it's almost like driving through the pages of a textbook (maybe I got that in reverse - I guess the mountains were there before the textbooks were!).

      Great hub!

    • tammyswallow profile image

      Tammy 4 years ago from North Carolina

      Gorgeous photos and a great science lesson. I love learning about the Earth. Congratulations on a well deserved Hub of the Day! Excellent!

    • vespawoolf profile image

      vespawoolf 4 years ago from Peru, South America

      Congratulations on Hub of the Day! You actually make sedimentary rock formations interesting...love the charts on detrital and chemical rocks.

    • randomcreative profile image

      Rose Clearfield 4 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin

      What a great resource! This hub is both interesting and beautiful. Congrats on getting Hub of the Day!

    • simplyreviews profile image

      simplyreviews 4 years ago from Global Citizen.

      @thougtforce

      The force of Nature never fail to amaze me. Just how they form rock is enough to send me into awe. Nature is a good reminder that we should be humble. I only know how Evaporites are formed today. Thanks for sharing.

    • the girls profile image

      the girls 4 years ago from Los Angeles, California

      I have been to Grand Canyon and it was an awesome experience! I felt insignificant compared to the power and beauty of nature :-)

    • Lilleyth profile image

      Suzanne Sheffield 4 years ago from Mid-Atlantic

      Really interesting and beautiful photographs.

    • pinto2011 profile image

      Subhas 4 years ago from New Delhi, India

      Just great piece of info. It seems that a rock is having a whole piece of history in its heart and trying to tell us something.

    • Movie Master profile image

      Movie Master 4 years ago from United Kingdom

      I'm back again to say congratulations on hub of the day!

      Well done, a great hub, best wishes Lesley

    • Silver Fish profile image

      Silver Fish 4 years ago from Edinburgh Scotland

      Well done Tina on your Hub of the day!

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Kelley! Thank you for the congrats! This is my first hub of the day and I must say that I am pleased that this hub was chosen, since I had a great time writing it! I am so glad you liked this hub

      Take care

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Rajan Jolly, I am so glad you like this and I am overwhelmed by your kind words! My purpose with this hub was to share my fascination of nature and rocks in particularly and from your comment I know that I must have done just that. Thanks for telling me, it made my day! There is something so beautiful and comforting to think about the individual particles that make a never ending journey. Thanks for reading, for the congrats and for the votes!! I appreciate it very much!

      Tina

    • thougtforce profile image
      Author

      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi SanneL, It is so nice to see you here! I think it is very common that we don't really see the things that are familiar and have always been in our surroundings. And even if we see rocks in nature, we normally don't spend so much time thinking about how and why the rocks are there!

      You are so lucky to have the best of both, both the fantastic rocks along the Swedish west coast and the wonderful sedimentary rocks in Greece! That would be awesome! I was so fascinated over the rocks on Cyprus when I was there, and I will never forget the beautiful nature and the clear blue sea. Mediterranian is special, so Greece is definitely in top of my list of places I will visit next time I travel somewhere.

      Thank you SanneL, for reading and for the wonderful comment. It is special to have another Swede here on HubPages!

      Have a great day in the sunshine

      Tina

    • livingpah2004 profile image

      Milli 4 years ago from USA

      Very well researched! I have learned some new information, thanks to you. Congratulations on the Hub of the day award. Voted up!

    • pstraubie48 profile image

      Patricia Scott 4 years ago from sunny Florida

      What an adventure you have shared with us... I do imagine it was fun to write as it contains all of the elements of a story that takes one on a journey that we find at the end we are not ready for it to end..thank you for sharing this and congratulations on hub of the day...

    • prasetio30 profile image

      prasetio30 4 years ago from malang-indonesia

      Excellent and very well written, Tina. I love the way you taught us about fossils and sedimentary rocks. I learn many things from you. Good presentation. Thanks for writing and share with us. Vote up (useful, awesome, beautiful, interesting).

      Prasetio

    • acaetnna profile image

      acaetnna 4 years ago from Guildford

      Tina congratuations, this is a sensationally brilliant hub. It is so informative and well written. This will without doubt be really useful to the children that I teach. Voting up of course and pressing all those buttons too!

    • TrahnTheMan profile image

      TrahnTheMan 4 years ago from Asia, Oceania & between

      Fabulous hub Tina! I can see many junior high geography teachers using this as a basis for geology 101. Highly deserving of hub of the day! Voted up.

    • Ruchira profile image

      Ruchira 4 years ago from United States

      Congrats Tina for creating such a marvelous hub that it's the HUB OF THE DAY :) Cheers!

    • Rufus rambles profile image

      Rufus rambles 4 years ago from Australia

      I used to love Geography at school - this is a great hub that will be really useful for students.

    • homesteadbound profile image

      Cindy Murdoch 4 years ago from Texas

      I have always found rocks to be fascinating. Until reading your hub, I had forgotten many things that I had learned about rocks and the kinds of rocks. Thanks so much for reminding me.

      Congrats on hub of the day. This was indeed a good one!

    • MartieCoetser profile image

      Martie Coetser 4 years ago from South Africa

      Congratulations, my dear friend, Tina, with this Hub of the Day (22 March 2012)

      :)))

    • jjexon 4 years ago

      very nice

    • jjexon profile image

      jjexon 4 years ago

      Yery Nice work madam, i like it

    • thougtforce profile image
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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi amilypitt, Yes, sedimentary rocks have a beauty of their own and can tell us an interesting story! Thanks for reading and for taking the time to leave such a nice comment, I appreciate it,

      Best wishes

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Marcy, I know what you mean and I do the same when I am driving! Speak about focusing on the wrong thing as a driver:) Some rocks are really fantastic and there are so much to see, both in colors and layers. Sedimentary rocks are like an ancient book if we know the letters. I have only seen your part of the world on TV and it looks fantastic with all the formations but it must be so much more beautiful in reality. If I ever come to your part of the world, I will not be driving! Thank you so much Marcy, it is always great to see you!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Thank you Tammy! I am so glad you liked this one and I appreciate your comment. It means a lot to me! Earth is fantastic and there is so much more to learn.

      Take care

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi vespawoolf! I am happy to know that you found this hub interesting, it is great to share knowledge in an area that I love! Thank you so much for the positive comment and for the congrats!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi randomcreative and thanks for the lovely comment! Sedimentary rocks are very beautiful and also fascinating! I appreciate your visit and I hope you have a great day!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi simplyreviews, I agree with you totally! Nature always make me feel amazed and humble over the well designed structures and events that are linked together. Thank you for the insightful comment , I am glad to hear that you liked this one!

      Best wishes to you,

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi the girls, Grand Canyon must be so magnificent to see and I do wish I can go there some time. I can not imagine a better place to study sedimentary rocks:) Thanks for reading and for the comment!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Lilleyth, Thanks for reading and for the comment! I appreciate it!!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi pinto2011, Yes they have a great story to tell! It is nice meeting you and I appreciate your great comment!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Movie, I am always glad to see you and thanks for the congrats! Hugs

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Thank you silver Fish! It is great to see you and I appreciate the visit!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi livingpah2004, Thank you so much for the positive comment and I am glad that you liked this one!

      Best wishes,

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      pstraubie48, You are so right, both about the story and that I enjoyed writing this hub! Thanks for this wonderful and nice comment and for the congrats! I am happy to share the fantastic journey of sedimentary rocks with you!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      prasetio, Thank you! You are always so kind and leave wonderful comments. You are a special hub friend and I am very pleased that I could teach you something new!

      I hope you have a great day!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      acaetnna, I didn't know that you where a teacher but the children are lucky to have such a warm and loving person as a teacher! Thank you for your support and the voting! Hugs!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi TrahnTheMan, I am so glad you say that and I feel a bit overwhelmed by all the fantastic comments! It is always great to know that the my article can be useful to others. Thanks for reading and for the great comment!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Ruchira, Thanks for your fantastic and warm comment! It is easy to write here with such fantastic hub friends!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi Rufus rambles! It is a great subject and the best is that it gets more interesting when we learn more about it! Thanks for reading and the comment, I appreciate both!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi homesteadbound, I often feel the same when I read something, and the memories from what I once learned comes back while I read! I am glad that I could remind you of this. I am always glad to see you and thanks for the congrats and the comment!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Martie, Congratulations from you are special to me, my sister in hub land! Hugs!

      Tina

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Thanks jjexon! I am glad you liked this!

      Tina

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      jjexon 4 years ago

      my pleasure, always be happy

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      Cynthia Calhoun 4 years ago from Western NC

      What an amazing gem of a hub! I love how you go into such detail about sedimentary rocks. I can't believe I forgot that sandstone was sedimentary rock - the Garden of the Gods in Colorado Springs where I grew up are sandstone and you helped me remember this in your hub. I love that region of the country. Perhaps I'll have the opportunity to move back there someday. :) Voted up and shared!

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      Christina Lornemark 4 years ago from Sweden

      Hi cclitgirl, Sedimentary rocks create such beautiful places and many times with wonderful colors! No wonder you want to go back there someday. Garden of Gods in Colorado Springs sounds like a wonderful place and I immediately get a view in my head with fantastic sedimentary rocks! It is funny how rocks is important to most people, but sometimes without we think about it. We become so used to see the rocks in the area where we grow up and we don't realize how much it means to us until we return or see them again. i feel the same with the coastline here on the Swedish west coast and I feel at home the moment I see the typical rocks here and gets near them! Thanks for reading and for the comment and all, cclitgirl!

      Tina

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