What Are the Freezing, Melting, and Boiling Points of Solids, Liquids, and Gases?

Updated on July 15, 2019

Freezing, Melting, and Boiling Points of Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Definition of Boiling Point

The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns into a gas. The boiling point temperature will be lower if the atmospheric pressure is decreased. For example the boiling point of pure water at standard atmospheric pressure (or sea level) is 100°C (212°F) while at 10,000 feet (3,048m) it is 90.39° C (194.7°F). This decrease will affect the time it takes to cook anything in water to the extent that any food that requires five minutes to prepare at sea level will take around 20 minutes at 3km (10,000 feet). In theory you could also calculate your altitude by recording the temperature water boils at.

Solvent based liquids will generally have a lower boiling point than water. In other words they will require less heat to turn them into vapour. Liquids with a much lower boiling point than water are generally classed as flammable.

Definition of Freezing Point

The temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid. The freezing point temperature will be higher if the pressure is increased. This may not be by a noticeable amount due to the volume change upon melting being much smaller than the volume change (expansion) when boiling. For example the freezing point of pure water at standard atmospheric pressure (or zero feet) is 0°C (32°F) while at 11km (6 miles) above sea level it would only be 0.001°C higher.

The only known liquid that does not freeze, even at absolute zero, is liquid helium unless it is under pressure.

Definition of Melting Point

The temperature that a solid substance becomes a liquid. Some solids do not have a liquid state and will change directly from a solid to a gaseous state. This is called sublimation, e.g. Carbon Dioxide (dry ice).

Melting Point/Freezing Point

The terms melting point or freezing point are often interchanged depending on whether a substance is being heated or cooled. For liquids it is known as the freezing point and for solids it is called the melting point. The melting point of a solid and the freezing point of the liquid are normally the same.

Table of Boiling and Melting/Freezing Points at Sea Level (Standard Atmospheric Pressure). The information is provided in centigrade (Celsius).

A to C

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Aluminium
2,519
660.3
Argon
-185.8
-189.34
Butane
-1
-140
Calcium
1,484
842
Carbon
4,827
3,550
Carbon Dioxide
-57
-78
Chloroform
61.2
-63.5
Chlorine
-34
-101.5
Cobalt
2,870
1,495
Copper
2,562
1,085

E to M

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Ethanol (Alcohol)
78.4
-114
Gold
2,856
1,064
Glycerol
290
17.8
Helium
-268.9
-272.2
Hydrogen
-252.9
-259.1
Iodine
184.3
113.7
Iron
2,862
1,538
Lead
1,750
327.5
Magnesium
1,091
650
Mercury
356.7
-38.8
Methanol
64.7
-97.6

N to P

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Neon
-246
-248.6
Nickel
2,913
1,455
Nitric Acid
83
-42
Nitrogen
-195.8
-210
Oxygen
-183
-218.8
Phosphorus
280.5
44.2
Platinum
3,825
1,768
Plutonium
3,232
639.4
Potassium
758.8
63.4
Propane
-42
-188

R to Z

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Radium
1,140
699.8
Radon
-61.9
-71.2
Sea Water
100.7
-2
Silicon
2,357
1,414
Silver
2,162
961.8
Sodium
882.8
97.7
Sulphur
444.7
115.2
Sulphuric Acid
337
10.3
Tin
2,603
231.9
Titanium
3,287
1,668
Uranium
4,131
1,132
Water
100
0
Zinc
907
419.5
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ @ 2013 Brian McKechnie (aka WorldEarth)

Questions & Answers

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      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        12 days ago from Troon

        You're welcome Raven1211

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        Raven1211 

        13 days ago

        Tnx alot

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        2 months ago from Troon

        Rock on

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        Love steven 

        2 months ago

        I like rocks

      • profile image

        trajohn 

        3 months ago

        hello

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        4 months ago from Troon

        You're welcome Manas

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        Manas Ranjan Parida 

        4 months ago

        Thank u

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        6 months ago from Troon

        You're very welcome

      • profile image

        anonamoose 

        6 months ago

        homework is easy nw i have found this website for my science. this post helped meh in three homeworks. thx

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        6 months ago from Troon

        Thanks

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        gdgkcdbd 

        6 months ago

        nice

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        Liaa 

        6 months ago

        In freezing point it is often stated that vapour pressure of liquid=vapour pressure of solid

        How??? Can u please answer.

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        6 months ago from Troon

        You're very welcome

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        Madhavi9652358877 

        6 months ago

        Thanks for keeping this website it is usefull

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        7 months ago from Troon

        Thank you

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        7 months ago from Troon

        You are most welcome

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        7 months ago

        Thankyou for evry think

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        8 months ago from Troon

        Thanks "Anonymous" always glad to see that the article is helpful... that's thanks enough

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        8 months ago from Troon

        Thanks Ella... hope it helped

      • profile image

        Anonymous 

        8 months ago

        BrianOldWolfCottage is so nice to have done this and 5he fact that he replies to comments makes ot even better. Keep up the good work and youshould be proud of yourself. You may not be appreciated day to day but know that we are grateful for this ane it helped me soo much.

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        ella jones 

        8 months ago

        omg these are so amzing:)

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        Jontang kanuteh 

        8 months ago

        Thank you a lot for helping me out

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        Why hello there 

        8 months ago

        Thank you very much helped me out a lot.

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        8 months ago from Troon

        You're very welcome.

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        THE REAL EMMA F 

        8 months ago

        THANKS GURL!!! LOVED IT HELPFUL FOR MY HOMEWORK MUCH LOVVVEEE

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        8 months ago from Troon

        You are very welcome Emma

      • profile image

        Emma F 

        8 months ago

        Very useful for my homework. Thnx

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        8 months ago from Troon

        Cheers BOY

      • profile image

        BOY 

        8 months ago

        Thanks this helped me a lot.

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        9 months ago from Troon

        Excellent

      • profile image

        f dups 

        9 months ago

        helped me with my homework

      • profile image

        cade 

        9 months ago

        very useful

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        10 months ago from Troon

        Thank You

      • profile image

        Shyama 

        10 months ago

        Super what an interesting page

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        13 months ago from Troon

        Thanks Lucky.

      • profile image

        Lucky 

        13 months ago

        Wow this is great

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        13 months ago from Troon

        Thank You Mia

      • profile image

        Mia 

        13 months ago

        This page is fabtasic

      • profile image

        YOLO 

        13 months ago

        could you help me a bit more with the freezing topic,

        I have to do a ppt on it & i need a bit of help

      • profile image

        Anurag 

        14 months ago

        it is very helpfull

        but i was confused in co2 boiling pt

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        14 months ago from Troon

        Thanks GFJ

      • profile image

        Brian OldWolf 

        14 months ago

        Thanks GFJ

      • profile image

        GFJ 

        14 months ago

        FLIPIN COOL

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        15 months ago from Troon

        Well thank you Rocky.

      • profile image

        Rocky boiiiii 

        15 months ago

        It's good and fine, OK .................. ...... I like it

      • profile image

        Raplh 

        16 months ago

        Thanks

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        Julian 

        16 months ago

        nice

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        16 months ago from Troon

        So pleased I could help. Good luck to you and your students.

      • profile image

        boi 

        16 months ago

        thanks forthehelp

      • profile image

        Leáh Fernanda Velasquez 

        16 months ago

        Gracias Brian. It absolutely helped my students to understand forms of substance because they could never understand my teachings.

      • profile image

        AJ Inengite 

        16 months ago

        Wow, its Mind blowing.

      • profile image

        oliver 

        16 months ago

        helped a lot

      • profile image

        Puppy 

        16 months ago

        Thanks a lot, it helped in my chemistry homework.

      • profile image

        jabob sartorius 

        16 months ago

        thank's oh so very's much mate,,,,, it helpe'd ayyyy lots matey

      • profile image

        Dumpcow 

        16 months ago

        this helped

      • profile image

        iuhh 

        16 months ago

        it helped me in my chemistry homewok!!

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        16 months ago from Troon

        Thanks !!!

      • profile image

        bob 

        16 months ago

        wow this is sooooooooo strange

      • profile image

        Person 

        17 months ago

        Thanks this really helped me

      • profile image

        nameless 

        18 months ago

        heeeeeeeeeelllloooooo. nice article.

      • profile image

        awsome surrviwar 

        18 months ago

        super cool and interesting

      • profile image

        Anonymous 

        18 months ago

        This was very helpful with my homework as i am in year 7.

      • profile image

        World Earth 

        19 months ago

        Glad to be of help Emoney.

      • profile image

        Emoney 

        19 months ago

        Thnks this helped me with an extra credit about argon

      • profile image

        wyattoleffsnoodle 

        19 months ago

        THX :)

      • profile image

        ... 

        19 months ago

        Thank you so much

      • profile image

        kitten 

        19 months ago

        why is hydrogens melting point -259.1 but silvers melting point is 961.8

      • profile image

        xavierjbriscoe@gmail.com 

        20 months ago

        its cool that thats what it looks like...but i like seeing the new things about it. its cool...and interesting...but can you tell us something new about it? I'm in science class and i'm in 5th grade and we are learning about this stuff. kind of...we are learning solids, liquids and gases

      • profile image

        Er lakkhu 

        20 months ago

        I very intrested

      • profile image

        Unknown 

        20 months ago

        Thanks so much it really helped

      • profile image

        jim 

        20 months ago

        thx so much

      • profile image

        Xxx yyyy 

        20 months ago

        Thx for the help.

      • profile image

        World Earth 

        20 months ago

        Thanks

      • profile image

        cc 

        20 months ago

        why do you still answer all the comment when your article is from 3 years ago

      • profile image

        squid 

        21 months ago

        these comments are the best part of this website lol

      • World Earth profile imageAUTHOR

        Brian OldWolf 

        21 months ago from Troon

        Thanks

      • profile image

        Navnath jadhav 

        21 months ago

        Nice

        I will ao that your good

      • profile image

        unknown 

        21 months ago

        too much info

      • profile image

        Anonymous 

        21 months ago

        For those asking what measurement it is in, it's in Celsius, as it says before the first table.

      • profile image

        Anonymous 

        22 months ago

        Hi this is very help full just next time add celsius,degree and fahrenheit

      • profile image

         

        22 months ago

        Interesting but it would be better if u added a bit more pesific info.

        Thanks

      • profile image

        Suryansh 

        22 months ago

        Nice

      • profile image

        Huh 

        23 months ago

        Lol nice

      • profile image

        Aleya 

        24 months ago

        Is these degree Celsius or Fahrenheit?

      • profile image

        Unknown 

        2 years ago

        It is lol and useless can't Brian can give answers in point to point manner. Actually brian u r useless

      • profile image

        brayden 

        2 years ago

        good websight

      • profile image

        Non-smart person 

        2 years ago

        Thanks smart person

      • profile image

        devin 

        2 years ago

        hi thanks

      • profile image

        none 

        2 years ago

        hi thx kids

      • profile image

        Tom Janet Monks 

        2 years ago

        Yeah Maths!!!!!!!!!!!

      • profile image

        maddie 

        2 years ago

        Classify a substance as solids, liquids and gases by looking at melting point and boiling point

      • profile image

        joe 

        2 years ago

        good.thanks for education.

      • profile image

        Teresa 

        2 years ago

        Can you help me name a liquid with a melting point of -15°C

      • profile image

        Typical gamer 

        2 years ago

        Helpful

      • profile image

        Joel 

        2 years ago

        Epic and fun and interesting I love this

      • profile image

        Fat guy 

        2 years ago

        Cool and helpful in school

      • profile image

        Haltee 

        2 years ago

        Can u please provide the reference for the information

      • profile image

        mobin 

        2 years ago

        fine

      • profile image

        Garrit Stauts 

        2 years ago

        What is the overall Celsius degree at which an average solid melts?

      • profile image

        Angelina 

        2 years ago

        Great i was looking for fahrenheit though

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