Freezing, Melting, and Boiling Points of Solids, Liquids, and Gases in general Use Today

Updated on January 3, 2018

Definition of Boiling Point

The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns into a gas. The boiling point temperature will be lower if the atmospheric pressure is decreased. For example the boiling point of pure water at standard atmospheric pressure (or sea level) is 100°C (212°F) while at 10,000 feet (3,048m) it is 90.39° C (194.7°F). This decrease will affect the time it takes to cook anything in water to the extent that any food that requires five minutes to prepare at sea level will take around 20 minutes at 3km (10,000 feet). In theory you could also calculate your altitude by recording the temperature water boils at.

Solvent based liquids will generally have a lower boiling point than water. In other words they will require less heat to turn them into vapour. Liquids with a much lower boiling point than water are generally classed as flammable.

Definition of Freezing Point

The temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid. The freezing point temperature will be higher if the pressure is increased. This may not be by a noticeable amount due to the volume change upon melting being much smaller than the volume change (expansion) when boiling. For example the freezing point of pure water at standard atmospheric pressure (or zero feet) is 0°C (32°F) while at 11km (6 miles) above sea level it would only be 0.001°C higher.

The only known liquid that does not freeze, even at absolute zero, is liquid helium unless it is under pressure.

Definition of Melting Point

The temperature that a solid substance becomes a liquid. Some solids do not have a liquid state and will change directly from a solid to a gaseous state. This is called sublimation, e.g. Carbon Dioxide (dry ice).

Melting Point/Freezing Point

The terms melting point or freezing point are often interchanged depending on whether a substance is being heated or cooled. For liquids it is known as the freezing point and for solids it is called the melting point. The melting point of a solid and the freezing point of the liquid are normally the same.

Table of Boiling and Melting/Freezing Points at Sea Level (Standard Atmospheric Pressure). The information is provided in centigrade (Celsius).

A to C

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Aluminium
2,519
660.3
Argon
-185.8
-189.34
Butane
-1
-140
Calcium
1,484
842
Carbon
4,827
3,550
Carbon Dioxide
-57
-78
Chloroform
61.2
-63.5
Chlorine
-34
-101.5
Cobalt
2,870
1,495
Copper
2,562
1,085

E to M

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Ethanol (Alcohol)
78.4
-114
Gold
2,856
1,064
Glycerol
290
17.8
Helium
-268.9
-272.2
Hydrogen
-252.9
-259.1
Iodine
184.3
113.7
Iron
2,862
1,538
Lead
1,750
327.5
Magnesium
1,091
650
Mercury
356.7
-38.8
Methanol
64.7
-97.6

N to P

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Neon
-246
-248.6
Nickel
2,913
1,455
Nitric Acid
83
-42
Nitrogen
-195.8
-210
Oxygen
-183
-218.8
Phosphorus
280.5
44.2
Platinum
3,825
1,768
Plutonium
3,232
639.4
Potassium
758.8
63.4
Propane
-42
-188

R to Z

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Radium
1,140
699.8
Radon
-61.9
-71.2
Sea Water
100.7
-2
Silicon
2,357
1,414
Silver
2,162
961.8
Sodium
882.8
97.7
Sulphur
444.7
115.2
Sulphuric Acid
337
10.3
Tin
2,603
231.9
Titanium
3,287
1,668
Uranium
4,131
1,132
Water
100
0
Zinc
907
419.5
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ @ 2013 Brian McKechnie (aka WorldEarth)

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    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 12 days ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Well thank you Rocky.

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      Rocky boiiiii 2 weeks ago

      It's good and fine, OK .................. ...... I like it

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      Raplh 4 weeks ago

      Thanks

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      Julian 4 weeks ago

      nice

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 5 weeks ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      So pleased I could help. Good luck to you and your students.

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      boi 5 weeks ago

      thanks forthehelp

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      Leáh Fernanda Velasquez 5 weeks ago

      Gracias Brian. It absolutely helped my students to understand forms of substance because they could never understand my teachings.

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      AJ Inengite 6 weeks ago

      Wow, its Mind blowing.

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      oliver 6 weeks ago

      helped a lot

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      Puppy 6 weeks ago

      Thanks a lot, it helped in my chemistry homework.

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      jabob sartorius 7 weeks ago

      thank's oh so very's much mate,,,,, it helpe'd ayyyy lots matey

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      Dumpcow 7 weeks ago

      this helped

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      iuhh 7 weeks ago

      it helped me in my chemistry homewok!!

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 8 weeks ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Thanks !!!

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      bob 2 months ago

      wow this is sooooooooo strange

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      Person 2 months ago

      Thanks this really helped me

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      nameless 3 months ago

      heeeeeeeeeelllloooooo. nice article.

    • profile image

      awsome surrviwar 3 months ago

      super cool and interesting

    • profile image

      Anonymous 3 months ago

      This was very helpful with my homework as i am in year 7.

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      World Earth 4 months ago

      Glad to be of help Emoney.

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      Emoney 4 months ago

      Thnks this helped me with an extra credit about argon

    • profile image

      wyattoleffsnoodle 4 months ago

      THX :)

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      ... 4 months ago

      Thank you so much

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      kitten 4 months ago

      why is hydrogens melting point -259.1 but silvers melting point is 961.8

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      xavierjbriscoe@gmail.com 5 months ago

      its cool that thats what it looks like...but i like seeing the new things about it. its cool...and interesting...but can you tell us something new about it? I'm in science class and i'm in 5th grade and we are learning about this stuff. kind of...we are learning solids, liquids and gases

    • profile image

      Er lakkhu 5 months ago

      I very intrested

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      Unknown 5 months ago

      Thanks so much it really helped

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      jim 5 months ago

      thx so much

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      Xxx yyyy 5 months ago

      Thx for the help.

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      World Earth 5 months ago

      Thanks

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      cc 6 months ago

      why do you still answer all the comment when your article is from 3 years ago

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      squid 6 months ago

      these comments are the best part of this website lol

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 6 months ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Thanks

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      Navnath jadhav 6 months ago

      Nice

      I will ao that your good

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      unknown 6 months ago

      too much info

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      Anonymous 6 months ago

      For those asking what measurement it is in, it's in Celsius, as it says before the first table.

    • profile image

      Anonymous 7 months ago

      Hi this is very help full just next time add celsius,degree and fahrenheit

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       7 months ago

      Interesting but it would be better if u added a bit more pesific info.

      Thanks

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      Suryansh 7 months ago

      Nice

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      Huh 8 months ago

      Lol nice

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      Aleya 9 months ago

      Is these degree Celsius or Fahrenheit?

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      Unknown 10 months ago

      It is lol and useless can't Brian can give answers in point to point manner. Actually brian u r useless

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      brayden 10 months ago

      good websight

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      Non-smart person 10 months ago

      Thanks smart person

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      devin 11 months ago

      hi thanks

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      none 11 months ago

      hi thx kids

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      Tom Janet Monks 11 months ago

      Yeah Maths!!!!!!!!!!!

    • profile image

      maddie 11 months ago

      Classify a substance as solids, liquids and gases by looking at melting point and boiling point

    • profile image

      joe 11 months ago

      good.thanks for education.

    • profile image

      Teresa 11 months ago

      Can you help me name a liquid with a melting point of -15°C

    • profile image

      Typical gamer 11 months ago

      Helpful

    • profile image

      Joel 11 months ago

      Epic and fun and interesting I love this

    • profile image

      Fat guy 11 months ago

      Cool and helpful in school

    • profile image

      Haltee 13 months ago

      Can u please provide the reference for the information

    • profile image

      mobin 13 months ago

      fine

    • profile image

      Garrit Stauts 14 months ago

      What is the overall Celsius degree at which an average solid melts?

    • profile image

      Angelina 15 months ago

      Great i was looking for fahrenheit though

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      finn 15 months ago

      this site is boss.

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      some dude 15 months ago

      do you reply to everyone along the lines of Glad to help. Also pleased that you love science. Brian

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      John 17 months ago

      Could you please add in more substances such as Dry Ice and Liquid Nitrogen? Also, please add Fahrenheit as a unit. Other than that, I love it. Thanks!

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 17 months ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Ha ha appreciate your comment Slayer

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      Slayer6705 17 months ago

      Hi I have a Science Test Tomorrow About Matter so Thanks! This will Really help me out so Thank you Again and may be comfort in your life.

      P.S(I am not always this nice so yea :)

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      you 17 months ago

      really good for revision

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 17 months ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Glad I could help.

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      Hi 17 months ago

      This helped me with homework

    • profile image

      sadaf 19 months ago

      Melting point: -189.4 °C

      Boiling point: -185.8 °C for argon please make correction

    • profile image

      ReTurtle9 22 months ago

      Amazing got so much interesting information

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      world earth 2 years ago

      cute dog

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      vasanth 2 years ago

      Yeah ..its good

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 2 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Glad you like it.

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      krishna chaitanya 2 years ago

      its really very nice

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 3 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Hope it's useful anyway

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      lamb123 3 years ago

      tell me about it

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 3 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      My pleasure. It's not any easy read though.

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      lamb123 3 years ago

      Awesome helped A LOT thanks

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 3 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Water water everywhere !!!

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      CINDY 3 years ago

      BORING, I need (LIQUIDS) and their boiling point

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 3 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      No problem

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      lol 3 years ago

      thanks

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 3 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Cheers

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      ..... 3 years ago

      nice

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 3 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Thank you

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      3 years ago

      i love this

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 3 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      confused !!! now removed. Thanks.

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      Topeka, KS 3 years ago

      Why is aluminium listed twice, with two different melting and boiling points?

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 3 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Tongue firmly in cheek.. I presume !!!

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian OldWolf 3 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Thanks Ross for your input.. changes made. Brian

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      Ross 3 years ago

      The boiling point temperature will be lower if the pressure is increased.

      Shouldn't that be The boiling point temperature will be HIGHER if the pressure is increased.

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 4 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Glad to help. Also pleased that you love science. Brian

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      will 4 years ago

      I love science but need 15 boiling and melting points for homework gets a bit boring.... 8-p

    • World Earth profile image
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      Brian OldWolf 4 years ago from Old Wolf Cottage

      Glad to hear it. It can be rather interesting and sometimes a bit overwhelming !!!

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      sheenkardante 4 years ago

      i like science!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    working