# What Are the Freezing, Melting, and Boiling Points of Solids, Liquids, and Gases?

## Definition of Boiling Point

The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns into a gas. The boiling point temperature will be lower if the atmospheric pressure is decreased. For example the boiling point of pure water at standard atmospheric pressure (or sea level) is 100°C (212°F) while at 10,000 feet (3,048m) it is 90.39° C (194.7°F). This decrease will affect the time it takes to cook anything in water to the extent that any food that requires five minutes to prepare at sea level will take around 20 minutes at 3km (10,000 feet). In theory you could also calculate your altitude by recording the temperature water boils at.

Solvent based liquids will generally have a lower boiling point than water. In other words they will require less heat to turn them into vapour. Liquids with a much lower boiling point than water are generally classed as flammable.

## Definition of Freezing Point

The temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid. The freezing point temperature will be higher if the pressure is increased. This may not be by a noticeable amount due to the volume change upon melting being much smaller than the volume change (expansion) when boiling. For example the freezing point of pure water at standard atmospheric pressure (or zero feet) is 0°C (32°F) while at 11km (6 miles) above sea level it would only be 0.001°C higher.

The only known liquid that does not freeze, even at absolute zero, is liquid helium unless it is under pressure.

## Definition of Melting Point

The temperature that a solid substance becomes a liquid. Some solids do not have a liquid state and will change directly from a solid to a gaseous state. This is called sublimation, e.g. Carbon Dioxide (dry ice).

## Melting Point/Freezing Point

The terms melting point or freezing point are often interchanged depending on whether a substance is being heated or cooled. For liquids it is known as the freezing point and for solids it is called the melting point. The melting point of a solid and the freezing point of the liquid are normally the same.

Table of Boiling and Melting/Freezing Points at Sea Level (Standard Atmospheric Pressure). The information is provided in centigrade (Celsius).

## A to C

SubstanceBoiling PointFreezing/Melting Point

Aluminium

2,519

660.3

Argon

-185.8

-189.34

Butane

-1

-140

Calcium

1,484

842

Carbon

4,827

3,550

Carbon Dioxide

-57

-78

Chloroform

61.2

-63.5

Chlorine

-34

-101.5

Cobalt

2,870

1,495

Copper

2,562

1,085

## E to M

SubstanceBoiling PointFreezing/Melting Point

Ethanol (Alcohol)

78.4

-114

Gold

2,856

1,064

Glycerol

290

17.8

Helium

-268.9

-272.2

Hydrogen

-252.9

-259.1

Iodine

184.3

113.7

Iron

2,862

1,538

1,750

327.5

Magnesium

1,091

650

Mercury

356.7

-38.8

Methanol

64.7

-97.6

## N to P

SubstanceBoiling PointFreezing/Melting Point

Neon

-246

-248.6

Nickel

2,913

1,455

Nitric Acid

83

-42

Nitrogen

-195.8

-210

Oxygen

-183

-218.8

Phosphorus

280.5

44.2

Platinum

3,825

1,768

Plutonium

3,232

639.4

Potassium

758.8

63.4

Propane

-42

-188

## R to Z

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

@ 2013 Brian McKechnie (aka WorldEarth)

SubstanceBoiling PointFreezing/Melting Point

1,140

699.8

-61.9

-71.2

Sea Water

100.7

-2

Silicon

2,357

1,414

Silver

2,162

961.8

Sodium

882.8

97.7

Sulphur

444.7

115.2

Sulphuric Acid

337

10.3

Tin

2,603

231.9

Titanium

3,287

1,668

Uranium

4,131

1,132

Water

100

0

Zinc

907

419.5

## Resources

More detailed information can be found from the following (small) selection of the many excellent publications and websites covering these subjects.

Barchi. Biman: Water in Biological and Chemical Processes

bismarkschools.org

Carslaw, HS: Conduction of Heat in Solids

chestofbooks.com

Collieu, AM & Powney DJ: Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Materia;s

Dann, Sandra E: Reactions and Characterization of Solids

Das, Shankar P: Statistical Physics of Liquids at Freezing and Beyond

Gardner, Robert: Melting, Freezing and Bioling Science Projects with Matter

Greathouse, Lisa: Melting and Freezing

Harrison, Lilian Elsom: Solubility and Freezing Point Depression Curves of Ester Water Systems

Lowe, Bella: Experimental Cookery from the Chemical and Physical Standpoint

nationalgeographic.org

rsc.org (Royal Society of Chemistry)

Rogers, Gordon FC & Mayhew, Yon R: Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Fluids

Royston, Angela: Solids, Liquids and Gases

sciencedirect.com

ssec.si.edu (Smithsonian)

Walshaw, Keith: Gases, Liquids and Solids

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Brian OldWolf (author) from Troon on January 14, 2020:

Thanks Nikolas

Brian OldWolf (author) from Troon on January 14, 2020:

Thanks Nikos

nikos on January 13, 2020:

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ling on October 22, 2019:

why do some drinks freeze faster than others

\

Brian OldWolf (author) from Troon on October 06, 2019:

In some traditional sense, you could consider water an element, but it doesn't qualify as an element according to the scientific definition. An element is a substance consisting of only one type of atom. Water consists of two types of atoms: hydrogen and oxygen so it is a compound.

Garth on October 05, 2019:

May I ask how water is an element if it consists of hydrogen and oxygen?

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In freezing point it is often stated that vapour pressure of liquid=vapour pressure of solid

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For those asking what measurement it is in, it's in Celsius, as it says before the first table.

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Classify a substance as solids, liquids and gases by looking at melting point and boiling point

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