AcademiaAgriculture & FarmingHumanitiesSocial SciencesSTEM

Freezing, Melting, and Boiling Points of Solids, Liquids, and Gases in general Use Today

Updated on June 14, 2016

Definition of Boiling Point

The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns into a gas. The boiling point temperature will be lower if the atmospheric pressure is decreased. For example the boiling point of pure water at standard atmospheric pressure (or sea level) is 100°C (212°F) while at 10,000 feet (3,048m) it is 90.39° C (194.7°F). This decrease will affect the time it takes to cook anything in water to the extent that any food that requires five minutes to prepare at sea level will take around 20 minutes at 3km (10,000 feet). In theory you could also calculate your altitude by recording the temperature water boils at.

Solvent based liquids will generally have a lower boiling point than water. In other words they will require less heat to turn them into vapour. Liquids with a much lower boiling point than water are generally classed as flammable.

Definition of Freezing Point

The temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid. The freezing point temperature will be higher if the pressure is increased. This may not be by a noticeable amount due to the volume change upon melting being much smaller than the volume change (expansion) when boiling. For example the freezing point of pure water at standard atmospheric pressure (or zero feet) is 0°C (32°F) while at 11km (6 miles) above sea level it would only be 0.001°C higher.

The only known liquid that does not freeze, even at absolute zero, is liquid helium unless it is under pressure.

Definition of Melting Point

The temperature that a solid substance becomes a liquid. Some solids do not have a liquid state and will change directly from a solid to a gaseous state. This is called sublimation, e.g. Carbon Dioxide (dry ice).

Melting Point/Freezing Point

The terms melting point or freezing point are often interchanged depending on whether a substance is being heated or cooled. For liquids it is known as the freezing point and for solids it is called the melting point. The melting point of a solid and the freezing point of the liquid are normally the same.

Table of Boiling and Melting/Freezing Points at Sea Level (Standard Atmospheric Pressure). The information is provided in centigrade (Celsius).

A to C

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Aluminium
2,519
660.3
Argon
-185.8
189.2
Butane
-1
-140
Calcium
1,484
842
Carbon
4,827
3,550
Carbon Dioxide
-57
-78
Chloroform
61.2
-63.5
Chlorine
-34
-101.5
Cobalt
2,870
1,495
Copper
2,562
1,085

E to M

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Ethanol (Alcohol)
78.4
-114
Gold
2,856
1,064
Glycerol
290
17.8
Helium
-268.9
-272.2
Hydrogen
-252.9
-259.1
Iodine
184.3
113.7
Iron
2,862
1,538
Lead
1,750
327.5
Magnesium
1,091
650
Mercury
356.7
-38.8
Methanol
64.7
-97.6

N to P

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Neon
-246
-248.6
Nickel
2,913
1,455
Nitric Acid
83
-42
Nitrogen
-195.8
-210
Oxygen
-183
-218.8
Phosphorus
280.5
44.2
Platinum
3,825
1,768
Plutonium
3,232
639.4
Potassium
758.8
63.4
Propane
-42
-188

R to Z

Substance
Boiling Point
Freezing/Melting Point
Radium
1,140
699.8
Radon
-61.9
-71.2
Sea Water
100.7
-2
Silicon
2,357
1,414
Silver
2,162
961.8
Sodium
882.8
97.7
Sulphur
444.7
115.2
Sulphuric Acid
337
10.3
Tin
2,603
231.9
Titanium
3,287
1,668
Uranium
4,131
1,132
Water
100
0
Zinc
907
419.5
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ @ 2013 Brian McKechnie (aka WorldEarth)

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      sheenkardante 3 years ago

      i like science!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 3 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Glad to hear it. It can be rather interesting and sometimes a bit overwhelming !!!

    • profile image

      will 3 years ago

      I love science but need 15 boiling and melting points for homework gets a bit boring.... 8-p

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 3 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Glad to help. Also pleased that you love science. Brian

    • profile image

      Ross 3 years ago

      The boiling point temperature will be lower if the pressure is increased.

      Shouldn't that be The boiling point temperature will be HIGHER if the pressure is increased.

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 3 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Thanks Ross for your input.. changes made. Brian

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 3 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Tongue firmly in cheek.. I presume !!!

    • profile image

      Topeka, KS 2 years ago

      Why is aluminium listed twice, with two different melting and boiling points?

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 2 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      confused !!! now removed. Thanks.

    • profile image

      2 years ago

      i love this

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 2 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Thank you

    • profile image

      ..... 2 years ago

      nice

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 2 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Cheers

    • profile image

      lol 2 years ago

      thanks

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 2 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      No problem

    • profile image

      CINDY 2 years ago

      BORING, I need (LIQUIDS) and their boiling point

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 2 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Water water everywhere !!!

    • profile image

      lamb123 2 years ago

      Awesome helped A LOT thanks

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 2 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      My pleasure. It's not any easy read though.

    • profile image

      lamb123 2 years ago

      tell me about it

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 2 years ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Hope it's useful anyway

    • profile image

      krishna chaitanya 21 months ago

      its really very nice

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 21 months ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Glad you like it.

    • profile image

      vasanth 21 months ago

      Yeah ..its good

    • profile image

      world earth 18 months ago

      cute dog

    • profile image

      ReTurtle9 11 months ago

      Amazing got so much interesting information

    • profile image

      sadaf 8 months ago

      Melting point: -189.4 °C

      Boiling point: -185.8 °C for argon please make correction

    • profile image

      Hi 6 months ago

      This helped me with homework

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 6 months ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Glad I could help.

    • profile image

      you 6 months ago

      really good for revision

    • profile image

      Slayer6705 6 months ago

      Hi I have a Science Test Tomorrow About Matter so Thanks! This will Really help me out so Thank you Again and may be comfort in your life.

      P.S(I am not always this nice so yea :)

    • World Earth profile image
      Author

      Brian 6 months ago from Ayrshire, Scotland

      Ha ha appreciate your comment Slayer

    • profile image

      John 6 months ago

      Could you please add in more substances such as Dry Ice and Liquid Nitrogen? Also, please add Fahrenheit as a unit. Other than that, I love it. Thanks!

    • profile image

      some dude 4 months ago

      do you reply to everyone along the lines of Glad to help. Also pleased that you love science. Brian

    • profile image

      finn 4 months ago

      this site is boss.

    • profile image

      Angelina 4 months ago

      Great i was looking for fahrenheit though

    • profile image

      Garrit Stauts 3 months ago

      What is the overall Celsius degree at which an average solid melts?

    • profile image

      mobin 2 months ago

      fine

    • profile image

      Haltee 2 months ago

      Can u please provide the reference for the information

    • profile image

      Fat guy 3 weeks ago

      Cool and helpful in school

    • profile image

      Joel 3 weeks ago

      Epic and fun and interesting I love this

    • profile image

      Typical gamer 3 weeks ago

      Helpful

    • profile image

      Teresa 2 weeks ago

      Can you help me name a liquid with a melting point of -15°C

    • profile image

      joe 2 weeks ago

      good.thanks for education.

    • profile image

      maddie 2 weeks ago

      Classify a substance as solids, liquids and gases by looking at melting point and boiling point

    • profile image

      Tom Janet Monks 11 days ago

      Yeah Maths!!!!!!!!!!!

    • profile image

      none 6 days ago

      hi thx kids

    • profile image

      devin 3 days ago

      hi thanks

    Click to Rate This Article