Great White Sharks

Updated on July 15, 2019
Larry Slawson profile image

Larry Slawson received his Masters Degree at UNC Charlotte. He specializes in Russian and Ukrainian History.

Large Great White Shark spotted in group of fish.
Large Great White Shark spotted in group of fish. | Source

Great White Sharks

Name: Great White Shark

Binomial Name: Carcharodon Carcharias

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Lamnidae

Genus: Carcharodon (A. Smith, 1838)

Species: C. Carcharias

Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Synonyms: Squalus carcharius (Linnaeus, 1758); Carharodon Carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758); Squalus caninus (Osbeck, 1765); Carcharias lamia (Rafinesque, 1810); Carcharias verus (Cloquet, 1817); Squalus vulgaris (Richardson, 1836); Carcharias vulgaris (Richardson, 1836); Carcharodon smithii (Agassiz, 1838); Carcharodon smithi (Bonaparte, 1838); Carcharodon rondeletii (Muller and Henle, 1839); Carcharodon capensis (Smith, 1839); Carcharias atwoodi (Storer, 1848); Carcharias maso (Morris, 1898); Carcharodon albimors (Whitley, 1939)

Average Lifespan: Seventy Years

Behavioral Traits and Characteristics of the Great White

The “Great White Shark,” also referred to as the “Great White,” “White Shark,” and “White Pointer,” is a species of shark found along the coastal regions of all the world’s major oceans. Growing to lengths of twenty-feet, and weighing approximately 4,200 pounds at maturity, the Great White is a species of shark to be reckoned with.

The Great White, in more recent years, has been added to the IUCN list as a vulnerable species due to their steady decline in numbers. It is also protected by several international governments, including Australia (2018). First described by Linnaeus in 1758, its scientific name is derived from the ancient Greek words Karkharos and odous, which mean “sharp” and “tooth,” respectively. It is believed that the Great White has been around since the mid-Miocene era, approximately sixteen million years ago, and may be related to the prehistoric shark known as the Megalodon.

Great White Shark spotted in the ocean deep. Notice the shark's incredible size and razor sharp teeth.
Great White Shark spotted in the ocean deep. Notice the shark's incredible size and razor sharp teeth. | Source

Great White Characteristics and Behavior

The Great White Shark is well known for its large snout as well as its impressive array of jagged teeth. They are often described as bluish-grey, with a white underbelly, which makes them difficult to spot underwater. Although the average size of Great Whites are twenty-two feet, a few specimens have been discovered over the last century with lengths of nearly thirty-seven feet. However, these reports are debatable as they were never confirmed by the scientific community.

Despite countless hours of observation, the social structure and behavior of the Great White is not well understood. However, some researchers believe that a “dominance hierarchy” may exist with the Great White that is dependent upon its overall sex and gender. Females tend to dominate the males, whereas larger sharks tend to be more dominate over the smaller Great Whites. Great Whites are also one of the few species of sharks to lift their head above water to examine potential prey. Some researchers speculate that surfacing allows the Great White to hone in on particular smells better.

The Great White is quite curious, by nature, and displays a significant level of intelligence. Scientists have even observed the Great White engaging in social behavior with other Great Whites, as well as developing clans of two to six sharks that can last upwards of a year. Similar to wolf packs, researchers believe that these clans possess a well-defined ranking system, with the alpha serving as their leader.

Great White spotted surfacing.
Great White spotted surfacing. | Source

Great White Shark Habitat

Great White Sharks live along all of the world’s coastal waters, and prefer to stay in waters with an average temperature between fifty-four and seventy-five degrees (Fahrenheit). Current research indicates that most Great Whites appear to be found off the coast of the United States as well as Japan, South Africa, Chile, and the Mediterranean Sea.

The Great White is considered an “epipelagic” fish, which means that it prefers open waters. Despite their preference for coastal waters, however, some Great Whites have been spotted at depths of approximately 3,900 feet. These sharks rarely remain in one place though, as a 2018 study showed that large numbers of Great Whites travelled upwards of 12,000 miles in less than nine months. This revelation challenged the notion that Great Whites are territorial, and indicates that the sharks may engage in migratory patterns.

"We provoke a shark every time we enter the water where sharks happen to be, for we forget: The ocean is not our territory - it's theirs."

— Peter Benchley

Prey and Natural Predators

As a carnivorous species, the Great White Shark tends to prey on fish and mammals of various sizes. These include various fish, tuna, whales, dolphins, other sharks, seals, sea turtles, and porpoises. As these sharks continue to grow in size, however, their appetite for larger prey also grows. Larger prey include whales such as “Pygmy Sperm Whale” and “beaked whales” often fall victim to larger Great White attacks. Natural predators of the Great White are few and far between, but include the occasional attack by Killer Whales as well as larger Great Whites. Attacks by Killer Whales remain rare, however, and may only result from competition for food sources.

Despite the hyper-awareness to Great Whites created by the movie Jaws, fatalities from the sharks are relatively rare. Nevertheless, unprovoked bites by the Great White are the greatest of all shark species, with nearly 272 documented bites in the year 2012, alone (worldwide).


Before reading this article, how familiar were you with Great White Sharks?

See results


The Great White tends to reach sexual maturity at the age of 26, while females do not reach maturity until the age of 33. Possessing a low reproductive rate along with a long gestation rate of eleven months, the Great White population remains vulnerable to environmental changes and overfishing.

Very little is known about the birthing process of Great Whites (as a birth has never been observed). However, scientists do know that the females possess eggs that develop and grow until birth. Delivery is also believed to occur during the spring and summer months, with multiple pups being born from a single mother (the highest number recorded being fourteen).


In closing, the Great White Shark is one of the most fascinating marine animals in the world due to its large size, predatory behavior, and extensive aggrandizement by popular culture (such as movies and books). Despite decades of observation by scientists, there is still much to be learned about the Great Whites, their social behaviors, as well as reproductive processes. With new and exciting research expeditions currently underway, it will be interesting to see what new facts can be learned about this extraordinary creature in the years and decades to come.

Works Cited:

Articles / Books:

Wikipedia contributors, "Great white shark," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, (accessed July 3, 2019).

Questions & Answers

    © 2019 Larry Slawson


      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • Larry Slawson profile imageAUTHOR

        Larry Slawson 

        6 months ago from North Carolina

        Haha, that's funny Vivian. Jaws is one of those movies that has a lasting impact on you, I think. I'm still very cautious about wading into the ocean after watching those movies haha!

      • Noelle7 profile image

        Vivian Coblentz 

        6 months ago

        I let my daughter watch the first 3 Jaws movies this summer for the first time--AFTER our trip to Wrightsville Beach. We had enjoyed catching the waves at the beach, but then one of the movie characters said shark attacks typically happen in 3 feet of water, 10 feet away from shore. Yikes! I'm glad we survived!

        Great, informative article!

      • Larry Slawson profile imageAUTHOR

        Larry Slawson 

        6 months ago from North Carolina

        Haha, Jaws was definitely coming to mind for me as well haha.

      • Eurofile profile image

        Liz Westwood 

        6 months ago from UK

        Jaws springs to mind. Great illustrations and interesting information about these amazing creatures that we underestimate at our peril.


      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

      Show Details
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)