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How Does the Ear Help to Maintain Balance and Equilibrium of the Body?

A botany graduate, Nithya Venkat enjoys researching and writing about topics that interest her.

Human Ear

Human Ear

The ear is one of the sensory organs that help us to hear. An interesting point to note is that the ear not only helps with hearing but also helps us maintain our bodies' balance and equilibrium. Without the ear, we would not be able to balance our bodies with respect to the earth's gravitational pull.

To understand how the ear helps us balance our bodies, we need to know about the ear's structure.

Structure of the Ear

The ear is made up of three different parts:

  • outer ear
  • middle ear
  • inner ear

The inner ear is the part that helps us to balance our bodies. Therefore, the inner ear is involved in both the functions of hearing and balancing.

Structure of the Inner Ear

Structure of the Inner Ear

Structure of the Inner Ear

The inner ear is enclosed within the temporal bone of the skull.

The inner ear is made up of two small parts:

  • cochlea
  • semicircular canals

The cochlea is a coiled structure that resembles the shell of a snail.

The cochlea and the semicircular canals are connected by a structure called the vestibule.

The vestibule has two smaller structures called the saccule and the utricle.

How Does the Inner Ear Help to Maintain Balance and Equilibrium?

Two structures of the inner ear help to maintain balance and equilibrium:

  • the three semicircular canals are interconnected and positioned at right angles, just like a gyroscope.
  • the vestibule (has the saccule and utricle) that connects the semicircular canals to the cochlea

The semicircular canals and the vestibule of the inner ear help maintain the body's balance and equilibrium.

Semicircular Canals: Dynamic Equilibrium

The semicircular canals are responsible for maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of the body.

Dynamic equilibrium lets us know the direction in which our head moves in three-dimensional space and gives us information about rotation. The information about the dynamic equilibrium is detected in the semicircular canals attached to the vestibule.

The semicircular canals are filled with a fluid called the endolymph. As a result, each one of the semicircular canals has an enlarged cup-like structure called the cupula. In addition, the cupula has thin, hair-like cells.

Whenever the head moves, the fluid in the canals moves. When the fluid in the canals moves, the hair cells move in the direction of the fluid.

The hair cells transmit the direction of bending to the sensory neurons of the vestibulocochlear nerve (vestibular branch), which then sends the information about the direction of the movement to the cerebellum.

Vestibule: Static Equilibrium

The horizontally positioned utricle and the vertically positioned saccule are the two sensory chambers present in the vestibule of the inner ear. The utricle and saccule are responsible for helping maintain the static equilibrium of the body.

Static equilibrium helps us detect our head's position relative to gravity; that is, it helps us realize which way the head is tilted.

Hair cells have sensory hairs that project into an otolithic membrane. Otolith crystals are embedded in the otolithic membrane positioned just above the sensory hairs.

When the head moves, the otoliths are pulled in the direction of gravity or opposite to the direction of the movement. The movement pulls the gelatinous membrane, which in turn bends the hairs of the hair cells. The hair cells transmit the information about the position to the sensory neurons, sending the signals through the cranial nerve VIII of the vestibular branch to the cerebellum.

The signals detected by the hair cells of both the semicircular canals and the vestibule are converted into nerve impulses and sent to the brain through the vestibular nerve. The brain also receives signals from the visual and skeletal systems of the body.

The brain coordinates all three signals from the inner ear, visual system, and skeletal systems to maintain balance and equilibrium of the body.

How Does the Inner Ear Help in Hearing?

The cochlea of the inner ear helps in hearing. The cochlea is lined by tiny hair cells and is filled with fluid.

When the middle ear transfers vibrations to the cochlea, the fluid in the cochlea is displaced. This displacement of the fluid makes the hair cells move.

Signals from these cells are converted into nerve impulses and sent to the brain through the auditory nerve, thereby helping in hearing.

Diseases Caused by Abnormalities of the Inner Ear


Vertigo is characterized by a sense of dizziness and spinning when the person is perfectly still. Nausea and vomiting sometimes accompany it.

Vertigo can be a result of the following conditions:

  • Labyrinthitis: a condition caused by infection or inflammation of the inner ear causing dizziness and loss of balance
  • Vestibular Neuronitis: a condition caused by the inflammation of the vestibular nerve


Tinnitus is characterized by a continuous ringing or buzzing noise in the ear when there are no ringing or buzzing sounds around. This condition is mainly caused due to damage to the hair cells in the cochlea region of the inner ear. Intake of certain medications can also cause Tinnitus.

Meniere's Disease

Meniere's Disease is characterized by ringing ears, ear fullness, progressive hearing loss, and poor equilibrium. This Disease is caused when the semicircular canals do not function properly.

Perilymph Fistula

Perilymph Fistula is a condition caused when the fluid in the inner ear leaks into the middle ear. This can happen when there is a head injury or extreme physical exertion.


The inner ear is one of the organs that help maintain the body's balance and equilibrium. The semicircular canals and the vestibule are the two parts of the inner ear that are directly involved in assisting the body in maintaining balance and equilibrium.



Harvard Health Publishing

Medical News Today

National Dizzy and Balance Center

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Questions & Answers

Question: Does the earlobe have anything to do with balancing the body?

Answer: The exact function of the earlobe still remains a mystery.

Question: If the liquid in the semicircular canals of my ear is disturbed, could it be cured?

Answer: If the liquid in the semicircular canals is disturbed, it can be treated with specific balance exercises. Consult your doctor.

Question: Does the loss of hearing affect one's balance?

Answer: If the loss of hearing is due to the inner ear being affected by an external injury or any other illness, then one's equilibrium will be affected.

Question: If the eardrum is perforated can it heal?

Answer: A ruptured eardrum usually heals within a few weeks but some cases may require surgery to repair the eardrum.

Question: Is it true that tinnitus cannot be cured after you've been diagnosed for a month?

Answer: There is no scientifically proven cure for tinnitus, but there are medications, different types of therapy, and ayurvedic treatment for this condition.

Question: How does the inner ear lose fluid?

Answer: The inner ear loses fluid when there is a tear in the thin membrane called the round window or oval. This membrane separates the inner ear from the middle ear when a tear occurs in this membrane the fluid from the inner ear leaks into the middle ear.

Question: I have no hearing problem but I still have an imbalance in my body. What should I do?

Answer: Consult your doctor so that your condition can be checked and treated.

Question: Can sinuses cause balance problems?

Answer: Sinuses that are congested due to allergy can cause mild dizziness or a severe type of dizziness called vertigo that in turn affects balance.

Question: Can vertigo be treated?

Answer: Yes, vertigo can be treated.

© 2014 Nithya Venkat


Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on November 28, 2019:

Thank you Dr Haseem.

Dr Haseem on November 27, 2019:

Very helpful, explained in a simple subjective way, thank you

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on November 04, 2019:

Thank you Curtis. Take care.

Curtis on November 02, 2019:

Completely enjoyed your insight ! Having lost my hearing by stroke (2) I was unable to figure my gait , lost my equalibrium and walk control ....affected my hand control also !

charmaine willisin on April 13, 2019:

thanks very much for u affort

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 01, 2018:

Thank you Chalese VanHorn for leaving a comment.

Chalese VanHorn on November 30, 2018:

Thank you for the info

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on October 11, 2018:

Nikita thank you for visiting.

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on October 11, 2018:

Thank you Pam Morris.

Nikita on October 09, 2018:


Pam Morris from Atlanta Georgia on October 08, 2018:

Very interesting and helpful article. Thank you for sharing.

Ramu on September 27, 2018:

Thanks mam. My teacher also didn't explaned this much....

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on September 04, 2018:

shimmu thank you.

shimmu on September 04, 2018:

It was very hlelpful for me .....ur such a talented teacher.

Once again thank you . Hope u stay well!

Simran wasnik on August 16, 2018:

Thank you

Frank Moses on July 03, 2018:

Thank you for I understood

HARUN BLACKSON on March 30, 2018:

Thanks for your good explanation,

Aftab Idrishi on March 18, 2018:

Thanks very much

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on March 13, 2018:

Thank you and am glad you understood.

Grace Fihavango on March 11, 2018:


Thanks a lot ,I understand the topic very well.

Stay blessed

Mila Khan on January 21, 2018:

Too much informative post......


Keeran on August 25, 2017:


zahid on June 05, 2017:

Sir you mentioned tinnitus disease of inner ear. Sir there is any storage of sounds or any problem why we hear the sounds that actually doesn't exist at that time. Please help

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on November 04, 2016:

GLADYS KRISHNA, am so happy that this article helped you in your studies. Thank you for writing in and letting me know, much appreciated.

GLADYS KRISHNA on November 04, 2016:

This infromation is very good. Because of this I got first prize in semenar presentation. I had gained so many knowledge through this. Thank you .

gladys krishna on November 04, 2016:

this infromation is verygood it had helped me in my studies

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 30, 2014:

RachaelOhalloran oh my God that must have been terrible. Am glad that your balance is good and take care. Wishing you a very Happy New Year.

Rachael O'Halloran from United States on December 29, 2014:

I was left deaf after an attacker stabbed me when I was in my 30's and I'm 67 now. My balance gets screwy with abrupt weather changes due to fluid build up in my ear canals. I take Antivert for the dizziness and use a ear pump to drain out the fluid. Other than that, balance is good. This is a very informative article and you did it justice.

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 22, 2014:

teaches12345 thank you, glad you found my hub useful. Ear aches can be very painful specially from an ear infection.

Dianna Mendez on December 21, 2014:

I had ear aches as a child and know well the pain and imbalance from an inner ear infection. Your article is well written and very informative on how it all works for better balance. It is very useful to me.

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 12, 2014:

Nell Rose thank you, hope your mum is okay now.

Nell Rose from England on December 12, 2014:

Hi, very interesting stuff, my mum used to have trouble with balance because of her ear, so this was fascinating!

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 10, 2014:

itmesudiksha thank you for reading and leaving a comment.

tillsontitan thank you for reading and the many vote ups. Will read your hub about Meniere's Disease.

Mary Craig from New York on December 10, 2014:

I too appreciate the information here. I suffer from Meniere's Disease (wrote a hub about it) and occasional tinnitus. Of course I knew it was an "inner ear thing" but reading your hub has given me a little more of an understanding.

Voted up, useful, and interesting.

Sudiksha from Nepal on December 10, 2014:

very knowledgeable thank u for sharing with us.

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 10, 2014:

AliciaC thank you for stopping by and leaving a comment.

Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on December 09, 2014:

This is useful information, Vellur. Thank you for sharing it.

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 09, 2014:

CrisSP thank you, please do link my hub. Thanks for the vote ups and share. Much appreciated.

always exploring thank you, vertigo is scary suddenly the whole world starts spinning.

Ruby Jean Richert from Southern Illinois on December 09, 2014:

Your presentation is very good. Vertigo is not fun to have, I had it for a short time and was given antivert which helped. Thank you again...

CrisSp from Sky Is The Limit Adventure on December 09, 2014:

Very well presented and easy to grasp. I am linking this to my hub "How To Remove Insect From Ear -First Aid." Say, yes please. :)

Thank you.

P.S. Voted up, useful plus sharing.

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 09, 2014:

ChitrangadaSharan thank you for reading and the vote up, much appreciated.

billybuc thank you for your appreciation, you made my day!

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on December 09, 2014:

What great information. Thank you for presenting it in a way even the layman can understand. Well done!

Chitrangada Sharan from New Delhi, India on December 09, 2014:

Very useful, educative and informative article about how balance is maintained through our ear!

I learnt a lot and you presented a well researched hub. Voted up and thanks!

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 09, 2014:

DDE thank you and am glad you came to know more through my hub.

Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on December 09, 2014:

Informative and interesting. I knew of someone who had such issues. Balancing was his problem and something to do with the ear. You enlightened me on this these issues.

Nithya Venkat (author) from Dubai on December 08, 2014:

Thank you mindyjgirl for your visit and comments. Thank you for the vote up too.

Mindy Bench from Oregon on December 08, 2014:

Great Job! So many times I have wanted to know more about the inner ear. most of the time you just see articles about ear problems and not much of something like this, Thank you. Voted too :)