Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)

Updated on April 30, 2019
Liz Hardin profile image

Liz earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Veterinary Medical Technology from Lincoln Memorial University In Harrogate, TN.

What is fracking?

Fracking is shorthand for hydraulic fracturing, a type of drilling and mining that has been used commercially for over 65 years. The combination of advanced hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling is mostly responsible for surging oil and natural gas production in the US. Fracking involves tapping into shale and other tight-rock formations by drilling a mile or more below the surface. A single surface site can accommodate a number of wells. There are over 1.1 million active oil and gas wells in the US across 35 states.

Once the well is drilled, cased and cemented, small perforations are made in the horizontal portion of the well pipe, through which a typical mixture of 90% water, 9.5% of sand, and 0.5% of other additives is pumped at high pressure to create micro-fractures in the rock that are held open by the grains of sand. The additives help to reduce friction, thereby reducing the amount of pumping pressure from diesel-powered sources to reduce air emissions, and prevent pipe corrosion, which in turn helps protect the environment and boost well efficiency. Once the shale is shattered, naturals gas then flows along the cracks into wells, and is then brought to the surface.

Drilling rig in Southwest Pennsylvania.
Drilling rig in Southwest Pennsylvania. | Source

There are over 1.1 million active oil and gas wells in the U.S. across 35 states.


Fracking wells are typically built on shale deposits that contain significant reserves of natural gas. Shale is a cap rock, making it virtually impermeable to oil and natural gas. Shale halts upward-moving oil and gas, and keeps them from escaping at the surface.

Fracking wells are typically built on shale deposits that contain significant reserves of natural gas.

Problems With Fracking

Fracturing fluid is mostly water, but it contains chemicals that may be toxic, such as guar gum, ethylene glycol, petroleum, borate salts, and citric acid, just to name a few. Fracking fluids are regulated by state laws, but some are more strict than others. There are significant concerns about fracking fluids leaking into aquifers that are used for public drinking supply. Potential water shortages and damages to forests and wildlife are also a concern. Once fracturing is completed, fracking fluids are brought back to the surface and injected into deep disposal wells. In some locations, these injections appear to trigger numerous minor earthquakes, resulting in infrastructure damages particularly in states such as Texas, Oklahoma, and Ohio.

So why don't we stop fracking, then? Gas and oil companies make so much money off of their products, so why would they stop, right? Additionally, so many US industries still very dependent upon oil and gas products and industries.

Illustration of hydraulic fracturing.
Illustration of hydraulic fracturing. | Source

There are significant concerns about fracking fluids leaking into aquifers that are used for public drinking supply.

Solutions and Alternatives

Solutions to fracking include utilizing renewable energy, energy efficiency, and reducing oil and gas use on large scales. Reduced oil and gas use equals a lesser need for fracking, which in turn decreases the amount of fracking wastewater produced. Alternatives to fracking are renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, bio fuels, and hydroelectric nuclear energy. The only problems with these alternatives is that they are costly. We can all help at home by utilizing energy efficiency by using better home insulation, biodigesters, wood burners, and more fuel-efficient cars.

Anti-fracking sign.
Anti-fracking sign. | Source

The Takeaway

Due to the potential contamination of aquifers by wastewater, potential water shortages, and damages from seismic activity due to underground fracking wastewater injection, fracking remains a topic of controversy. More research into the environmental effects of fracking is needed. Additionally, more research into alternative energy sources and methods, and how to make them more cost effective, is also needed. Uses of alternative energy sources need to be implemented into everyday society in order to reduce the need for oil and natural gas ad make a lasting difference. This is not only to avoid environmental damages now, but to avoid potential future shortages of oil and natural gas. In the meantime, fracking waste waters need to be strictly maintained and monitored.


  • Tarbuck, E., Lutgens, F. (2014). Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. 11th ed. Boston. Pearson. Pg. 786.
  • Course notes from Geology college course.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2019 Liz Hardin


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image

      Kenneth Avery 

      6 months ago

      Liz . . .you are welcome. I truly enjoyed your writing. You have such a talent for the written word. Keep up the fine work.

    • Liz Hardin profile imageAUTHOR

      Liz Hardin 

      6 months ago from Tennessee

      Thanks, Kenneth!

    • kenneth avery profile image

      Kenneth Avery 

      6 months ago from Hamilton, Alabama

      Nice work, Liz. Thank you for publishing a very important topic. I happen to know that there are some frackers several miles from my hometown. Again, thanks.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)