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Identifying the Rocks of Lake Michigan (Geode, Septarian, Agate, and More)

Kathi writes about fossils and other earthly subjects, plus the natural history of Michigan, poetry, and more.

Pier Cove Beach Lake Michigan Sunset

Pier Cove Beach Lake Michigan Sunset

I Found a Rock on the Beach and Wondered

Looking west towards Chicago and Milwaukee from our Lake Michigan shorelines during a beautiful September sunset is a favorite pastime for us western Michiganders. Yet another favorite pastime for all citizens of the Great Lakes states, is combing the beaches for interesting treasures. Beach combing can be a very settling and spiritual experience. Beachcombers make sure to carry a bucket or two in case they find cool fossils to collect or beautiful samples of driftwood—or perhaps colorful, sand-smoothed pieces of beach glass—but especially fascinating rocks.

I have enjoyed collecting all the above from several neighboring Southwestern Michigan beaches and would like to share with you some of the rocks I have discovered. Most samples are very common, while the more unusual samples are found only in certain areas. Beautiful photographs assist identification and fascinating information about each rock discovery!

Basalt and Septarian Brown Beach Stones  Lake Michigan

Basalt and Septarian Brown Beach Stones Lake Michigan

Ah, where to begin . . . the above photo is an example of what I often find during the springtime due to winter's push of ice and snow depositing rocks further up onto the shore. Later in the season, the wave action of the big lake washes the rocks back into the water or else the steady winds bury them under sand. So I find spring to be the best season for rock hunting. But I must mention; some Lake Michigan beaches have very few stones, while other pockets are loaded with them.

The photo above features samples of basalt beach stones together with Septarian brown stones. Basalt is the most common stone (other than granite) found along the shoreline where I live in Southwestern Michigan. I was especially drawn to this assemblage lying on Pier Cove Beach by the way the late afternoon sun ignited the contrast between the warm and cool complimentary colors of the various beautiful stones.

Note: One consistency you'll find with beach stones and rocks is their smoothness and rounded edges. That's due to the wind and waves pushing the stones against the sand, acting as a polisher. The smoothness is also an indication of how far a stone has traveled from the site of its original formation. The smooth rocks feel so wonderfully healing to the touch!

This article includes various types of basalt, septarian brown stones, limestone, granite, gabbro, diorite, gneiss, schist, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, geodes, chalcedony, and agate. If you don't see a match for the stone you've found here, you might find it here: Common Beach Stone Identification (Including Dolomite, Quartz, Serpentine, Syenite, and More.

Basalt  -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Basalt - Lake Michigan Beach Stone


Rocks are combinations of minerals, and minerals are combinations of chemical elements. Basalt is a fine-grained, dense volcanic rock, the original rock of Earth's crust. It covers more of Earth's surface than any other rock. It is formed from ancient molten rock that cools quickly when it reaches the surface (called "extrusive type"). This is the reason for its fine-grained, heavy density before gas bubbles, crystallization, or foreign materials can infiltrate.

Most extrusive igneous rocks in Michigan were formed from ancient, quiet, lava flows which reached the surface through long cracks and crevices in the Earth's crust; also, from remnants of mountain peaks that have withered away. Just imagine, when you find a basalt rock on the beach, you're likely holding in your hand at least a billion-year-old chunk of Earth.

Beautiful Dark Grey Basalt - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Beautiful Dark Grey Basalt - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Pyroxine and Plagioclase Minerals

Basalt is composed of plagioclase and pyroxine minerals. If you're studying rocks, these terms will come up often.

  • Pyroxine is a class of rock-forming silicate minerals, generally containing the chemical elements calcium, magnesium, iron, and occasionally the mineral olivine. In lesser quantities, basalt may also contain the mineral quartz, hornblende, nepheline, orthopyroxene, etc.
  • The Plagioclase is a group of related feldspar minerals that essentially have similar formulas but vary in their amounts of the chemical elements sodium and calcium.

Note: Many explanations are simplifications for us non-geologist laymen. Researching rocks can get pretty intense and involved.

Read More From Owlcation

Basalt -  Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Basalt - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

What Color Is Basalt?

Basalt is typically grey to dark grey, but can rapidly weather to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its iron rich minerals and can further exhibit a wide range of shading due to regional geochemical processes.

Ophitic Basalt - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Ophitic Basalt - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Ophitic Basalt

Ophitic Basalt looks like a basalt rock that has been decorated with light-colored snowflakes. The snowflakes are formed from tiny feldspar crystals within the basalt lava. Because the feldspar crystals eroded at different rates than the basalt base, there is often a slight mottled texture to these stones. The sample above was a small boulder found on the beach and was quite heavy to carry in my arms!

Vesicular Basalt "Scoria" -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Vesicular Basalt "Scoria" - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Vesicular Basalt

Occasionally, we find these most-curious pitted stones on the beaches. After some research, I'm glad I finally understand how they got that way. They are called "Vesicular Basalt," which means basalt with textures, and if the deep pits (vesicles) cover more than half the surface of the rock, it's called scoria.

What causes the vesicles or pits in the rock?

Here's what happens: The basalt-making molten rock cools down quickly before gas bubbles from deep inside Earth's surface have the chance to make their way out. When the lava reaches the atmosphere, the bubbles inside can blow out, leaving spherical-pitted impressions.

Vesicular Basalt  "Amygdaloidal" - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Vesicular Basalt "Amygdaloidal" - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Amygdaloidal Basalt

Here's what can happen, yet later: The vesicles can fill in with other minerals and the fillings are called amygdules. The basalt is then referred to as amygdaloidal basalt. If the lava flow is in motion when the blowholes are being formed, the holes may be drawn out and elongated, as you can see in the sample above.

Basalt Porphyry - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Basalt Porphyry - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Basalt Porphyry

What is porphyry?

In various rock types (in this case, basalt), when you see large crystals of a mineral embedded within other finely ground minerals making up the mass, it's porphyry or porphyritic rock. (You can tell the porphyry basalt apart from the above amygdaloidal basalt sample by the absence of empty pits). Anyway, the porphyry beach stones are quite rare to find. This sample of basalt has a greenish cast likely due to the inclusion of the mineral olivine; and calcite is likely the mineral speckled within the basalt mass.

Michigan Septarian Brown Stones

Michigan Septarian Brown Stones

Brown Septarian Stones

Septarian stones are typically brown due to the iron content. Composed mainly of mud and clay that formed on the ocean floor around 50 million years ago, at some point, perhaps from dehydration, the stones cracked. Later, calcite infiltrated the open veins via ground water, gradually filling them in.

This is one of those types of stones that is found only in certain areas of Southwestern Michigan and very few other places around the world. Locals call them "lightning stones" or "turtle stones" for obvious reasons.

The photo below is a good example of the cracking process. Sometimes the stones break completely apart and we find thousands of smoothed, broken-off sections on the beach.

Septarian Brown Stone - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Septarian Brown Stone - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Broken Pieces From Brown Septarian Mudstone, Lake Michigan

Broken Pieces From Brown Septarian Mudstone, Lake Michigan


There are many varieties of limestone lying on the beaches of the Great Lakes. I've provided information about a few, but briefly, here's a basic definition:

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, clams, and mollusks. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of the compound calcium carbonate. Marine animals grow their shells by extracting calcium carbonate from the water, which is fascinating to me.

Crinoidal Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Crinoidal Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Crinoidal Limestone

Crinoidal limestone contains a significant amount of crinoid fossils. Crinoids are branching, long-stemmed, plant-like, mostly extinct organisms that lived 500 million years ago. They were invertebrate animals that sifted microorganisms from the ocean water. (See Drawing Below)

With keen eyes, we often find broken stems from the fossilized remains of these marine creatures or we find individual cheerio-shaped pieces broken off from the stems. Native Americans wove necklaces with the circular pieces, hence the term, "Indian Beads" and another reference is, "Sea Lilies" because of their likeness.

My Sea Lily (Crinoid) Drawing

My Sea Lily (Crinoid) Drawing

Fossiliferous Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Fossiliferous Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Fossiliferous Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Fossiliferous Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Fossiliferous Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Fossiliferous Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Fossiliferous Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Fossiliferous Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Fossiliferous Limestone

Above are several samples of fossiliferous limestone to demonstrate how abundant they are on our beaches, especially in Southwest Michigan. Fossiliferous limestone contains obvious and abundant fossils such as the shells of mollusks, clams, crinoids, and other invertebrate organisms. Like other limestone, fossiliferous limestone is composed of the mineral calcite. It can be white, pink, red, reddish brown, gray, and even black, depending on the mineral makeup. We find many redddish-brown-colored samples on our beaches due to an infusion of iron.

Tuffa Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Tuffa Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Tuffa Limestone

Tuffa Limestone is a porous limestone that forms from the precipitation of calcium carbonate, often at a hot spring or along the shoreline of a lake where waters are saturated with the chemical compound.

Compact Limestone -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Compact Limestone - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Compact Limestone

Compact Limestone is composed primarily of tightly packed calcium carbonate derived from the remains of marine organisms. It can vary in color from white, yellowish, pink, red, gray, or even black, depending on the presence of other minerals. It has a very fine texture and is denser than other types of limestone. The first sample shown above is a large piece with rounded edges but has been flattened, hence the name "shingle" for flat stones found on beaches.

Compact Limestone Cobbler - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Compact Limestone Cobbler - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Dolostone or Dolomite?

I just love finding the perfectly round or egg-shaped samples of smooth, white limestone rocks (shown above)!

There is a slight chance the samples above could be dolostone or dolomite (not to be confused with the mineral). Dolomite rock is quite similar to limestone, and the two are often indistinguishable in the field. Geologists carry small bottles of diluted hydrochloric acid to test these rocks.

The most common type of dolomite rock is a former limestone that was dolomitized.

What is dolomitization?

Dolomitization means that calcium carbonate (the minerals aragonite or calcite which make up limestone) were replaced by calcium magnesium carbonate (mineral dolomite) through the action of magnesium-bearing water percolating the limestone or limy mud. Dolomite rock is another very common sedimentary rock. Older carbonate rocks formed before the Mesozoic tend to be dolomite, whereas younger carbonates are predominantly various limestone.

Granite  -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Granite - Lake Michigan Beach Stone


It's thrilling to find these round, bird-egg-shaped granite stones on the beach. With their varied colors and patterns, they create beautiful works of art. Granite is another type of rock we find quite often on our Lake Michigan beaches in the form of pebbles, cobblestones, and boulders.

Granite makes up 70–80% of the Earth's crust. It's an igneous rock that cools slowly during its formation deep within the Earth. The slow cooling allows for the process of crystallization of molten rock (intrusive type). The crystallized, coarse-grained minerals can easily be seen with the naked eye in each rock. Colors vary from red, pink, gray, to white with black grains, depending on the amount and mix of minerals.

What gives granite its color?

  • Quartz - typically milky white in color
  • Plagioclase Feldspar - typically off white
  • Alkali or Potassium Feldspar - typically salmon pink
  • Biotite Mica- typically black or dark brown
  • Muscovite Mica- typically metallic gold or yellow
  • Amphibole Hornblende- typically black or dark green

Can you guess their mineral content based on their color?

Special Granite  -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Special Granite - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Special Granite

Above, are two samples demonstrating the variances in granite's colors depending on mineral content. Can you guess their mineral content based on their color?

Although granite underlies much of the Earth's surface, it doesn't often rise up to where we can see it. The Canadian Shield is an enormous granite formation covering most of the country. It is the nearest place to Michigan where granite is found above the crust. So how did it get to Michigan's shores? You guessed it . . . glaciers from past ice ages scraped up the material and brought it south.

Porphyritic Granite  -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Porphyritic Granite - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Porphyritic Granite

The review, porphyry or porphyritic rock is made up of a finer-grained rock mass containing larger crystals, in the case of granite, feldspar crystals. Porphyry rock is typically made up of a basalt base but sometimes it can be made up of a granite base with larger, jagged, rectangular crystals within.The porphyritic crystals are generally white, pink, or orange.

With granite, it’s harder to identify the porphyry because of its already-coarse grain, but look for stubby, square, or hexagonal crystals that are larger than the other grains within the granite rock. You can clearly see this in the sample I have provided above found on a Lake Michigan beach.

Here's how it happens: As the feldspar minerals in granite begins to crystallize, the process is disturbed when the molten rock is quickly erupted, freezing the well-formed feldspar crystals in place while the rest of the rock quickly cools and fills in around them.

Gabbro Rock  -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Gabbro Rock - Lake Michigan Beach Stone


Gabbro is igneous rock which cools slowly (intrusive) deep below the Earth's surface causing its minerals to crystallize. It's sometimes called “black granite” for its similar, coarse-grain appearance to granite, but a large proportion of its iron-bearing minerals make gabbro heavier and usually darker in color.

Gabbro can also be gray and dark green. You may see fewer light-colored mineral grains. Unlike many other igneous rocks, gabbro usually contains very little quartz, although the sample I collected has a quartz vein running all the way around it.

Gabbro has the same mineral composition as basalt (olivine and pyroxene silica minerals, with smaller amounts of plagioclase feldspar minerals and mica). But whether basalt or gabbro forms, depends upon the cooling rate of the magma, not its composition. While gabbro is coarse-grained, which cools slowly during the molten stage (intrusive), basalt is fine grained because it cools quickly (extrusive).

Diorte  -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Diorte - Lake Michigan Beach Stone


Diorite is another of several types of coarse-grain igneous stones that can easily be confused with granite. Diorite's chemical composition is intermediate between gabbro and granite.

How to tell the difference between diorite, granite, and gabbro?

The best way to tell diorite from granite is by the salt-and-pepper appearance of diorite which differs from granite's combination of various colors. To tell diorite from gabbro, look for gabbro's darker color. If you have in your hand a granite-looking rock with obvious pink feldspar and more than 20% quartz, you probably have granite, not diorite or gabbro. Phew . . .

Diorite is composed with an almost-equal mixture of light-colored minerals, such as sodium-rich plagioclase (a certain type of feldspar mineral), to dark-colored minerals such as amphibole, hornblende, or biotite mica.

Gneiss Boulder - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Gneiss Boulder - Lake Michigan Beach Stone


Did you every wonder how some rocks have bands or stripes? They are some of the most attractive stones, like gneiss for instance, which I only occasionally find on the beach.

Gneiss (pronounced "nice") usually forms at convergent plate boundaries. It is a high-grade metamorphic rock in which the original mineral grains recrystallize, enlarge, flatten, and reorganize into parallel bands under intense heat and pressure which make the rock and its minerals more stable. While the chemical composition of the rock may not have changed, its physical structure will look completely different from the original parent rock.

The bands in gneiss are often broken, can be folded (foliated), and can be different widths. Individual bands are usually 1-10 mm in thickness. Layers larger than that imply that partial melting or the introduction of new material probably took place. Such rocks are called "migmatites." Hence, my boulder sample above would be termed “migmatized gneiss.” It is not well understood how the segregation takes place.

Gneiss Cobbler - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Gneiss Cobbler - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

The granular light-colored minerals in gneiss are calcium, sodium, and potassium-rich minerals such as quartz, and also various types of feldspar. The dark-colored layers consist of iron-magnesium-rich minerals including biotite, chlorite, garnet, graphite, and hornblende.

The texture is medium to coarse—coarser-grained than schist but, as with the other rock types, the gneiss we find on our beaches has been ground down until it's somewhat smooth.

What is the difference between gneiss and granite?

  • Granite is an igneous rock, whereas gneiss is formed after metamorphosis of granite.
  • Most—but not all—gneiss is obtained from granite. There is also diorite gneiss, biotite gneiss, garnet gneiss, and others.
  • The mineral composition of granite and gneiss are the same. However, the transformation of granite due to high pressure and temperature leads to the formation of gneiss.
Schist - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Schist - Lake Michigan Beach Stone


Schist is medium-grade metamorphic rock formed by the metamorphosis of mudstone and shale or some type of igneous rock such as slate. As a result of high temperatures and pressures, the coarser mica minerals (biotite, chlorite, muscovite) form larger crystals. These larger crystals reflect light so that schist often has a high luster. Due to its extreme formation conditions, schist often shows complex folding patterns. It also shows a tendency to split into sheets. The mica plates are arranged roughly parallel to each other, which is why the rock shows this tendency.

There are many varieties of schist, and they are named for the dominant mineral comprising the rock, e.g. mica schist, green schist (green because of high chlorite content), garnet schist, and so on.

I find these somewhat regularly on the shoreline. The lustrous, shiny samples are much less common, of which I've found only one.

Sandstone Boulder -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Sandstone Boulder - Lake Michigan Beach Stone


Sandstone is a sedimentary rock that forms when small quartz sand grains cement together under high pressure while silica, calcium carbonate (calcite), or quartz precipitates and acts like a glue around the grains. These minerals are deposited in the spaces between the sand grains by water. Over the course of thousands or even millions of years, the minerals fill up all of the spaces. You can see the tiny particles in the rock as if you were holding sand in your hand. When you're at the beach, try examining the sand very closely for all the tiny quartz crystals and different colors of other minerals contained in it, including feldspars, micas, calcite, and clays.

Sandstone Cobbler - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Sandstone Cobbler - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Depending on the minerals, sandstone can be white, yellow, pink, and almost any color, depending on the impurities within the minerals. For example, red sandstone results from iron oxide in the rock and often causes bands of color. Sandstone rocks form in rivers, deserts, oceans, or lakes.

Sandstone Cobblers - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Sandstone Cobblers - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Sandstone Cobblers - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Sandstone Cobblers - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Jacobsville Redstone Sandstone - Great Lakes Beach Stones

Jacobsville Redstone Sandstone - Great Lakes Beach Stones

Jacobsville Redstone Sandstone

Jacobsville Sandstone or Redstone is generally red due to the presence of highly oxidized iron cement which binds together the grains of quartz. It's typically mottled with various pinks, whites, and browns, exhibiting either many streaks or spherical spots caused by leaching and bleaching. It forms a wide belt through Northern and Upper Michigan and was quarried rather extensively at one time for use as building material to build the cities of Northern Michigan and elsewhere in the Great Lakes region. As with many stones formed elsewhere in Michigan, the big lake brings them southward to where I find them in lesser amounts.

Estimates for the age of the Jacobsville Formation Range is that it formed in the late Mesoproterozoic Era about 1.05 billion years ago until the Middle Cambrian Period.

Siltstone Cobbler-  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Siltstone Cobbler- Lake Michigan Beach Stone


After some stubborn digging around, I finally believe I understand the difference between sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, claystone, and shale. They all fall under “clastic” sedimentary rocks formed by weathering breakdown of rocks into pebbles, into sand, then silt, then mud and so forth (you get the picture) from exposure to wind, ice and water. At each step the particles become smaller with shale having the finest grain.



All the clastic sedimentary rocks mentioned above are cemented very much the same way in which sandstone is pressed together. Silica, calcite, and iron oxides are the most common cementing minerals for siltstone. These minerals are deposited in the spaces between the silt grains by water. Over the course of thousands or millions of years, the minerals fill up all of the spaces resulting in solid rock.

Silt accumulates in sedimentary basins throughout the world. It occurs where current, wave, or wind energy cause sand and mud to accumulate.

Siltstone is very similar in appearance to sandstone, but with a much finer texture. It has a gritty texture to it and is more difficult to distinguish the mineral particles. When handling siltstone, a residue the same color as the stone can rub off on you hand.

Siltstone is usually gray, brown, or reddish brown. It can also be white, yellow, green, red, purple, orange, black, and other colors. The colors are a response to the composition of the grains, the composition of the cement, or stains from subsurface waters.

Mudstone  -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Mudstone - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Claystone - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Claystone - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Mudstone or Claystone

I already described how mudstones and claystones are clastic sedimentary rocks formed similar to the way in which sandstone and siltstone are formed. But I will mention that we especially find the brown mudstones on the beach, specifically in the southwest regions of Michigan. They are the same type of stone that form the septarian brown stones. The mudstones and claystones wipe off a residue when handling them due to their fine-grained texture.

The last stone in the chain of the clastic stones for the finest-ground-down grains is slate, which we find very little of on the beach. This could be because slate breaks apart at parallel stratifications and, perhaps because of the extreme ice, wind, and wave action of Lake Michigan, they get demolished, but I can only guess.

Lake Michigan Beach Geode

Lake Michigan Beach Geode


Geodes are one of the less-common finds on our beaches, but it's very exciting when you do find one. They begin their formation as hollow volcanic rock caused by gas bubbles. But they can also form in areas other than volcanoes. In sedimentary rocks, geodes can start out as animal burrows, tree roots, or mud deposits, which over time form the hollow cavity within the rock while the outer edges harden and form a sphere. Mineral-rich ground water infiltrates the cavity and after many years, the minerals crystallize into various colors depending on the mineral content such as quartz and amethyst for example.

Green Chalcedony  -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Green Chalcedony - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Green Chalcedony  -  Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Green Chalcedony - Lake Michigan Beach Stone

Chalcedony and Agate

Without being totally certain, I believe these pretty little stones are one type or another of the gemstone chalcedony. They are only as big as a penny and have a smooth, waxy texture. In order to spot these on the beach in Southwestern Michigan, you have to look very closely along the shoreline where gravel is abundant, but I have found quite a few and they're usually tiny like these samples. Michigan's northern regions and upper peninsula are excellent places for finding agates.

Agate - Southwestern Michigan Beach Stone

Agate - Southwestern Michigan Beach Stone

Chalcedony and Agates Explained . . .

Rock and minerals can be very complicated but fascinating to study. For a bit of geochemistry about chalcedony and agates, it only makes sense to begin with the microchrystalline quartz, chalcedony. Chalcedony forms where water is rich in dissolved silica and flows through weathering rock. When the solution is highly concentrated, a silica gel can form on the walls of the rock cavities. That gel will slowly crystallize to form microcrystalline quartz (very small crystals of quartz) or, in other words, chalcedony. So why begin with chalcedony? Because agate and jasper are both varieties of chalcedony; of which both are considered gemstones.

Chalcedony can be banded, have plumes (fluffy inclusions), have branching patterns or have delicately mottled surfaces of leafy green, honey brown, and creamy white. They might also have mossy and other colorful structures within. Chalcedony is often blue but can be almost any color. It's always translucent, never opaque or transparent. It feels waxy, greasy, or silky.

Agate - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

Agate - Lake Michigan Beach Stones

The Formation of Agate and Jasper

Both agate and jasper form somewhat differently from chalcedony, giving them their unique properties. Many agates form in areas of volcanic activity and crystallize slowly in the cavities of igneous rock or limestone. Jasper forms when fine materials are cemented by silica to a solid mass. These fine particles give jasper its color and opacity.

Chalcedony Cobbler - Southwestern Michigan Beach Stones

Chalcedony Cobbler - Southwestern Michigan Beach Stones

How can you tell agate from jasper?

Agate is generally translucent to semitransparent and most often banded. Observing bands in a specimen of chalcedony is a very good clue that you have an agate. However, some agates do not have obvious bands. These are more rare and often translucent agates with branching-out, mossy inclusions. Typically, an agate is the size of a golf ball and feels heavier than it looks due to its density. It also has a waxy feel to it.

Jasper is opaque because it contains enough non-chalcedony material to interfere with the passage of light. So the real difference between jasper and agate is the amount of impurities and foreign material contained in a specimen. Jasper is almost always multicolored, with unique color patterns and habits.

Note: Chert—a sedimentary material that forms in a similar way as jasper, biochemically from silicon-based marine skeletons of plankton—is yet another form of chalcedony sometimes called jasper.

More forms of chalcedony distinguished by color include:

  • Aventurine (opaque green)
  • Bloodstone (dark green, red speckles)
  • Carnelian (red to amber; translucent)
  • Chrysoprase (apple green)
  • Onyx (solid black or white-banded black)
  • Sard and Sardonyx (reddish-brown banded; transparent, translucent)
  • Tiger's Eye (gold, banded, glistening sheen)
Beach Pebbles, Boulders and Cobble Stones Lake Michigan

Beach Pebbles, Boulders and Cobble Stones Lake Michigan

Beautiful Photos of Beach Stones in Lake Michigan's Pier Cove Creek

I leave you with beautiful photos of Pier Cove Creek where it gracefully flows into Lake Michigan in the region of Southwestern Michigan. During the spring meltdown, the creek rushes into the lake with more energy than normal, exposing the buried pebbles and rounded out rocks. Listening to the trickling water while watching the tiny sunlit ripples dance across the surface of the rocks is a delightful experience with Mother Nature herself.

Beach Pebbles, Boulders and Cobble Stones Lake Michigan

Beach Pebbles, Boulders and Cobble Stones Lake Michigan

Questions & Answers

Question: I found a Jasper rock that has a round hole in it and is partly hollowed out, is this rare?

Answer: Could be the beginning of a geode? Holes aren't all that rare, certain minerals have a way of permeating into the rock after many years.

Question: In lake Michigan southern UP I found a rock that is light and light gray in color. It is also has quite a lot of holes. Do you know what this could be?

Answer: Could be Vesicular Basalt . .. here's a link to one of my articles, scroll down to vesicular basalt and it explains how the holes got there.

Question: Where is the best place to find agates in southern MI?

Answer: The only place I know of would be along the beach where there are lots of pebbles.

Question: We found a shiny silver nugget with our metal detector, looks like it's possibly platinum ore. It was buried on the shore of the bay in northeast wi & so. How do we know what we have?

Answer: If you've already performed a search, you likely are already on the right track. Testing whether it's magnetic narrows the search, streaking the nugget on unglazed porcelain for color also narrows the identification. Scratch testing for hardness also helps!

Question: I found a white round rock on a beach. It is freckled with what appears to be silver glitter. It's quite porous. What is it?

Answer: Without actually seeing it, could be granite or a type of granite called diorite with the silver glitter being mica.

Question: I have two very lightweight rocks that are black, opaque and, although they aren't shiny, they are shinier than most Lake Michigan stones and rocks I've picked up. For this area, I can't find what type they are. Can you help?

Answer: It sounds like they could possibly be pumice.

Question: I found a smooth rock that looks like quartz but has dark purple on it. Could it be an amethyst?

Answer: Very possible, amethyst is a type of quartz

Question: I found a rock I can't identify, it looks like a brain but appears to have pink quartz and granite and gold in it. Anywhere I can send you a picture?


Question: I found a large rock with what looks like small clear glass pieces inside. Someone said it could be quartz how can you tell?

Answer: To know for certain you can do a scratch test to determine its hardness. Quartz will scratch glass not the other way around.

Question: I found a black metal rock with black square metal rocks stuck on it, what could it be?

Answer: Without actually seeing it, from your description sounds very much like Galena.

Question: Can geodes, septarians, agate, etc be found in a river?

Answer: Yes, absolutely!

Question: I found a grey brown coloured stone on the beach in Mablethorpe however when broken open there is a grey donut shaped circle inside. Any ideas?

Answer: Yes, I have one of those. It's formed similar to the way a geode is formed where another type of rock permeates the base rock during their formation, but it doesn't crystallize because of rapid solidification. There's a name for these, but I don't recall what that is. I have to have my geologist friend remind me again.

Question: I found a white stone with a black crystal in the middle. I broke it open. Any idea what mineral it is?

Answer: It could be a number of things, even amethyst can be black, obsidian is another one. Here's a link I found which could help!

Question: Is yellowing on the edge of a green chalcedony common?

Answer: Chalcedony comes in various sizes and colors so it depends on the mineral inclusions distributed through the ground water for example. Every stone is unique.

Question: I found a milky white stone that’s pretty opaque, any ideas what it is?

Answer: Milky quartz, fairly common.

Question: I have a stone I found on an ice age trail in Lodi Wisconsin and it has black almost crystalline shaped formations coming out of it. But only in two spots of the large stone. Any clue?

Answer: Sounds cool, could be lots of things. Try identifying with the scratch test. Crystalline means it has quartz or some other crystal that formed.

Question: What about coal ?

Answer: It's rare to find it in most areas, but Michigan used to allow barges to dump coal ash into the lake at one time, and today there have been spills. So if you do find coal on the beach, it's likely not from natural sources.

Question: We are a little further south than you and we often find rocks that I think are from the petrified forest that is under the southernmost part of the lake, can you share pictures of any of these for comparison?

Answer: Scroll down a bit to the picture of what I think is petrified driftwood found on Lake Michigan beach see what you think. And/or you can send me pics you have at

Question: I found a dark and light gray striped stone in Milwaukee on LM this week. What is it? Looks like a tiger stripe.

Answer: Likely metamorphic basalt or slate.

Question: I have a piece of Henna Limestone, red with a bunch of gold wiggle looking designs. It has a very 1960's vibe to it. How can I learn about this specific type of rock?

Answer: What I've seen of Henna Limestone is beautiful, it looks a lot like the fossiliferous limestone I find on the beach included in my article. It could be related. Otherwise, I would use the library as a resource.

Question: What would the grey rock that I found with what looks like tree rings be?

Answer: It's likely metamorphic. You can look that up in my article about the process! Sounds like a cool rock!

© 2018 Kathi Mirto


Lorie on July 13, 2020:

I have never been to lake Michigan. Where is the best area to find smooth rocks for painting?

Raymond Benjamin Marvin on June 28, 2020:

Gold/platinum bearing jadeite found in glacial deposits from Alaska to Guatemala;information from former board of director Smithsonian;Mr. Edward S. Rader from Mansfield,Ohio.

Vivek Singh on June 28, 2020:

This is one very nice article , very informing . Thanks.

Scott on March 21, 2020:

Very informative article with great photos. I live in Idaho and have collected rocks in the Snake River. Many similar rounded stones can be found here. I tumble and polish them. They are so beautiful and quite diverse. I appreciate your efforts to educate the public and myself.

Kerry on March 09, 2020:

We are new to Chicagoland and took our sons to the eastern Lake Michigan shore this weekend. We found eight geodes and tons of beach glass. What towns along Lake Michigan should we explore for good rock hunting?

Beckie on February 24, 2020:

Wow! Thank you for all the information. I live near Lake Ontario and Erie and have some of the same rocks and wasn't sure of the names, now I know. So interesting!

Kathi Mirto (author) from Fennville on November 24, 2019:

Thanks for the comments Rosalie, Trisha and Christa. So nice to see there are lots of other rock hounds out there!

Christa Houck on November 22, 2019:

I have a near perfectly round All Black

Stone , could be Basalt, its as big as an average Orange, but its quite heavy. I'm not sure what kind of rock it really is.

Trisha on August 28, 2019:

I am in Virginia and have collected tons of stones around local creeks that lead into the Rappahannock River.

Your photos and explanations are so helpful and much appreciated.

Thank you so much!

I actually have a mudstone and now understand why I couldn't get it "clean"!

Rosallie on July 23, 2019:

I am going to have this page open for at least a week...I LOVE the pics and explanations! TYVM!

Kathi Mirto (author) from Fennville on December 15, 2018:

Hi Kim, I'm intrigued about sand pearls! I haven't come across them myself, but if I do, I will let you know. I'll be on the look out!

Hi Miriam, sand stone can have shiny minute particles, but not overall shiny.

That's awesome Logan

Hi Kari, I wish I had come across citrine, wow! Good for you. Are you finding these stones in the U.P. or northern Michigan?

logan on November 16, 2018:

discoverd living space rock at the everglades

Kim on November 15, 2018:

Thanks so much for this article!!

Kim on November 03, 2018:

Hello Kathi - Sand pearls is what my friend called them too and her family has found them for a long time. I did see that guys post too about the microbeads and fear for the environment. I can't seem to get any info on what a sand pearl is! Thanks for getting back!

Kim on September 26, 2018:

Hello! Just discovered with a friend's help, tiny pearl-like stones on Lake Michigan shoreline. She called them sand pearls and has found them for a long time. On another site today, a guy thought they were plastic beads, like microbeads and he was furious and afraid for the environment!

Kari on September 17, 2018:

Have you ever come across any citrine? My son came across a good size piece and I’m almost certain it’s citrine. I’ve found carnelian, bloodstone, adventurine, tons of granite (which I thought were various types of jasper), and also stones that seem to be howlite?

Mariam on August 30, 2018:

Does sandstone has a shiny texture like it's glittery??

Kathi Mirto (author) from Fennville on April 23, 2018:

Hi Tamarajo, People love to look for agates in Minnesota and Michigan UP, but we don't have that many in southern Michigan. Anyway, I completely understand about coming across different rock types and wondering what the heck they are, lol! So much so that it nagged at me to do the research. There will be a follow up to this article with more rock types.

Tamarajo on April 23, 2018:

I mostly look for agate, chalcedony, special kinds of Jasper, and fossils, in Minnesota. but I run across many different rocks like the ones that you have displayed and always wonder what they are, which made this an interesting read for me.

I just may be referring back to this as the images and descriptions really are useful.

Kathi Mirto (author) from Fennville on April 22, 2018:

Hey Jackie, how are you, thanks for commenting! I have collected rocks from tilled farmland before, the farmers don't mind if you get permission, which sometimes I do and don't, depends. The rocks are hard on their equipment. Anyway, thought I'd suggest that if you wanted to add more to your flowers! Good to see you still here! xo

Hello, Catherine! It has taken me a long time to collect so many rocks, but it helps that I work at the beach! :O) Glad you learned a lot. It's satisfying to know the names of rocks and how they got the way they are. All the best, Kathi

Hey Linda, Hope you find some more rocks to add you're father's collection! Thanks for such a nice compliment! Take Care, Kathi

Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on April 22, 2018:

Thanks for creating such an informative article and for sharing such lovely photos. Kathi. My father's rock collection includes some of the rocks that you've shown, but it's missing some of the wonderful specimens in your photos. I'll look out for them during my walks.

Catherine Tally from Los Angeles on April 22, 2018:

Hi Kathi. Wonderful hub! Thank you for all of the information which is presented so well along with your great photography.It must have been a beautiful day! I've learned a lot.

All of the best, Cat:)

Jackie Lynnley from the beautiful south on April 21, 2018:

I have always been a shell collector but these are some beautiful rocks and I know I would collect them too if they were available to me. I especially liked the Michigan Septarian Brown Stones. Pink in a rock always draws my attention too, I have picked up an odd one or two to go around flowers.

Very interesting and I know I could live with that view!

Kathi Mirto (author) from Fennville on April 21, 2018:

Thank you Susan, I love the same thing about granite and the swirls of pink with black and white!

Susan SJ on April 21, 2018:

Wow! These are some very precious rocks. I love the texture and the look of granite. Thanks for sharing.

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