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Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Calcium, and Bone Remodeling

Updated on March 12, 2017
AliciaC profile image

Linda Crampton is a teacher with a first class honors degree in biology. She writes about human biology and the scientific basis of disease.

Our skeleton performs many vital jobs.
Our skeleton performs many vital jobs. | Source

Impressive Structures With Multiple Functions

Bones are impressive structures that are even more amazing than many people realize. They provide attachment sites for muscles and enable us to move. Some, such as the skull and ribs, protect vital organs. They also make our blood cells, store minerals such as calcium and release them when necessary, and store lipids, which are an energy reserve.

One very important function of bone is to send calcium into the bloodstream when the body needs it. Calcium is a vital chemical in our bodies. It's necessary for muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve conduction, and other functions. It also provides strength to bones and teeth.

Specialized cells called osteoclasts break down bone to free the calcium. Cells known as osteoblasts deposit calcium into bone, remaking it. The process of replacing old bone with new bone is known as remodeling.

Microscopic Bone Structure

Types of Bone Tissue

There are two types of bone tissue. The outer layer of a bone is composed of compact or cortical tissue. This is a dense material with low porosity. Spongy tissue (also called cancellous or trabecular tissue) forms the inner part of bones. It's made of a network of solid bone enclosing many pores. Marrow is located in these pores.

Bone marrow is red or yellow in color. The red type makes blood cells and the yellow type stores lipids (fats). Bones in different areas of the body have different proportions of compact and spongy tissue as well as different types of marrow.

A complete osteon is located on the left and two incomplete ones are shown on the right.
A complete osteon is located on the left and two incomplete ones are shown on the right. | Source

Compact or Cortical Bone

The unit or building block of compact bone is a cylindrical structure called an osteon. The name comes from the Greek word for bone.

  • An osteon contains a central canal called the Haversian canal. Blood vessels and nerves run through this structure.
  • A Haversian canal is surrounded by circular, concentric layers of tissue called lamellae. The lamellae are made of a material called bone matrix.
  • Bone matrix is made of a mineral called hydroxyapatite. This mineral contains calcium and phosphorus as well as a protein called collagen.
  • Extending from the Haversian canal and through the lamellae are small horizontal canals called canaliculi.
  • Lacunae are small cavities or chambers located between one lamella and the next. (The dark purple structures in the diagram above are the lacunae.) The osteocytes or mature bone cells are located in the lacunae.
  • Osteocytes are star-shaped cells. They have long extensions that project into the canaliculi.
  • The membrane that covers the outer surface of the bone is called the periosteum.

Inside the Skeleton

Spongy, Cancellous, or Trabecular Bone

Spongy bone looks like a honeycomb or latticework. Each rod of bone is called a trabecula or a spicule. Trabeculae don't contain osteons or Haversian canals. They do contain lamellae, or layers of bone matrix, but the lamellae are parallel to each other. The matrix contains lacunae and canaliculi, as well as osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Nutrients move from the marrow in the pores of the lattice into the trabeculae. The nutrients nourish the cells in the bone.

Volkmann's canals are horizontal channels in bone that contain blood vessels connecting the vessels in the Haversian canals to each other and to the periosteum. They are also known as perforating canals.
Volkmann's canals are horizontal channels in bone that contain blood vessels connecting the vessels in the Haversian canals to each other and to the periosteum. They are also known as perforating canals. | Source

When the amount of bone manufacture equals the amount of disintegration, the mass of a bone remains the same. At certain stages of our lives or under certain conditions, however, the amounts are different. In these cases a bone's mass will change.

Functions of Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

Osteoblasts build new bone matrix and osteoclasts break it down. (I remember the difference in the words' meanings by the fact that the letter b in "osteoblast" is also the first letter of the word "build".)

The creation and destruction of bone, the communication between its cells, and the signaling processes that occur are complex activities. Scientists have discovered that osteoblasts make a protein hormone, which is known as osteocalcin. The functions of this hormone and the activities that take place in bone are still being investigated.

Remodeling the Skeleton

Osteoblasts

Osteoblasts work as a group to form new bone. They move over the matrix and make and deposit a protein mixture called osteoid, which contains collagen as its major protein. Then the osteoblasts deposit minerals—including calcium—into the osteoid to make bone. The new material fills in the cavity formed by osteoclasts.

A group of osteoblasts making osteoid, which is shown at the center
A group of osteoblasts making osteoid, which is shown at the center | Source

Osteocytes

Some osteoblasts become trapped in the bone matrix and are transformed into osteocytes inside lacunae. Osteocytes are thought to be sensory cells that are involved in signaling processes inside the bone. They connect to other osteocytes through their projections, which extend through the canaliculi. Other osteoblasts become flattened and turn into lining cells that cover the surface of the matrix.

An osteoclast with multiple nuclei lying on top of bone. The cytosol (solution around the nuclei) has a typical "foamy" appearance.
An osteoclast with multiple nuclei lying on top of bone. The cytosol (solution around the nuclei) has a typical "foamy" appearance. | Source

Osteoclasts

Unlike osteoblasts, osteoclasts contain more than one nucleus. They are large cells produced by the fusion of several smaller ones. Osteoclasts travel over the surface of the bone matrix and secrete acids and enzymes to disintegrate it, forming a little pit on the surface of the bone.

As an osteoclast becomes active, the surface that is contact with bone becomes ruffled. This increases the surface area for absorption of minerals. The minerals (in their ionic form) are absorbed into the osteoclast, which later releases them into the tissue fluid located between cells. From there the ions enter the blood. The process of bone breakdown and mineral uptake by the osteoclasts is known as resorption.

Chemical Signaling Molecules and Osteoclasts

Hormonal Control of Calcium Deposition and Release

The parathyroid glands make a hormone called parathyroid hormone (also known as PTH or parathormone) which stimulates the action of osteoclasts when the amount of calcium in the blood falls. The hormone causes the transfer of calcium from bone to blood. On the other hand, the thyroid gland makes a hormone called calcitonin which slows the activity of osteoclasts, decreasing bone breakdown. Parathyroid hormone seems to be the more significant of the two hormones.

Estrogen in females and testosterone in males help to maintain bone strength. Other hormones that have an influence on bone mass are growth hormone, which is made by the pituitary gland, and cortisol, which is made by the adrenal gland. Growth hormone increases bone mass while excess cortisol decreases it.

The thyroid and parathyroid glands play a role in bone remodeling.
The thyroid and parathyroid glands play a role in bone remodeling. | Source

Bone Production and Resorption

In general, when someone performs regular weight-bearing exercise, the amount of bone production exceeds the amount of resorption and bones increase in size. On the other hand, if someone is bedridden, production falls and the net effect is bone loss.

Our stage of life also influences the behavior of our bones. Bone production predominates during growth while resorption tends to predominate as we age. Researchers have found that the amount of resorption becomes larger than the amount of production in our mid thirties, although the difference doesn't become significant until our forties or fifties. A nutritious diet, moderate exercise of the correct type, and a healthy lifestyle can slow resorption and stimulate the production of new bone as we age.

A green smoothie can a great drink to boost the calcium level in the body.
A green smoothie can a great drink to boost the calcium level in the body. | Source

What Is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a disorder in which the bones become unusually porous and brittle and bone density decreases. The condition generally appears in older people, although it occurs in young people as well. In osteoporosis the amount of bone resorption is much higher than the amount of bone production.

Osteoporosis can occur in both males and females, but it's most common in post-menopausal women. After menopause the amount of estrogen in a women's body decreases significantly, increasing the risk of weakened bones.

Worldwide, osteoporosis causes more than 8.9 million fractures annually, resulting in an osteoporotic fracture every 3 seconds

— International Osteoporosis Foundation

A Doctor Describes Osteoporosis

How to Keep Bones Strong

In order to strengthen bones and prevent osteoporosis, good nutrition, exercise (which is moderate but not extreme) and a healthy lifestyle are very important. An adequate intake of both calcium and vitamin D is necessary. Vitamin D is needed for calcium absorption through the lining of the small intestine. Other nutrients are also needed for bone health, so a varied diet with lots of nutritious foods should be followed. Smoking should be avoided, since plenty of research shows that it weakens bones. Excessive alcohol intake does the same thing.

Someone who wants to use exercise as a tactic to prevent osteoporosis should do some research. Some types of exercise are great for maintaining general health but don't stimulate bone growth significantly. It's also important to do exercises that strengthen the high-risk bones for osteoporosis, which are the hips, spine, and wrists.

With care and effort, we can fight our body's tendency to reduce bone mass as we age. We can reduce the chance of developing osteoporosis and slow its progression if it's already developed. There are medications that can treat osteoporosis, but prevention is better than treatment.

References

© 2013 Linda Crampton

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    • drbj profile image

      drbj and sherry 4 years ago from south Florida

      Another excellent medical treatise, Alicia. This one on bones and calcium should be saved by all your readers and shared with those we know. So I shall.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the comment and for sharing the hub with your friends, drbj. I appreciate your visit.

    • kashmir56 profile image

      Thomas Silvia 4 years ago from Massachusetts

      Hi Alicia great hub and very informative and interesting and loaded with great information .

      Vote up and more !!!

      Hope you had a wonderful Christmas ! Wishing you all the best this New Year !

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you so much for the lovely comment and the votes, Tom. I hope that you had a great Christmas, too, and that this year is a wonderful one for you!

    • bdegiulio profile image

      Bill De Giulio 4 years ago from Massachusetts

      Alicia. This is great information. We should all be aware of this as we age. Preventing Osteoporosis is key as we get older. Well done. Voting up, sharing, etc...

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the comment, the vote and the share, Bill. I appreciate them all!

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 4 years ago from Houston, Texas

      While I studied all of this in nursing school...it has been a while. The main reason that people should know and pay attention to this is to ward off things like osteoporosis which makes bones weak and much more susceptible to breaking. Weight bearing exercises even for people in nursing homes has proved effective...so it is never too late to adopt a healthy lifestyle with regard to our bones which after all have the job of supporting our bodies. Up votes and sharing.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Peggy. Thank you for the comment, which contains great information. I appreciate the votes and the share, too.

    • mperrottet profile image

      Margaret Perrottet 4 years ago from Pennsauken, NJ

      I've been wondering about how biophosphates such as Fosimax effect the bone. They're finding out that more and more people are getting spontaneous femur fractures from taking these drugs, and they seem to be making bones brittle if taken for too long. I have a friend who is recovering from such a fracture, so I've been very interested in learning more about the remodeling process. Great hub - very informative. Voted up, interesting and useful.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the comment and the interesting information, mperrottet. What an unpleasant experience for your friend! It's very sad when someone takes a medication with the expectation that it will help their condition and then finds that the medication actually makes the condition worse. Thanks for the votes.

    • leahlefler profile image

      leahlefler 4 years ago from Western New York

      This is a great article, Alicia. My son (age 5) was on high-dose proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and we had to monitor his bone density because these drugs can cause osteoporosis and increase the risk of fractures. He's had an anti-reflux surgery now, but may end up on the drugs again if his next pH probe study shows continued reflux. Bone health is important!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      I'm sorry about your son's problems, leahlefler, especially when he's so young. I hope the situation is resolved sooIn and has a good outcome. Thank you for the comment and for sharing your son's experience.

    • prasetio30 profile image

      prasetio30 4 years ago from malang-indonesia

      Very informative hub. Very well written and I learn many things about Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts. I had never heard about this before reading this hub. Good job, Alicia. You deserve to get my vote. Take care!

      Prasetio

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you for the visit, Prasetio. I appreciate your kind comment and vote very much!

    • Fossillady profile image

      Kathi 4 years ago from Saugatuck Michigan

      Excellent hub! Pulled out all the stops! Thank you for teaching us this important information. My husband actually suffered all his life from bone loss, but I have beginning stages and so take my calcium and vitamin D religiously!

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the comment, Kathi! I appreciate it. I'm sorry about your husband's problems, but I'm glad that yours have been detected in the beginning stages.

    • teaches12345 profile image

      Dianna Mendez 4 years ago

      I know elderly people who suffer from bone loss and wish they had known how to prevent it using advice posted here. It is a good thing to take vitamin D to prevent this and to enhance your body while young. Very well done!

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 4 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thanks for the visit and the comment, Dianna! It is a good idea to build bone strength while young and to be beware of osteoporosis, as you say. It's better to prevent osteoporosis - if we can - than to treat it.

    • Taranwanderer profile image

      Taranwanderer 17 months ago

      Brilliant! Once again

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 17 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you so much, Taranwanderer. I appreciate all your comments a great deal.

    • Nadine May profile image

      Nadine May 4 months ago from Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

      Wow this was very informative, especially me having Osteoporosis. I do my Yoga each morning and live a healthy lifestyle. Do not smoke or hardly drink any alcohol, but I must amid that I do not take and vitamins or other supplement for that matter.You have reminded me to get some.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 4 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

      I'm sorry that you have osteoporosis, Nadine. I hope you are able to manage it successfully. Your lifestyle certainly sounds healthy!

    • profile image

      una 2 months ago

      thank you

    • profile image

      Una 2 months ago

      Thank you for this very informative article. My mother had severe osteoporosis and despite me being aware and spending years in the gym doing weight bearing exercises and eating healthy, I had a wrist fracture very recently (I am 61). A DEXA scan now revealed I have osteoporosis in my spine, osteopenia in my hip and severe osteoporosis in my arms.

      I am now taking ADCAL-D3 daily and alendronic acid once a week The latter sounds horrible but I will take for 2 years and see what happens.

      My problem, it turns out is, severe lack of vitamin D. I was always told to stay out of the sun because I have fair skin. From now on, I am getting out in the sun as much as I can. They say 20 mins a day sunbathing throughout the summer, gets us our Vitamin D. So it's not as if we have to be out all day every day. This article has helped a lot to fully understand how our bones work. thank you.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you for sharing your experience, Una. I hope your bone problems are solved. I would make sure that you check with your doctor about the time that should be spent in the sun without protection in order to make vitamin D and stay safe at the same time. There are several variables involved, including skin type and the UV index.

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