Pareidolia and Apophenia Explained

Updated on March 31, 2019
DurhamStokie profile image

I write about things I find interesting, and although I am not an expert, I have fun learning as I research. I hope you like the results!

What the Eye Sees Isn't Always Real

Do you see soapy water going down the sink or an eye?
Do you see soapy water going down the sink or an eye?

Imaginary Monsters

Have you ever looked at a photograph and been convinced that you can see someone in the picture that definitely wasn’t there when you took it?

Or maybe you can see someone hiding in the trees?

A shape of a person skulking in the shadows?

You aren’t on your own, this happens to us all the time. I remember as a child, lying awake in bed looking at my curtains and seeing faces in the pattern of the fabric that looked like monsters.

We see faces in clouds and all manner of inanimate objects in our day to day life, but don’t worry as this is not a sign of madness, It is, rather, a sign of a very imaginative and creative mind.

People who study the paranormal come across this phenomenon all the time and are forever having to explain it to people who claim there is a ghostly figure in their photographs or videos and it can be quite frustrating when people insist that it’s a ghost and your explanation is brushed off because they are ‘believers’ in the spirit world.

The problem is, that when a rational explanation is denied, it drags down the chances of paranormal research ever being taken seriously.

One of the most famous examples of pareidolia being used in psychological evaluation is the Rorschach Inkblot Test, where random inkblots are given to the person being assessed and they are then asked to say what they see.

Often this will involve the person seeing animals or faces or familiar shapes.

What Does Your Brain See?

Rorschach Test - I see an alien with big black eyes, its arms held aloft and antlers protruding from its head... yes, seriously.
Rorschach Test - I see an alien with big black eyes, its arms held aloft and antlers protruding from its head... yes, seriously.


Pareidolia is a well-established concept within the more general term of apophenia.

Apophenia is the seeing of patterns in objects and linking it with preconceived ideas that someone already holds and is merely the brain's way of trying to make sense of what it sees - a process that takes place in the temporal lobe area of the brain.

We know this is so because it has been seen that people suffering damage to this part of the brain have sometimes lost the ability to recognise people.

Peter Brugger of the Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Zurich, conducted a study into apophenia and the results indicated that high levels of dopamine can increase the likelihood of finding meaning, patterns or significance where none exist and that this results in a higher tendency to believe in ghosts or alien encounters for example.

Apophenia Defined

Evolutionary Reasons

Facial recognition is important to us in everyday life and is probably an evolutionary remnant, leaving the brain hard-wired to help us achieve this.

The sadly departed astronomer, Carl Sagan commented on his belief that pareidolia was an evolutionary remnant when he said:

"As soon as the infant can see, it recognises faces, and we now know that this skill is hardwired in our brains. Those infants who a million years ago were unable to recognise a face smiled back less, were less likely to win the hearts of their parents, and less likely to prosper. These days, nearly every infant is quick to identify a human face and to respond with a goony grin" (Carl Sagan 1995)

Have a look at the following examples and see if your brain works this way or not.

Do you initially see faces or inanimate objects?

Examples of Pareidolia

Faces in Inanimate Objects?
Faces in Inanimate Objects?

Facial recognition is an important part of human society.

Being able to recognise each other and understand moods by reading the expression on someone's face can be of huge importance.

Auditory Pareidolia

The same processes can also hold true with sound.

Auditory Pareidolia is when we hear a random noise and perceive words from the erratic jumble of sounds.

For instance, in the paranormal field, EVP’s or ‘Electronic Voice Phenomenon’ are often recorded whilst investigating.

What sounds like words can often be picked up by the electronic recorders used - even more so if the power of suggestion is used in conjunction with your first hearing the recording.

If someone was to say “listen to this, can you hear the words ‘I’m coming to get you?’ then the chances are that’s exactly what you will hear, or something very similar.

Watch and listen to the following video and see what your brain hears - is it altered by what you are told it says?

EVP Recording and Debunk

'Exploding Head Syndrome'

Another example of auditory pareidolia is a little more alarming to the person experiencing it.

It is called Exploding Head Syndrome and often occurs as a person is falling asleep or on the verge of waking up. A sudden banging sound is heard that resembles cymbals crashing, or a gunshot sound.

Typically brief in duration it is nonetheless pretty upsetting and can cause the victim to wake suddenly in a state of panic, convinced that something bad has just happened.

I myself have had this happen to me on a couple of occasions and I can vouch for the distress, albeit momentary, that it can cause. There is no known reason for this psychological phenomenon as of yet, but it appears to be harmless in nature.

I have found that on the few occasions I have heard it, it has been when I have been overly tired. Having been a night shift worker for many years, there have been times when I have stayed awake for longer than is 'normal' in order to go somewhere the next day, and this can result in being awake for 30+ hours.

These are the times when I have experienced it, so it is my belief that it could be related to sleep deprivation or stress placed on an exhausted brain, but that is my opinion only.

In fact, it is fair to say that a lot of 'paranormal' experiences occur when a person is tired, going to sleep or waking up.

Dead Flower

Eerie looking flower, but it is just pareidolia and if seen from a different angle it would look entirely normal.
Eerie looking flower, but it is just pareidolia and if seen from a different angle it would look entirely normal.

When Apophenia and Pareidolia Combine

When Apophenia and Pareidolia combine, the experience is heightened.

For example, if someone sees something that looks to them like a UFO in the sky, it is pareidolia, but if that same person believes the UFO has chosen them as a subject for experimentation, or maybe as a means to communicate with the human race, then that is apophenia combined with pareidolia.

Another well-known example of this usually comes in religious circles.

If someone sees an image of Jesus Christ on their toast, that is pareidolia, but if they then go on to believe that it is God’s way of giving them a message, then that is apophenia again.

In paranormal circles, the same thing can happen when a loved one passes and the bereaved family member or friend could start to connect random events as signs of their passed over father or friend etc. as giving them signs or messages that they are ok, or need to pass on a message to them.

Famous Faces on Mars

A satellite photo of a mesa in Cydonia, often called the Face on Mars. Later imagery from other angles did not include the shadows.
A satellite photo of a mesa in Cydonia, often called the Face on Mars. Later imagery from other angles did not include the shadows.

In Conclusion

I hope that you have found this article informative and that next time you see a face in the dark shadows of your bedroom, it may bring you some comfort to know that it is far more likely to be pareidolia than a demon from hell.

Whilst it may be nice to believe that we are getting messages from our departed loved ones in the form of random signs, I personally find it even more comforting to know that there is a scientific or psychological explanation for experiencing these interpretations of jumbled images and our interpretations of them.

I do not wish to categorically deny the existence of spirits because no one can definitively say that and know they are 100% correct, but what we can say with some assuredness is that pareidolia, both visual and auditory, explain away quite a lot of what people have interpreted as 'experiences' as ghostly sights and sounds.

Questions & Answers

    © 2019 Ian


      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • DurhamStokie profile imageAUTHOR


        13 months ago from Durham

        Hi Sarah, appreciate the feedback and it's good to hear that the way I wrote it is easy to grasp. Thank you :)

      • profile image

        Sarah B. 

        13 months ago

        Very informative read! I appreciate how you broke down the different types and combinations of pareidolia and apophenia. Found this article after watching a certain YouTube video and became perplexed about the Jesus-in-toast-and-also-everything...thing. Thanks!

      • DurhamStokie profile imageAUTHOR


        14 months ago from Durham

        You are welcome Ashutosh! Thank you for the feedback, I appreciate it.

      • AshutoshJoshi06 profile image

        Ashutosh Joshi 

        14 months ago from New Delhi, India

        This was easy to grasp and very much relatable. I am aware of the term now. Thank you!


      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

      Show Details
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)