Skip to main content

List of Rare and Endangered Indian Plants

Hi! I have a background in science, animals and nature. They have always captured my interest, and I like to write about them here!

The flora of India is one of the richest in the world due to the country's wide range of climate, topology, and environment.

The flora of India is one of the richest in the world due to the country's wide range of climate, topology, and environment.

What Is an Endangered Species?

An endangered species is a native species that faces a significant risk of extinction in the near future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Such species may be declining in number due to threats such as habitat destruction, climate change, or pressure from invasive species.

The term endangered species can be used either in a general or legal context. When used in a general sense, the term describes a species that faces a risk of extinction but does not necessarily indicate that the species is protected under any law.

When used in a legal context, the term refers specifically to a species that is listed on the US Endangered Species List and is defined legally as an animal or plant species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

The flora of India is one of the richest in the world due to the country's wide range of climate, topology, and environment. There are over 15,000 species of flowering plants in India, which account for 6% of all plant species in the world. Many plant species are being destroyed, however, due to their prevalent removal.

Roughly 1/4 of all plant species in the world are at risk of being endangered or going extinct. The combination of global warming and habitat destruction is the sole reason for the disappearance of many plants. Though there are thousands of interesting and unusual plants, here are some common plants which have become rare and endangered species in the past 30 years due to habitat destruction.

Endangered Plants in India

PlantAlso Known AsRegion (Status)

Polygala irregularis


Gujarat (rare)

Lotus corniculatus

Bird's foot

Gujarat (rare)

Amentotaxus assamica

Assam catkin yew

Arunachal Pradesh (threatened)

Psilotum nudum

Moa, skeleton, fork fern, and whisk fern

Karnataka (rare)

Diospyros celibica

Ebony tree

Karnataka (threatened)

Actinodaphne lawsonii


Kerala (threatened)

Acacia planifrons

Umbrella tree, kudai vel (Tamil)

Tamil Nadu (rare)

Abutilon indicum

Indian mallow, thuthi (Tamil) and athibalaa (Sanskrit)

Tamil Nadu (rare)

Chlorophytum tuberosum


Tamil Nadu

Chlorophytum malabaricum

Malabar lily

Tamil Nadu (threatened)

Nymphaea tetragona


Jammu (endangered), Kashmir (threatened)

Belosynapsis vivipara

Spider wort

Madhya Pradesh (rare and endangered)

Colchicum luteum


Himachal Pradesh (rare and threatened)

Pterospermum reticulatum

Malayuram, Malavuram

Kerala (rare), Tamil Nadu (threatened)

Ceropegia odorata

Jeemikanda (Gujarat)

Gujarat, Melghat Tiger, Rajasthan, and Salsette Island, (endangered)

Polygala vulgaris; CC BY-SA 3.0

Polygala vulgaris; CC BY-SA 3.0

1. Polygala irregularis

Gujarat (rare)

Commonly known as milkwort, this plant is both an annual and perennial herb. It blooms during July and August. The plants are found at an altitude of 1000 meters. The flowers are found in blue, off-white, pink, and white. The plants have been destroyed to make room for human habitats and use land for agriculture.

Lotus corniculatus

Lotus corniculatus

2. Lotus corniculatus

Gujarat (rare)

This plant belongs to the pea family. The plant bears pretty little yellow flowers that grow in a circle at the end of the stem. They are very bright and are easily spotted along the roadside. It is used in agriculture as a forage plant. It is also grown for pasture, hay and silage. The plants are perennial and herbaceous, similar to some clover. They are also called bird’s foot, which refers to the appearance of the seed pods on their stalk.

Amentotaxus assamica

Amentotaxus assamica

3. Amentotaxus assamica

Arunachal Pradesh (threatened)

This plant is also called the Assam catkin yew. They are shrubs or small trees found in the moist deciduous forest of Assam. It belongs to a species of coniferous trees found only in India. They are found in three regions of Arunachal Pradesh, including the hills of Turoo, Delei Valley, and the hills of Dafla.

Psilotum nudum

Psilotum nudum

Scroll to Continue

Read More From Owlcation

4. Psilotum nudum

Karnataka (rare)

Also known as moa, skeleton, fork fern, and whisk fern, this plant is both rootless and leafless, forming low-growing clumps. The plant produces abundant spores which are collected and used for making powder. In Greek, 'psilo' means bare. The scientific name reflects the plant's appearance where many of the organs which would normally present in a plant are absent in this one, including leaves, flowers, and roots. You can use the whisk fern as a small broom by tying a handful of its branches together.

Diospyros celebica - Manado

Diospyros celebica - Manado

6. Diospyros celibica

Karnataka (threatened)

Also called the ebony tree, this is a flowering tree that is highly regarded by woodworkers as its wood is widely used for making high-quality furniture. The trees can grow up to 20 metres high under favourable conditions. However, in the past two centuries, it has become very scarce and is hardly found anymore in India.



7. Actinodaphne lawsonii

Kerala (threatened)

This plant belongs to the lauraceae family. It is endemic to India though threatened by habitat loss. The canopy or sub-canopy trees can be found in the high elevation evergreen forest between 1,200 and 2,400 meters. The leaves are aromatic and have medicinal use.

8. Acacia planifrons

Tamil Nadu (rare)

Also called the umbrella thorn, this plant grows as a shrub or a short tree. In Tamil they are called kudai vel. The tree is used as fuel and fodder for sheep and goats. When the tree is fully grown, it looks like a spread umbrella.

9. Abutilon indicum

Tamil Nadu (rare)

Commonly known as Indian mallow, this plant is a small shrub in the Malvaceae family found in a number of tropical and subtropical zones. The plant was much used in Siddha medicine and its root, bark, flowers and leaves have all been used for medicinal purposes. It is called thuthi in Tamil and athibalaa in Sanskrit.

Chlorophytum tuberosum

Chlorophytum tuberosum

10. Chlorophytum tuberosum

Tamil Nadu

This is an endangered plant that is also called musli. It is a flowering plant native to Africa and India. It has historical uses in Ayurveda and is commonly used for strength and vigour. The plant belongs to the Liliaceae family.

Chlorophytum malabaricum

Chlorophytum malabaricum

11. Chlorophytum malabaricum

Tamil Nadu (threatened)

This plant is also known as malabar lily. It is found in the Western Ghats. It is a small herb with a stem closely attached to leaves. Flowers are star-shaped and highly fragrant.


12. Nymphaea tetragona

Jammu and Kashmir (endangered and threatened)

The nymphaea tetragona is a pygmy water lily, the tropical representative of diminutive water lilies. The original distribution was confined to Jammu, Kashmir, and Megalaya. It is a very small herb and very susceptible to pests and disease. These plants are found on the Indian subcontinent where Buddhist monks conserved them as ritual plants in temple gardens for offerings.

Belosynapsis vivipara

Belosynapsis vivipara

13. Belosynapsis vivipara

Madhya Pradesh (rare and endangered)

In India, this plant is represented by three species, namely B epiphytica, B kewensis, and B vivipara. Commonly called spider wort, you can find them from India and South Asia to New Guinea. The plants usually grow at a high elevation on tree trunks densely covered in moss and on branches of trees in shady, evergreen riparian forests. This species is on the verge of extinction and is very important to biodiversity.

Colchicum luteum

Colchicum luteum

14. Colchicum luteum

Himachal Pradesh (rare and threatened)

This herb is generally found between elevations of 2,000 to 9,000 feet. Its tuberous root is oval in shape and bears dark brown leaves that are 6 to 12 inches in length and 1/4 to 1/2 inch in width. The flowers are hermaphroditic. It is a medicinal herb used to suppress pain and heal open wounds.

Pterospermum reticulatum

Pterospermum reticulatum

15. Pterospermum reticulatum

Kerala (rare), Tamil Nadu (threatened)

These trees can grow up to 20m tall and are commonly known as Malayuram or Malavuram. It is a flowering plant of Sterculiaceae family. Found only in India, these plants are threatened due to habitat loss. The bark is greyish in color with simple alternative leaves and flowers that are white and fragrant. They are sub-canopy trees found in evergreen forests at a height of 1000m.

Cerophagia Odorata

Cerophagia Odorata

16. Ceropegia odorata (Endangered)

These plants can be found only in four places in India: Pavagah in Gujarat, Tarubanda in Melghat Tiger, and Salsette Island, as well as at Mount Abu in Rajasthan where it may now be extinct. It is found only at a high altitude of about 3000 metres where it is unreachable by human beings.

It is the only species of the genus whose flowers have a very strong fragrance, hence the name odorata. They bloom for a few days. They are called jeemikanda in Gujarat. These plants have medicinal values and are chewed to cure stomach pain. Juice from the tubers is used in medications for the eye.

What Happens When Plants Go Extinct?

When some species of plants become extinct, the whole ecosystem of that environment changes or gets disturbed, depending on their importance. The ecosystem is never the same after a plant's total disappearance.

Animals or other plants that depend on that plant may also become extinct because of its loss.

© 2013 cheeluarv


Aachal on August 29, 2020:

Like everyone else , I am too greatly thankful for the information it provided to me for my Half Semester Activity.

Kehkashan Yaqub on August 13, 2020:

Thanks for the names I love nature ☺️

Janhavi on July 21, 2020:

Thanks for this info

KASHYAP on July 20, 2020:


Guneet on July 04, 2020:

Thankyou. From you people we are able to learn extra knowledge

MARIYA on July 02, 2020:


Hacker on July 01, 2020:

Thank you very very very very very much for providing this information to me.

NIVIN on January 24, 2020:

thank you for wonder information

Riya on January 04, 2020:


JESSIE ANBU SELVI K * on December 11, 2019:

Thanks. Very usefulThuthi is awailable on roadsodes in soth India. People use it to cure


rahul on November 09, 2019:

Lycopodium Clavatum Species is Rare plant or Common species in india?

Dr. Rashmi Sharma on October 13, 2019:

Thank u for information , We should these rare , threatened and endangered species.

Uma on October 13, 2019:

Thank you so much for the information.. it’s very helpful

Nisha on September 27, 2019:

Its helpful thank you

Priyanka on July 28, 2019:

Helpful for me thankyou so much

Ramya on July 10, 2019:

Please save these rare species

Mohini on June 17, 2019:

Really helpful

xyz on June 15, 2019:

Really helpful........Thanks

Khushbu on April 28, 2019:

Thanks for info.It's amazing.It helped me a lot to do my project.

Rubab E Arfa on April 23, 2019:

Are Indian government taking steps to preserve them

Aryan on January 20, 2019:

Useful information

mayur on January 09, 2019:

this is very helpful to my project

mistrygirl56700 on December 24, 2018:

nyc this is helpful to me

rajneesh on November 26, 2018:

it is good to use this information for projects and get good marks in school. Its is not very difficult to help save these species, please help your countries ecosystem for yourselves and generations to come, Thank you.

mahek on November 10, 2018:

Thankyou so much it helped me alot to know which plants and tree are endangered or near to threatened and also helped me alot iny project once again Thankyou soooo much

PCS on November 01, 2018:

Thank you

Kantilal Doobal on October 23, 2018:

I think in Kutch it survives Acacia planifrons

Manir uddin dhabak on October 04, 2018:

Abutilon indicum and Chlorophytum tuberosum is common.

Ommsuvam on September 16, 2018:

Thank you so much it really help me in my most of botany project

Shreyas on September 02, 2018:

Very very very helpful. It helped me a lot for my project.

Samyak on August 27, 2018:

Thank you sooooo much for the help

Very much helpful

Samyananya on August 27, 2018:

Very useful

Steffi on July 21, 2018:

Thank u so much .It's very useful to me.nice app for my studies.

Dipti on June 28, 2018:

Thanks a lot. It really helps me in my project.

Neha on June 05, 2018:

Really informative

Adhyan Arya on June 04, 2018:

Really helped in my work and great information

Asmit Singh on June 03, 2018:

Very nice website for studies

awesome on May 22, 2018:


pari....... on May 18, 2018:

its a very good website , whereas it helped me alot for creating my project absolutly what i needed. thanxxx for the information uh have provided me and lastly thnxx for chrome...................

Hrithwik on April 19, 2018:


mansi sahu on April 12, 2018:

Thanks for this

Suman singh on March 24, 2018:

Excellent.... Ty so much

priyanka on February 24, 2018:

super thanku so much

camila cabello on January 17, 2018:

thank you so much

regina on January 17, 2018:

dude,thanks a lot

kriti on December 03, 2017:

thanks a lot for providing me with enough information

Adarsh R on October 29, 2017:

thanks dude

Taira on October 23, 2017:

Thankx it was really useful

Diya on October 10, 2017:

It was very useful for our assignment

Priya on October 06, 2017:

Thank you so much

komal rawat on October 05, 2017:

Thanks a lot . It helped me a lot in my project

Can't tell on September 27, 2017:

Dude! Seriously it helps me for my assignment.Thank you so much.

Sayan biswas on August 28, 2017:

This website is very much helpful .It help me with lot of project of school

arushi on August 11, 2017:

this is a gr8 website . really helpful

Harshal on July 30, 2017:

I am working on the assignment on plants vulnerable to extinction. it is really helpful

Munazza Tahreem on June 08, 2017:

Awesome website! thanks helped me to complete my holidays home work Thanks again for this

Tabish on June 02, 2017:

This is a great website because of this I have completed my holidays home work

Thanks alot

Jyn on May 22, 2017:

a really nice site as ive completed my holiday homework project.


Tejaswini Jakka on April 25, 2017:

This is such a valuable source of information...people must know about this so that we can protect these endangered species of flora

Ajukumar s on April 08, 2017:

Good article it helped me to complete my project

bun on March 07, 2017:

helped me , thank u

Shree on February 18, 2017:

Thank you so much

reema on February 10, 2017:

It helped me a lot

unknown on January 08, 2017:

This was really helpful

Pankhi on January 08, 2017:



umesh shrivastav on January 02, 2017:

realy helpful to me

Rehnuma Malik on November 12, 2016:

it is extremely helpful for me........awesome....

vaibhav katuri on August 09, 2016:

if only india has so many endangered and extinct species, what about the world? i understood that we have to protect whatever we have or else they will also be in the list of endangered species.

athena on July 21, 2016:

Great website..



unknown on June 13, 2016:

extremely helpful

NIGEL on March 15, 2016:

Thank u so much

Naveen Kr. Singh on July 11, 2015:

It really helps me in doing my Holiday Homework But the photos should be Clear and in bigger sizes because it makes printing problems !

cheeluarv (author) from INDIA on July 15, 2014:

thank you.

Gurjeet on June 29, 2014:

really helpful to me

pritam on June 26, 2014:

this is a great website because of this i have completed my holiday home work

lily on January 30, 2014:

rare flowers !!!

Related Articles